Fly tying

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Frederic M. Halford, 19th Century English fly tyer

Fly tying is the process of producing an artificial fly used by fly fishing anglers to catch fish. Historically in England, fly tying has also been termed dressing flies. People who tie flies are called fly tyers. Fly tying a manual process done by a single individual using hand tools and a variety of natural and manmade materials that are attached to a hook. Although the recent history of fly tying dates from the middle 1800s, fly tyers were engaged in tying flys since at least 200 AD.

Helen Shaw, an American professional fly tyer, defined fly tying as the "simple process of binding various materials to a hook with thread".[1] Fly tying is a practical art form that many individuals are able to practice with reasonable success and tie flies which produce results when fly fishing. It is also a hobby that benefits from the fly tyer's knowledge of the insects and other food sources that fish consume in the wild.[2]

Fly tying requires some basic equipment; a vise to hold the hook, a bobbin to dispense and provide tension on thread, scissors, pliers and the appropriate materials for the particular fly pattern selected. These materials consists mostly of feathers (hackle), fur, hairs, threads, and various synthetic materials.

Fly tying equipment enables the fly tyer to efficiently and effectively assemble and secure the materials on the hook to produce a particular type of fly. Fly tying materials were originally limited to various furs, feathers, threads and hooks. Since the mid-1900s, many more natural and synthetic materials are available to use to tie flies.[3]

Fly patterns are the instructions or recipe required to create the fly. They specify hook sizes and types, the materials and colors to be used, as well as the sequence to be followed and the assembly methods. There are thousands of possible fly patterns available to the tyer.

Approach[edit]

Some view fly tying as an art form. E. C. Gregg, in his 1940 publication, stated that "The object of this book will be throughout its entirety to teach in a practical manner the Art of Fly Tying in all its branches."[4]

In contrast, A. K. Best suggests practical ways to streamline the tying technique.[5] Best emphasizes that fly tying is not only a handicraft but also a science rooted in carefully observing fish and their prey, and then designing and tying artificial flies to replicate that prey in order to catch fish. One of the first contributions to this approach was made by Preston Jennings in his A Book of Trout Flies.[6]

Fly tying history[edit]

Ogden's improved fly vise (1887)[7]
The fly dresser's tools from The Trout Fly Dresser's Cabinet of Devices or How To Tie Flies for Trout and Grayling Fishing (1919)[8]

The history of fly tying (and fly design) reflects the evolution and history of fly fishing. Basic fly-tying methods have not changed dramatically from the mid-19th century to the present. Most changes resulted from the introduction and adaptation of new materials, especially synthetics, and new hook designs. Images from the early literature devoted to fly tying and fly construction do not show processes significantly different from those used today. The tools associated with fly tying today have, however, evolved along with new technologies. In the mid-19th century flies were tied without benefit of a hook vise. Instead, the hook was held by the fingers as the fly was constructed. The following is from Rod Fishing in Clear Waters (London 1860):

Your materials being now in a state of readiness, the hook must be first tied on with waxed silk to the finest end of the hair or gut left after cutting off the curled end, in this manner (Plate vii. No. 1): Take the bend of the hook between your left finger and thumb, the shank projecting; place an end of the waxed silk, which should be about six inches in length, and the end of the gut along the underside of the shank; pass the silk over until you have wrapped it down to the end of the shank, and two or three turns back for the head of the fly; take the feather or hackle as prepared (Plate vii. No. 2), put the point of the feather from where it is turned back with the outside next the hook, and hold it there with your left finger and thumb until you pass the silk over it, just where you left off, wrapping it twice or thrice on its downward rounds to the bend of the hook; take your scissors and cut off the root of the feather, and the superfluous gut under the bend of the hook, leaving it not quite so long as the body of the fly has to be made; take the thick end of your feather in your tweezers or pliers and wrap it over three or four times close together, following the silk wrappings until it is all, or as much as you deem sufficient, twirled on; then take your silk and pass over the end once or twice; cut off the superfluous part of the feather and wrap up the shank with the silk, evenly and regularly, to form the body of the fly, and fasten off by a loop-knot or two; or, if you want a thick-bodied fly or one of flossed silk, turn down again and fasten off at the shoulder; cut off the silk left, set the feather right with your needle and finger and thumb, and the fly is made or dressed. This is the simplest method.

