A flying car or roadable aircraft is a type of vehicle which can function as both a personal car and an aircraft. As used here, this includes vehicles which drive as motorcycles when on the road. The term "flying car" is also sometimes used to include hovercars.
Many prototypes have been built since the early 20th century, using a variety of flight technologies. Most have been designed to take off and land conventionally using a runway, although VTOL projects are increasing. None has yet been built in more than a handful of numbers.
Their appearance is often predicted by futurologists, and many concept designs have been promoted. But their failure to become a practical reality has led to the catchphrase "Where's my flying car?", as a paradigm for the failure of predicted technologies to appear.
Flying cars are also a popular theme in fantasy and science fiction stories.
Early 20th century
Aircraft designer Glenn Curtiss built his Autoplane in 1917. It had a pusher propeller for flight, with removable flight surfaces including a triplane wing, canard foreplane and twin tails. It was able to hop, but not fly.
In 1935, inventor Constantinos Vlachos built a prototype of a 'tri-phibian' vehicle, but it caught fire after the engine exploded, while Vlachos was demonstrating it in Washington, D.C. Vlachos' prototype is most notable for a newsreel that captured the incident, which left him in hospital for several months.
The Autogiro Company of America AC-35 was an early attempt at a roadable aircraft. On March 26, 1936, the AC-35 was flown by test pilot James G. Ray with counter-rotating propellers. These were later replaced with a single conventional propeller arrangement. On October 2, 1936, Ray landed the AC-35 in a downtown park in Washington, D.C. where it was displayed. On October 26, 1936, the aircraft was converted to roadable configuration. Ray drove it to the main entrance of the Commerce Building, where it was accepted by John H. Geisse, chief of the Aeronautics Branch. Although it was successfully tested, it did not enter production.
The first roadable fixed wing aircraft actually to fly was built by Waldo Waterman. Waterman was associated with Curtiss while Curtiss was pioneering amphibious aircraft at North Island on San Diego Bay in the 1910s. On March 21, 1937, Waterman's Arrowbile first took to the air. The Arrowbile was a development of Waterman's tailless aircraft, the Whatsit. It had a wingspan of 38 feet (12 m) and a length of 20 feet 6 inches (6.25 m). On the ground and in the air it was powered by a Studebaker engine. It could fly at 112 mph (180 km/h) and drive at 56 mph (90 km/h).
In 1942, the British army built the Hafner Rotabuggy, an experimental roadable autogyro that was developed with the intention of producing a way of air-dropping off-road vehicles. Although initial tests showed that the Rotabuggy was prone to severe vibration at speeds greater than 45 miles per hour (72 km/h), with improvements the Rotabuggy achieved a flight speed of 70 mph (113 km/h). However, the introduction of gliders that could carry vehicles (such as the Waco Hadrian and Airspeed Horsa) led to the project's cancellation.
Late 20th century
Although several designs (such as the ConVairCar) have flown, none have enjoyed commercial success, and those that have flown are not widely known by the general public. The most successful example, in that several were made and one is still flying, is the 1949 Taylor Aerocar.
In 1946, the Fulton FA-2 Airphibian was an American made flying car designed by Robert Edison Fulton Jr., it was an aluminum-bodied car, built with independent suspension, aircraft-sized wheels, and a six-cylinder 165 hp engine. The fabric wings were easily attached to the fuselage, converting the car into a plane. Four prototypes were built. Charles Lindbergh flew it 1950 and, although it was not a commercial success (financial costs of airworthiness certification forced him to relinquish control of the company, which never developed it further), it is now in the Smithsonian.
The Aerocar, designed and built by Molt Taylor, made a successful flight in December 1949, and in following years versions underwent a series of road and flying tests. Chuck Berry featured the concept in his 1956 song "You Can't Catch Me", and in December 1956 the Civil Aviation Authority approved the design for mass production, but despite wide publicity and an improved version produced in 1989, Taylor did not succeed in getting the flying car into production. In total, six Aerocars were built. It is considered to be one of the first practical flying cars.
