Fluoropolymer

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A fluoropolymer is a fluorocarbon-based polymer with multiple carbon–fluorine bonds. It is characterized by a high resistance to solvents, acids, and bases. The best known fluoropolymer is polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon).

History[edit]

In 1938, polytetrafluoroethylene (DuPont brand name Teflon) was discovered by accident by a recently hired DuPont Ph.D., Roy J. Plunkett. While working with tetrafluoroethylene gas, he noticed that a previously-pressurized cylinder had no pressure remaining. In dissecting the cylinder, he found a mass of white solid in a quantity similar to that of the tetrafluoroethylene gas. It was determined that this material was a new-to-the-world polymer. Tests showed the substance was resistant to corrosion from most substances and had better high temperature stability than any other plastic. By early 1941, a crash program was making commercial quantities.[1][2][3][4]

Properties[edit]

Fluoropolymers share the properties of fluorocarbons in that they are not as susceptible to the van der Waals force as hydrocarbons. This contributes to their non-stick and friction reducing properties. Also, they are stable due to the stability multiple carbon–fluorine bonds add to a chemical compound. Fluoropolymers may be mechanically characterized as thermosets or thermoplastics. Fluoropolymers can be homopolymers or Copolymer.[citation needed]

Examples of monomers used to prepare fluoropolymers[edit]

Current market and forecast[edit]

The global demand on fluoropolymers was estimated at approximately US$7.25 billion in 2011. Driven by new developments of products, applications, and processes, as well as strong demands in new markets, the demand is expected to grow by 5.8% in the following years.[5]

Some of the world's largest manufacturers of fluoropolymers include DuPont, 3M, Solvay Chemicals, BASF and Dyneon.[6]

Examples of fluoropolymers[edit]

Fluoropolymer Trade names Monomers Melting point (°C)
PVF (polyvinylfluoride) Tedlar[7] VF1 200[8]
PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) Kynar[9] Solef[10] Hylar[11] VF2 175
PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) Sold by AGC under the tradename Fluon PTFE; Sold by Dupont and Chemours Company under the tradename Teflon; sold by Solvay Specialty Polymers under the tradenames Algoflon Hyflon and Polymist; sold by Daikin under the tradename Polyflon TFE 327
PCTFE (polychlorotrifluoroethylene) Kel-F (3M), Neoflon (Daikin) CTFE 220[8]
PFA, MFA [12] (perfluoroalkoxy polymer) Sold by AGC under the tradename Fluon PFA. Sold by DuPont under the tradename Teflon. Sold by Solvay Specialty Polymers under the tradename Hyflon.[13] Neoflon (Daikin) PPVE + TFE 305
FEP (fluorinated ethylene-propylene) Sold by DuPont under the tradename Teflon FEP. Also known as Neoflon (Daikin) and Hyflon HFP + TFE 260
ETFE (polyethylenetetrafluoroethylene) Sold by AGC under the trade name of FluonETFE[14] Tefzel,;[15] sold by Daikin under the tradename Neoflon TFE + E 265
ECTFE (polyethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene) Halar[16] sold by Solvay Specialty Polymers CTFE + E
FFPM/FFKM (Perfluorinated Elastomer [Perfluoroelastomer]) Kalrez.[17] Tecnoflon PFR[18] DAI-EL (Daikin)
FPM/FKM (Fluorocarbon [Chlorotrifluoroethylenevinylidene fluoride]) Viton,[19] Tecnoflon FKM, DAI-EL (Daikin)
FEPM (Fluoroelastomer [Tetrafluoroethylene-Propylene]) Sold by AGC under the trade name of AFLAS,[20] TFE + P
PFPE (Perfluoropolyether) Sold by DuPont under the tradename Krytox.[21] Sold by Solvay Specialty Polymers S.p.A. as Fomblin and Galden
PFSA (Perfluorosulfonic acid) Nafion
Perfluoropolyoxetane

Typical properties[edit]

[22]

Property Method No. Units PTFE FEP PFA ETFE ECTFE PCTFE PVDF
Specific gravity D792 - 2.17 2.15 2.15 1.7 1.7 2.15 1.78
Yield strength D638 MPa 10 12 15.5 24 31 40 46
Yield strength D638 PSI 1,450 1,740 2,250 3,480 4,500 5,800 6,670
Elongation % 200-500 250-350 300 200-500 200-300 80-250 20-150
Tensile modulus D638 MPa 600 500 700 1500 1655 1500 2400
Tensile modulus D638 ksi 87 72.5 101.5 217.5 240 218 348
Hardness D2240 Shore D 60 57 62 75 75 90 79
HDT, @ 66 PSI D648 °F 250 158 164 219 240 248 300
HDT, @ 264 PSI D648 °F 122 129 118 160 169 - 239
Limiting oxygen index D2863 % >95 >95 >95 30-36
Dielectric constant D150 1 MHz 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.6

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Iddon, Brian (1985). The Magic of Chemistry. Eastleigh:BDH. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-9500439-6-6.
  2. ^ Kirsch, Peer (2004). "Fluorine". Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry: Synthesis, reactivity, applications. pp. 3–10. ISBN 978-3-527-30691-6. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
  3. ^ Hounshell, David A.; Smith, John Kenly (1988). Science and Corporate Strategy: DuPont R&D, 1902–1980. Cambridge University Press. pp. 147, 156–57, 482–484. ISBN 0-521-32767-9.
  4. ^ Okazoe, Takashi (2009). "Overview on the history of organofluorine chemistry from the viewpoint of material industry". Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B. 85 (8): 276–89. Bibcode:2009PJAB...85..276O. doi:10.2183/pjab.85.276. PMC 3621566. PMID 19838009.
  5. ^ "Market Report: Global Fluoropolymer Market". Acmite Market Intelligence. External link in |publisher= (help)
  6. ^ "21 Fluoropolymer Facts for Engineers". AFT Fluorotec. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  7. ^ Tedlar is a registered trademark of DuPont
  8. ^ a b Christopher C. Ibeh (2011). THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS Properties, Manufacturing Methods, and Applications. CRC Press. pp. 491–497. ISBN 978-1-4200-9383-4.
  9. ^ Kynar is a registered trademark of Arkema, Inc.
  10. ^ Solef is a registered trademark of Solvay specialty polymers S.p.A.
  11. ^ Hylar is a registered trademark of Solvay specialty polymers S.p.A.
  12. ^ "Typical Properties of Fluropolymers". Fluoropolymer. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
  13. ^ Hyflon is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  14. ^ Fluon is a registered trademark of Asahi Glass Company
  15. ^ Tefzel is a registered trademark of DuPont
  16. ^ Halar is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  17. ^ Kalrez is a registered trademark of DuPont
  18. ^ Tecnoflon is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis S.p.A.
  19. ^ Viton is a registered trademark of DuPont
  20. ^ AFLAS is a registered trademark of AGC(Asahi Glass Co, Ltd.)
  21. ^ Krytox is a registered trademark of DuPont
  22. ^ "Typical Properties of Fluoropolymers". Fluorotherm. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-09.