— Henry Wade, 1860[9]

One of the earliest references to the use of a fly-tying vise is in Ogden on Fly Tying (London, 1887). Other fly-tying tools—scissors, hackle pliers, tweezers, bodkins, etc.—have remained remarkably similar since the late 1800s.[7]

Fly names[edit]

There is no convention or consistency in the naming of artificial flies. Long-standing popular patterns have names that have persisted over time. However, fly designers and amateur or professional fly tyers are free to create any fly they choose and to give it any name they want. Angling writers, the popular angling press, and professional fly tackle dealers have always introduced new patterns with new names. The only naming convention is that there is no convention. Flies have been named to honor or celebrate fellow anglers: Royal Wulff, Jock Scott, Quill Gordon, Adams; named to describe their color and composition: Ginger Quill, Gold-ribbed Hare's Ear, Partridge and Orange; named to reflect some regional origin: Bow River Bugger, Tellico nymph, San Juan worm; named to reflect the prey they represent: Golden stone, Blue-wing Olive, Pale Morning Dun, Elk Hair Caddis, White swimming shrimp; named to reflect nothing in particular: Woolly Bugger, Crazy Charlie, Club Sandwich; and, more often than not, named to evoke the designer: Copper John nymph (John Barr), Clouser Deep Minnow (Bob Clouser), Brooks' Montana stone (Charles Brooks), Parks' Salmonfly (Merton Parks), Carey Special (Colonel Carey), Dahlberg Diver (Larry Dahlberg) or Dave's Hopper (Dave Whitlock).

Orvis Royal Coachman

The well-known trout fly Coachman was originated by Tom Bosworth, who drove Queen Victoria's coach[10] The Royal Coachman was first made by John Haily, a professional fly dresser living in New York City. In writing of other matters, he enclosed this fly for us to see, saying "A gentleman wanted me to tie up some Coachman for him to take to the north woods and to make them extra strong, so I have tied them with a little band of silk in the middle to prevent the peacock bodies from fraying out. I have also added a tail of the barred feathers of the wood-duck, and I think it makes a very handsome fly." A few evenings later, a circle of us were together "disputing the fly in question", one of the party claiming that numbers were "quite as suitable to designate the flies as so many nonsensical names". The others did not agree with him, but he said: "What can you do? Here is a fly intended to be a Coachman; but it is not the true Coachman; it is quite unlike it and what can you call it?" Mr. L. C. Orvis, brother of Mr. Charles Orvis, who was present said: "Oh that is easy enough; call it the Royal Coachman it is so finely dressed!" And this name in time came to be known and used by all who are familiar with the fly.[11] When Lee Wulff first designed the Royal Wulff, based on contemporary Catskill patterns, he'd intended to name it "Bucktail Coachman," referencing the bucktail wings he'd added for better flotation. Fellow fisherman and convervationist Dan Bailey insisted that he call them "Wulffs" and began tying them under that name.[12]

Royal Wulff Dry Fly

Imitation of prey[edit]

Tying artificial flies has always been about imitating some form of fish prey. Significant literature on the concepts of imitation exists especially for trout flies. A Book of Trout Flies – Jennings (1935),[6] Streamside Guide to Naturals & Their Imitations – Art Flick (1947), Matching the Hatch.. Schweibert (1955),[13] Selective Trout - Swisher and Richards (1971),[14] Nymphs - Schweibert (1973),[15] Caddisflies - LaFontaine (1989),[16] Prey - Richards (1995) are a few 20th-century titles that deal extensively with imitating natural prey. From a human perspective, many fly patterns do not exactly imitate fish prey found in nature, but they are nevertheless successful. A successful or "killing" fly pattern imitates something that the target species preys on. This has resulted in fly tyers and fishers devising additional terms to characterize those flies that obviously do not imitate anything in particular, yet are nevertheless successful at catching fish. These additional terms are inconsistently but commonly associated with trout-fly patterns because of their huge variety, both historical and contemporary. The term Attractor pattern has been applied to flies which resemble nothing in particular but are successful in attracting strikes from fish.[17] Dick Stewart characterizes these same patterns as General Purpose.[18] Dave Hughes describes the same flies as Searching flies and characterizes three levels of imitation: Impressionistic, Suggestive and Imitative.[19]

