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Fluosol is an artificial blood which is milky in color. Its main ingredients are perfluorodecalin or perfluorotributylamine in Fluosol-DA and Fluosol-43 respectively, perfluorochemicals suspended in an albumin emulsion. It was developed in Japan and first tested in the United States in Nov 1979, its recipients being individuals who refused blood transfusions on religious grounds. Fluosol serves as a dissolving medium for oxygen. In order to "load" sufficient amounts of oxygen into it, patients must breathe pure oxygen by mask or must be in a hyperbaric chamber. While initially promising for therapy of heart attack, carbon monoxide poisoning, and sickle-cell anemia, research also indicates that Fluosol may depress the patient's immune system.
Fluosol is the only blood substitute approved to date by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use in the circulatory system (New Drug Application N860909, 1989). The FDA and eight other countries approved Fluosol not for the use of reducing the amount of allogenic blood units transfused but for use during cardiac angioplasty. This procedure was noted to reduce the mycoardial oxygenation leading to ST segment elevation on ECGs, angina, and reduced ejection fraction. Use of Fluosol reduced these symptoms and allowed for longer cardiac antiplasty times.
From 1989 to 1992, Fluosol was used in more than 40,000 human subjects. Due to difficulty with the emulsion storage of Fluosol use (frozen storage and rewarming), its popularity declined and its production ended.
Fluosol is associated with a reduction in ischemic complications and with an increase in pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure.
- The Miami Herald 13 Dec 1979) date=March 2012
- Marieb, Elaine Nicpon. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 4th ed. Menlo Park, California: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1998. 650.
- Garrelts, JC (1990). "Fluosol: An oxygen-delivery fluid for use in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty". DICP : the annals of pharmacotherapy. 24 (11): 1105–12. PMID 2275237.
- Bruno, S.; Ronda, L.; Faggiano, S.; Bettati, S.; Mozzarelli, A. (2010). "Oxygen Delivery via Allosteric Effectors of Hemoglobin and Blood Substitutes". Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery. doi:10.1002/0471266949.bmc048.pub2. ISBN 0471266949.
- Wall, T. C.; Califf, R. M.; Blankenship, J.; Talley, J. D.; Tannenbaum, M.; Schwaiger, M.; Gacioch, G.; Cohen, M. D.; Sanz, M.; Leimberger, J. D. (1994). "Intravenous Fluosol in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction 9 Trial. TAMI 9 Research Group". Circulation. 90 (1): 114–120. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.90.1.114. PMID 8025985.
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