Sonar; Avast!; Whitecap
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||329.3 g/mol|
|Melting point||154.5 °C (310.1 °F; 427.6 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Fluridone is an organic compound that is used as aquatic herbicide often used to control invasive plants. It is sold under the names Sonar, Avast! and Whitecap and is used in the United States to control hydrilla and Eurasian watermilfoil among other species. Fluridone is sold as a solution and as a slow release solid because the herbicide level must be maintained for several weeks. The compound is a colorless solid.
The compound was first reported as a possible herbicide for cotton fields in 1976. It was registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1986 and has low toxicity to animals with no restrictions on swimming or drinking in treated water bodies. Fluridone breaks downs in the environment over days or weeks with the major degradation product being N-methyl formamide. The half-life of fluridone in soils and sediments is nine months.
Fluridone is a systemic herbicide that works by interfering with carotene formation which leads to chlorophyll degradation. Fluridone and Norflurazon are inhibitors of chloroplastic and cyanobacterial Phytoene desaturase, which in turn disrupts the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.
Fluridone's main action to disrupt photosynthesis in plants is by preventing the secretion of abscisic acid. As higher eukaryotes, such as humans, also rely on an abscisic acid pathway to create inflammation in normal physiological processes, fluridone, in theory, could be used at rates greatly exceeding current EPA maximum concentration levels in the environment, as an anti-inflammatory agent for humans.
Fluridone degrades in soil and upon exposure to sunlight with approximate halflives of 21 and 1 day, respectively.
- Franz Müller and Arnold P. Applebyki "Weed Control, 2. Individual Herbicides" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2010 doi:10.1002/14356007.o28_o01
- Waldrep, Thomas W.; Taylor, Harold M. (1976). "1-Methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4(1H)-pyridinone, a new herbicide". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 24 (6): 1250–1251. doi:10.1021/jf60208a047.
- Fluridone - Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment - Final Report, Syracuse Environmental Research Associates for USDA/Forest Service, Southern Region, November 25, 2008
- Report of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) Tolerance Reassessment Progress and Risk Management Decision (TRED) for Fluridone, UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, September 20, 2004
- Paranjape, Kalyani; Gowariker, Vasant; Krishnamurthy, V. N.; Gowariker, Sugha (2014-12-22). The Pesticide Encyclopedia. CABI. ISBN 9781780640143.
- Fluridone: herbicide treatment FAQ, Cornell Cooperative Extension Tompkins County, July 17, 2013
- Stetsenko, L. A.; Vedenicheva, N. P.; Likhnevsky, R. V.; Kuznetsov, V. V. (2015-04-01). "[Influence of abscisic acid and fluridone on the content of phytohormones and polyamines and the level of oxidative stress in plants of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. under salinity]". Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk (2): 134–144. ISSN 1026-3470. PMID 26021155.
- Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Guida, Lucrezia; Millo, Enrico; Fresia, Chiara; Turco, Emilia; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena (2015-05-22). "Abscisic acid transport in human erythrocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (21): 13042–13052. ISSN 1083-351X. PMC . PMID 25847240. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.629501.
- Magnone, Mirko; Scarfì, Sonia; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bruzzone, Santina; Salis, Annalisa; De Flora, Antonio (2013-11-15). "Fluridone as a new anti-inflammatory drug". European Journal of Pharmacology. 720 (1–3): 7–15. ISSN 1879-0712. PMID 24211328. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.10.058.
- EPA Substance Registry, entry for Fluridone
- BREDA list of 1,5-Cis-Phytoene desaturase inhibitors