Paul Schullery explains that although much has been written about imitation theories of fly design, all successful fly patterns must imitate something to attract the fish to strike. The huge range of fly patterns documented today for all sorts of target species—trout, salmon, bass and panfish, pike, saltwater, tropical exotics, etc.—are not easily categorized as merely imitative, attractors, searching or impressionistic.[20][21]

Fly tying tools and materials[edit]

Tools[edit]

Fly tying workbench
Illustrative selection of modern fly tying tools
Whip finisher
Hackle plyers

Various tools enable and optimize fly tying. Skip Morris, a professional fly tyer, lists the essential tools as being a vise to hold the hook of the fly to be tied, bobbin holders, hackle pliers, hackle gauges, work lights and magnifying glass to better see the fly as it is tied, hair stackers, scissors and tweezers. Other optional tools are pliers, toothpicks, bodkins,[22] dubbing twisters, blenders, floss bobbin holders, whip finishers, wing burners and bobbin threaders.[23]

  • Vises: Vises are used to hold the hook when tying on materials. They come in various forms and may be clamped to a table or come with their own stand. The vise has a jaw used to hold the hook. On some vises, the jaws will rotate to assist in wrapping material on the hook in a uniform manner. The size of the jaw on some vises may be larger than others to hold a larger hook necessary for some flies, such as Musky flies. Vises also might have attached holders for material or for thread when rotating the vise. It is possible to tie a fly without a vise, called in-hand tying; however, this is very difficult and requires a great deal of dexterity.
  • Bobbin holder: The bobbin holder, commonly referred to as just "bobbin", is used to hold the thread bobbin when wrapping thread around the hook. The bobbin holder provides tension so that it can be released when the fly tyer is performing other tasks, such as wrapping hackle.[24]
  • Hackle plyers and gauges: Hackle plyers are used to hold the end of a hackle when wrapping the hackle onto the hook. Hackle gauges are used to select hackle for given size hook and to measure hook sizes.[24]
  • Hair stackers: Hair stackers are concentric tubes of different diameter with one tube having a bottom. This allows the fly tyer to stack hair so that the ends are aligned at one end before being applied to the hook. The stacker is usually made of a heavy metal like brass. The bottom of the stacker with hair inserted is pounded on a table a couple of times to help in aligning the hairs before they are pulled out of the stacker while in a horizontal position.[24]
  • Scissors and Tweezers: Small pointed and sharp tying scissors are used to cut fly tying material. A second set of scissors or plyers are used for cutting wire and heavy materials that would easily dull the tying scissors. Tweezers are used pick up or hold materials like beads that applied to the hook.
  • Whip finishers: A whip finisher is a tool for tying the thread around the hook that secures the thread in place.[24]
  • Dubbing and dubbing twister: Dubbing is made of hair or synthetic material that is ground up and applied to the outside of thread. The dubbing can be fine for small dry flys or coarse. Sometimes, dubbing wax is used in moderation to assist in applying the dubbing fibers to the thread. The dubbing adds color and bulk to the fly and sometimes gives it a buggy look with coarse dubbing. A dubbing twister is used to apply dubbing to two strands of thread. It has a handle and two wires to hold the thread loop apart. The dubbing is applied between the two strands of thread and the twister is spun to twist the thread and dubbing together.[24]

Materials[edit]

