Fluoropolymer

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A fluoropolymer is a fluorocarbon-based polymer with multiple strong carbon–fluorine bonds. It is characterized by a high resistance to solvents, acids, and bases.

History[edit]

In 1938, polytetrafluoroethylene (DuPont brand name Teflon) was discovered by accident by a recently hired DuPont Ph.D., Roy J. Plunkett. While working with tetrafluoroethylene gas, he noticed that a previously-pressurized cylinder had no pressure remaining. In dissecting the cylinder, he found a mass of white solid in a quantity similar to that of the tetrafluoroethylene gas. It was determined that this material was a new-to-the-world polymer. Tests showed the substance was resistant to corrosion from most substances and had better high temperature stability than any other plastic. By early 1941, a crash program was making commercial quantities.[1][2][3][4]

Properties[edit]

Fluoropolymers share the properties of fluorocarbons in that they are not as susceptible to the van der Waals force as hydrocarbons. This contributes to their non-stick and friction reducing properties. Also, they are stable due to the stability multiple carbon–fluorine bonds add to a chemical compound. Fluoropolymers may be mechanically characterized as thermosets or thermoplastics. Fluoropolymers can be homopolymers or copolymers.[citation needed]

Examples of monomers used to prepare fluoropolymers[edit]

Current market and forecast[edit]

The global demand on fluoropolymers was estimated at approximately 7.25 billion USD in 2011. Driven by new developments of products, applications, and processes, as well as strong demands in new markets, the demand is expected to grow by 5.8% in the following years.[5]

Some of the world’s largest manufacturers of fluoropolymers include DuPont, 3M, Solvay Chemicals, BASF and Dyneon.[6]

Examples of fluoropolymers[edit]

Fluoropolymer Trade names Monomers Melting point (°C)
PVF (polyvinylfluoride) Tedlar[7] VF1 200[8]
PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) Kynar[9] Solef[10] Hylar[11] VF2 175
PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) Sold by AGC under the tradename Fluon PTFE; Sold by DuPont under the tradename Teflon; sold by Solvay Solexis under the tradenames Algoflon Hyflon and Polymist, Neoflon (Daikin) TFE 327
PCTFE (polychlorotrifluoroethylene) Kel-F (3M), Neoflon (Daikin) CTFE 220[8]
PFA, MFA [12] (perfluoroalkoxy polymer) Sold by AGC under the tradename Fluon PFA. Sold by DuPont under the tradename Teflon. Sold by Solvay Solexis under the tradename Hyflon[13] Neoflon (Daikin) PPVE + TFE 305
FEP (fluorinated ethylene-propylene) Sold by DuPont under the tradename Teflon FEP. Also known as Neoflon (Daikin) and Hyflon HFP + TFE 260
ETFE (polyethylenetetrafluoroethylene) Sold by AGC under the trade name of FluonETFE[14] Tefzel,[15] TFE + E 265
ECTFE (polyethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene) Halar[16] CTFE + E
FFPM/FFKM (Perfluorinated Elastomer [Perfluoroelastomer]) Kalrez.[17] Tecnoflon PFR[18]
FPM/FKM (Fluorocarbon [Chlorotrifluoroethylenevinylidene fluoride]) Viton,[19] Tecnoflon FKM
FEPM (Fluoroelastomer [Tetrafluoroethylene-Propylene]) Sold by AGC under the trade name of AFLAS,[20] TFE + P
PFPE (Perfluoropolyether) Sold by DuPont under the tradename Krytox.[21] Sold by Solvay Solexis S.p.A. as Fomblin and Galden
PFSA (Perfluorosulfonic acid) Nafion
Perfluoropolyoxetane

Typical properties [22][edit]

Property Method No. Units PTFE FEP PFA ETFE ECTFE PCTFE PVDF
Specific gravity D792 - 2.17 2.15 2.15 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.78
Yield strength D638 MPa 10 12 15.5 24 31 40 46
Yield strength D638 PSI 1,450 1,740 2,250 3,480 4,500 5,800 6,670
Elongation  % 200-500 250-350 300 200-500 200-300 80-250 20-150
Tensile modulus D638 MPa 600 500 700 1500 1655 1500 2400
Tensile modulus D638 ksi 87 72.5 101.5 217.5 240 218 348
Hardness D2240 Shore D 60 57 62 75 75 90 79
HDT, @ 66 PSI D648 °F 250 158 164 219 240 248 300
HDT, @ 264 PSI D648 °F 122 129 118 160 169 - 239
Limiting oxygen index D2863  % >95 >95 >95 30-36
Dielectric constant D150 1 MHz 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.6

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Iddon, Brian (1985). The Magic of Chemistry. Eastleigh:BDH. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-9500439-6-6. 
  2. ^ Kirsch, Peer (2004). "Fluorine". Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry: Synthesis, reactivity, applications. pp. 3–10. ISBN 978-3-527-30691-6. Retrieved 2011-05-07. 
  3. ^ Hounshell, David A.; Smith, John Kenly (1988). Science and Corporate Strategy: DuPont R&D, 1902–1980. Cambridge University Press. pp. 147, 156–57, 482–484. ISBN 0-521-32767-9. 
  4. ^ Okazoe, Takashi (2009). "Overview on the history of organofluorine chemistry from the viewpoint of material industry". Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B 85 (8): 276–89. Bibcode:2009PJAB...85..276O. doi:10.2183/pjab.85.276. 
  5. ^ "Market Report: Global Fluoropolymer Market". Acmite Market Intelligence.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  6. ^ "21 Fluoropolymer Facts for Engineers". AFT Fluorotec. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  7. ^ Tedlar is a registered trademark of DuPont
  8. ^ a b Christopher C. Ibeh (2011). THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS Properties, Manufacturing Methods, and Applications. CRC Press. pp. 491–497. ISBN 978-1-4200-9383-4. 
  9. ^ Kynar is a registered trademark of Arkema, Inc.
  10. ^ Solef is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  11. ^ Hylar is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  12. ^ "Typical Properties of Fluropolymers". Fluoropolymer. Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  13. ^ Hyflon is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  14. ^ Fluon is a registered trademark of Asahi Glass Company
  15. ^ Tefzel is a registered trademark of DuPont
  16. ^ Halar is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  17. ^ Kalrez is a registered trademark of DuPont
  18. ^ Tecnoflon is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  19. ^ Viton is a registered trademark of DuPont
  20. ^ AFLAS is a registered trademark of AGC(Asahi Glass Co,Ltd.)
  21. ^ Krytox is a registered trademark of DuPont
  22. ^ "Typical Properties of Fluoropolymers". Fluorotherm. Retrieved 2014-04-09.