Foam Beetle with buggy dubbing
Black and Brown Wooly Bugger with bead head

Fly tying material can be anything used to construct a fly on a hook. Traditional materials were threads, yarns, furs, feathers, hair, tinsels, cork, balsa and wire. Today's materials include not only all sorts of natural and dyed furs, hair and feathers, but also a wide array of synthetic materials. Rabbit, mink, muskrat, fox, bear, squirrel and other furs; deer, elk, and moose hair; and hen or rooster hackle; pheasant tail; turkey or goose biots; duck (Cul de canard); ostrich and peacock herl; and woodcock and partridge feathers are commonly incorporated into artificial flies. Rooster/hen neck and saddle hackle, so essential for many artificial fly patterns, are from animals especially bred to produce hackles of superior performance, size and color. Synthetics have allowed fly tyers to replicate rare and sometimes endangered furs and feathers as well as create completely new types of flies. Synthetics such as rubber legs, foam bodies, plastic wings, transparent plastic cords, chenilles, and all sorts and colors of flashy materials that can be incorporated into the wings and bodies of today's artificial fly are available to the fly tyer. Whereas lead wire was the traditional method of weighting flies, today's weighting materials include beads and cone heads as well as lead. Silicone, epoxy, kevlar materials are regularly incorporated into modern artificial fly patterns.[25][26]

  • Hooks: The hook determines the basic size and shape of each fly and is generally an important part of any fly pattern description. Hooks come in a wide range of size, shape, length and weight, and must be selected to complement the pattern being tied and the method by which it will be fished. Hook sizes are measured with a number that gives the size of the hook gape. The smallest fly hook starts are in the range #32 to #24 (rarely used by most fly tyers and anglers), followed by #22, #20, #18, #16, #14, #12, #10, #8, #6, #5, #4, #3, #2, #1, #1/0, #2/0, #3/0, #4/0, #5/0, #6/0, #7/0, #8/0 and #9/0. (Missing odd numbers are not used for smaller hooks.) The hook size relates to the size of the gape of the hook. The length of the hook is designated as 1X, 2X, 3X, etc., which is the length of the hook in terms of multiples of the gape. Hooks are made of wire. The wire is lighter for dry fly hooks to help the fly float better. Flies constructed for use in salt water are typically tied on corrosion-resistant hooks. The various manufactures use different numbering schemes to further define the shape of the hook, eye of the hook, and fly type (dry, nymph, stream, scud, Klinkhammer, etc.).[24][27]
  • Thread: Fly tying thread comes in a variety of colors and sizes. Most modern fly tying thread is made of nylon or polyester. Special use thread may be made of gel-spun polyethylene (GSP), Kevlar, silk, or even monofilament. The size of the thread is measured in either denier or aughts. A denier weight specification states how many grams 9,000 meters of the thread weighs. Unlike the common thread weight system, the greater the denier number, the thicker the thread. The Wapsi Fly Company uses denier to specify the size of its UTC Ultra thread, which comes in 70, 140, 210, and 280 denier. Some thread manufacturers producing very fine silk threads used in fly tying (Danville Chenille Company and UNI Products), apply their own scales of thread measurement using "aughts" or zeroes. Within a given manufacturer's spectrum, a higher "aught count" indicates a finer thread: this is usually given as a single digit followed by a forward slash and a zero, e.g. 6/0, 8/0, and 10/0.[24][28]
  • Beads: Beads are used as a head for weight in wet fly patterns. They have a hole drilled through the center of the bead and are applied onto the hook and pushed up to behind the eye. Slotted holes are also available for jig head hooks. Beads are sized to the hook and come in diameters of 1/16 (#18-#22), 5/64 (#16-#20), 3/32 (#14-#18), 7/64 (#12-#16), 1/8 (#10-#14), 5/32 (#8-#12), and 3/16 (#6-#10) inches. Weighted beads are made from either zinc (heaviest) or brass. Although the most commo colors in patterns are gold, silver and brass, a wide variety of colors and textures are available.[24]
  • Biots: A biot is sturdy, tapered fiber from a goose or turkey wing feather. Commonly, it is used in fly patterns to imitate tails, wings, bodies, legs or antennae. Natural biots are white or brown but they also died a variety of colors.

The fly pattern[edit]

Early color plate showing fly tying steps (1860)[29]

The fly pattern is the recipe for any particularly named fly. In older literature, especially prior to the 20th century, fly patterns were referred to as dressings. The pattern specifies the size range and type of hook to be used, materials including type, color and size, and in some cases specific instructions on the order of application of materials and how to achieve a particular effect or configuration. Fly patterns allow tyers to consistently reproduce any given fly over time. A Light Cahill dry fly produced by one tyer will look remarkably similar to the same fly produced by a completely different tyer if the pattern is followed with reasonable accuracy and with comparable materials. Patterns may also lay out alternatives for different materials and variations.

Traditionally, fly patterns have been found in fly-fishing and fly-tying literature and periodicals. Although fly patterns do provide some consistency, different writers may publish patterns with small to moderate differences across pattern descriptions for the same fly. In many cases, greatest differences are in the tying technique rather than in the form, color or materials. Fly patterns may or may not have an image or drawing of the finished fly to guide the tyer. Historically, fly patterns have been included in texts that discuss fishing with a particular genre of fly, fly-fishing technique or fly-fishing for specific species or genre of gamefish. There are, however, texts that are pure fly pattern and tying references with little or no instruction on how to fish them.

The Internet has made available new avenues for fly tying instruction, especially with step by step illustrated instructions with tying recipes published on websites and YouTube videos. In-person fly tying instruction and observation is another valuable source for learning fly tying.

Parts of an artificial fly[edit]

Salmon flies have historically been the one of the most complex and elaborate artificial flies to tie. Texts describing fly tying techniques often use an image of a salmon fly to describe all the parts of an artificial fly. The parts described in the Salmon Fly below are typical. The hook eye can be straight as below, sloped down, or sloped down and turned 90 degrees for a jig eye. The Parachute Adams Dry Fly shown at right below has a down eye and a parachute wing with hackle wound around the parachute.[24]

Parachute Adams Dry Fly
Parts of fishhook
Parts of a salmon fly[30]
Key to Parts of Salmon Fly Image
  • A – Tag
  • C – Tail
  • D – Butt
  • E – Hackle E2 – Throat Hackle
  • F – Under Wing
  • G – Over Wing
  • HH – Horn
  • J – Side
  • K – Cheek
  • L – Head

Typical fly patterns or dressing descriptions[edit]

The typical fly pattern appears something like one of the illustrative patterns below for the Adams dry fly (without tying instructions) or the Clouser Deep Minnow (with tying instructions). Based on the fly pattern, a knowledgeable fly tyer can reproduce the fly with the materials specified.

Typical Fly Pattern Descriptions
Fly Pattern
  • Hook: Size #10–#18 standard dry-fly, e.g. Tiemco 100
  • Thread: gray 6/0
  • Wing: grizzly hen hackle tips
  • Tail: mixed grizzly and brown hackle fibers
  • Body: gray yarn or dubbing (fine dry fly dubbing)
  • Hackle: brown and grizzly hackle sized to hook[31]
  • Hook: Size #2, #4, #6 or #8, Mustad 3366, For a saltwater fly, a tinned or stainless hook should be used.
  • Thread: white 3/0 or 6/0
  • Eyes: a 1/50 or 1/36-ounce metal dumbbell painted with vinyl jig paint
  • Belly: white bucktail
  • Flash: holographic silver Flashabou, silver Krystal Flash, pearlescent Flashabou, and pearlescent Krystal Flash. Use only four to six strands of each.
  • Back: gray bucktail topped with a little hair from the brown portion of the tail[32]

Fly pattern types[edit]

Historically, fly pattern types have evolved along with fly fishing itself and today there are generally recognized pattern types. However, none are absolute, as there is much crossover in patterns and pattern types. Typically the fly tyer will encounter patterns classified as dry, wet, soft hackle (wet fly with hackle collar), emerger, nymph, scud (freshwater crustaceans), terrestrial (hoppers), streamer, salmon (Atlantic), Steelhead trout and Pacific salmon, bass, popper, panfish, Carp, saltwater, Northern pike, Bonefish, or musky fly patterns. Even within these categories, there can be many sub-categories of imitative and non-imitative fly patterns.

Commercial market[edit]

A production fly tyer's bench and materials
Custom flys for sale at Parks' Fly Shop in Gardner, Montana

Hand-tied flies on the commercial market sell for under a US dollar to several US dollars each. Fly tying is a challenging and rewarding hobby for some, a money-saving strategy for others, and a profitable commercial enterprise for the professional tyer. The professional or commercial fly tyer may produce upwards of 36 thousand flies annually, whereas the amateur fly tyer may tie only a few flies each season for personal use.[33]

Notable fly tyers[edit]

"Fly Fishing Hall of Fame". Fly Fishing Center and Museum, New York. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2021.</ref>

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Some of historical books that cover fly tying include the following in chronological order:

19th Century[edit]

  • Ronalds, Alfred (1836). The Fly-Fisher's Entomology. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans.
  • Soltau, G. W. (1847). Trout Flies of Devon and Cornwall (PDF). Plymouth, England: Edward Nettleton.
  • Blacker, William (1855). Blacker's Art of Fly Making. London: Geo Nichols.
  • Wade, Henry (1860). Rod-Fishing in Clear Waters By Fly, Minnow and Work With a Short and Easy method to the Art of Dressing Flies. London: Bell and Daldy. p. 132.
  • Halford, F. M. (1886). Floating Flies and How to Dress Them. A Treatise on the Most Modern Methods of Dressing Artificial Flies for Trout and Grayling with Full Illustrated Directions and Containing Ninety Hand-Coloured Engravings of the Most Killing Patterns Together with a Few Hints to Dry-Fly Fishermen. London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington.
  • Pritt, Thomas E. (1885). Yorkshire Trout Flies. Leeds: Goodall and Suddick.
  • Ogden, James (1887). Ogden on Fly Tying, Etc. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington.
  • Shipley, Malcolm A. (1888). Artificial Flies and How To Make Them (PDF). Philadelphia: Spangler & Davis.
  • Theakston, Michael (1888). British Angling Flies (PDF). London: William Harrison.
  • Theakston, Michael; Walbran, Francis M. (1888). British Angling Flies. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington.
  • Marbury, Mary Orvis (1892). Favorite Flies and Their Histories. Boston and New York: Houghton and Mifflin Company.
  • Kelson, George M. (1895). The Salmon Fly-How To Dress It and How to Use It. London: Wyman & Sons, Limited.
  • Walker, Charles Edward (1897). Old Flies in New Dresses-How to dress Dry Flies with the wings in the natural position and some new Wet Flies (PDF). London: Lawrence and Bullen Ltd.

20th Century[edit]

  • Nemes, Sylvester (1975). The Soft-Hackled Fly-A Trout Fisherman's Guide. Greenwich, Connecticut: Chatham Press. ISBN 0-8117-1670-8.
  • Slaymaker, S. R. II; Harvey, George (1976). Tie a Fly, Catch a Trout. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. ISBN 0-06-013983-8., the year is divided into two seasons—the season for tying flies and the season for angling with them. Sam Slaymaker writes with equal relish about tying flies by the fireplace and trying them out on the stream.
  • Livingston, A. D. (1977). Tying Bugs and Flies for Bass. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. ISBN 0-397-01187-3., a comprehensive period guide to tying bugs and flies for bass. Very well illustrated.
  • Bates, Joseph D. Jr. (1979). Streamers and bucktails, the big-fish flies. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0394415884.
  • Wulff, Lee (1985). Lee Wulff on Flies. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0811722058.
  • Fogg, W.S. Roger (1988). A Handbook of North Country Trout Flies. Congleton, UK: Old Vicarage Publications. ISBN 0-947818-11-1.
  • Best, A. K. (1989). Production Fly Tying. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87108-781-2., one of the most comprehensive treatments of techniques for tying all types of flies for commercial quality.[43]
  • LaFontaine, Gary (April 28, 1989). Caddisflies. Lyons Press. ISBN 0941130983.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  • Wakeford, Jacqueline (1992). Fly Tying Tools and Materials. New York: Lyons & Burford Publishers. ISBN 1-55821-183-7., Loaded with color photographs and descriptions of the natural materials such as fur, hair and feathers used in fly tying.[44]
  • Schmookler, Paul; Sils, Ingrid V. (1994). Rare and Unusual Fly Tying Materials-A Natural History Volume 1 – Birds. Mills, MA: The Complete Sportsman. ISBN 1-886961-01-8.
  • Stewart, Dick; Allen, Farrow (1993). Flies for Trout. New York: Lyons & Burford. ISBN 0-936644-14-1.
  • Steeves, Harrison R.; Koch, Ed (1994). Terrestrials-A Modern Approach to Fishing and Tying with Synthetic and Natural Materials. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0629-X.
  • Hughes, Dave (1995). Wet Flies: Tying and Fishing Soft-Hackles, Winged and Wingless Wets, and Fuzzy Nymphs. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1868-9., begins with comparisons between subsurface flies and the insects they resemble. Complete materials lists and step-by-step instructions for tying soft-hackled flies, wingless wets, traditional winged wets, and fuzzy nymphs are included.
  • Schmookler, Paul; Sils, Ingrid V. (1997). Rare and Unusual Fly Tying Materials-A Natural History Volume 2 – Birds and Mammals. Mills, MA: The Complete Sportsman. ISBN 1-886961-02-6.
  • Hughes, Dave (1999). Trout Flies-The Tier's Reference. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-1601-7.

21st Century[edit]

  • Jaroworski, Ed; Popovics, Bob (2001). Pop Fleyes-Bob Popovic's Approach to Saltwater Fly Design. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0811712478.
  • Rosenbauer, Tom (2001). The Orvis Fly Tying Guide. New York: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-033-0.
  • Flower, Rob (2001). Australia Trout Food, Trout Flies and How to Fish Them. South Croydon, Victoria: Australian Fishing Network. ISBN 186513015X.
  • Mann, Chris (2004). Hairwing & Tube Flies for Salmon & Steelhead: A Comprehensive Guide for Anglers & Flytyers. Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811731768.
  • Soucie, Gary (2006). Woolly Wisdom. Portland, Oregon: Frank Amato Publications. ISBN 1-57188-352-5., everything you wanted to know about fishing and tying Woolly Worms, Woolly Buggers and the like. The comprehensive reference on the subject.[45]
  • Clouser, Bob (2006). Clouser's Flies. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0148-4., the comprehensive treatment of tying and fishing the Clouser Minnow by the inventor of the fly, Bob Clouser.[46]
  • Sawada, Ken (2006). The Tube Fly. Tokyo, Japan: Sawada, Inc. ISBN 9784916020512.
  • Mandell, Mark; Kenly, Bob (2007). Tube Flies Two: Evolution. Frank Amato Publications. ISBN 9781571884015.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • Craven, Charlie (2008). Charlie Craven's Basic Fly Tying. New Cumberland, PA: Headwater Books. ISBN 9780979346026.
  • Greenhalgh, Malcolm; Jason Smalley (2009). Fishing Flies: A World Encyclopedia of Every Type of Fly. London: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-00-728845-8.
  • Herd, Andrew (2012). Trout Fly Patterns 1496-1916. Ellesmere, Shropshire: Medlar Press. ISBN 9781907110139.
  • Valla, Mike (2013). The Founding Flies-43 American Masters Their Patterns and Influences. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811708333.
  • Chicone, Drew (2013). Feather Brain-Developing, Testing, & Improving Saltwater Fly Patterns. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811711968.
  • Klausmeyer, David (2015). 101 Favorite Saltwater Flies-History, Tying Tips and Fishing Strategies. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 9781632205384.
  • Crosse, Malcom; Keam, Rick, eds. (2016). Australia's Best Trout Flies-Revisited. Hobart, Tasmania: J.M.& K. Crosse. ISBN 9780994415929.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shaw, Helen (1963). Fly-tying—Materials, Tools and Techniques. New York: The Ronald Press Company. iii.
  2. ^ Leonard, J. Edson (1950). Flies-Their origin, natural history, tying, hooks, patterns and selections of dry and wet flies, nymphs, streamers, salmon flies for fresh and salt water in North America and the British Isles, including a Dictionary of 2200 Patterns. New York: A.S. Barnes and Company. p. 33.
  3. ^ Wakeford, Jacqueline (1992). Fly Tying Tools and Materials. New York: Lyons & Burford Publishers. p. reface. ISBN 1-55821-183-7.
  4. ^ Gregg, E. C. (1940). How To Tie Flies. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company. vii.
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