Moller began developing VTOL craft in the late 1960s, but no Moller vehicle has ever achieved free flight out of ground effect. The Moller Skycar M400 was a project for a personal VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft which is powered by four pairs of in-tandem Wankel rotary engines. The proposed Autovolantor model had an all-electric version powered by Altairnano batteries. The company has been dormant since 2015.
In the mid-1980s, former Boeing engineer Fred Barker, founded Flight Innovations Inc. and began the development of the Sky Commuter, a small duct fans-based VTOL aircraft. It was a compact, 14-foot-long (4.3 m) two-passenger and was made primarily of composite materials. In 2008, the remaining prototype was sold for £86k on eBay.
Early 21st century
In 2009 the U.S., the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated the $65 million Transformer program to develop a four-person roadable aircraft by 2015. The vehicle was to have had VTOL capability and a 280-mile (450 km) range. AAI Corporation and Lockheed Martin were awarded contracts. The program was cancelled in 2013.
The Parajet Skycar utilises a paramotor for propulsion and a parafoil for lift. The main body consists of a modified dune buggy. It has a top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a maximum range of 180 miles (290 km) in flight. On the ground it has a top speed of 112 mph (180 km/h) and a maximum range of 249 miles (401 km). Parajet flew and drove its prototype from London to Timbuktu in January 2009.
The Maverick Flying Dune Buggy was designed by the Indigenous People's Technology and Education Center of Florida as an off-road vehicle that could unfurl an advanced parachute and then travel by air over impassable terrain when roadways were no longer usable. The 1,100-pound (500 kg) 'Maverick' vehicle is powered by a 128 hp (95 kW) engine that can also drive a five-bladed pusher propeller. It was initially conceived in order to help minister to remote Amazon rainforest communities, but will also be marketed for visual pipeline inspection and other similar activities in desolate areas or difficult terrain.
The Plane Driven PD-1 Roadable Glastar is a modification to the Glastar Sportsman GS-2 to make a practical roadable aircraft. The approach is novel in that it uses a mostly stock aircraft with a modified landing gear "pod" that carries the engine for road propulsion. The wings fold along the side, and the main landing gear and engine pod slide aft in driving configuration to compensate for the rearward center of gravity with the wings folded, and provide additional stability for road travel.
Kitty Hawk Flyer by Kitty Hawk Corporation — Larry Page's Zee.Aero and the Kitty Hawk Corporation (backed by Page) are developing flying cars. In April 2017, Kitty Hawk unveiled its "Flyer" VTOL craft, which flies only over water. Part of Kitty Hawk was split off into Cora by Wisk, a joint venture between Wisk Aero LLC and Boeing, in 2019.
Volocopter 2X by E-Volo, now Volocopter — in August 2019, the Volocopter 2X was successfully tested at Helsinki airport for integrate with air traffic management services for unpiloted aerial craft AirMap, Altitude Angel and Unifly, a key element for commercial flight certification.
Uber — the international ride-sharing company is working with Karem Aircraft to develop the electric eCRM-003 eVTOL, with first tests expected by 2020, and very limited UberAir service trials by 2023 (Los Angeles, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Melbourne), with 50 vehicles serving five skyports per city.
Sky Drive by Cartivator — the start-up had announced its goal of a flight to ignite the 2020 Summer Olympics torch with its eVTOL, postponed to due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Toyota is a backer. In August 2020, a startup in Japan backed by Toyota tested its flying car prototype, which was a quadcopter with 2 propellers and motors per corner that flew for four minutes.
Turkey's top UAV producer Baykar is focusing on working on its flying car named Cezeri. It was first introduced on TEKNOFEST Istanbul in 2019.
At the 2014 Pioneers Festival at Wien (Austria) AeroMobil presented their version 3.0 of their flying car. The prototype was conceived as a vehicle that can be converted from an automobile to an aircraft. The version 2.5 proof-of-concept took 20 years to develop and first flew in 2013. CEO Juraj Vaculik said that the company planned to move flying cars to market: "the plan is that in 2017 we'll be able to announce… the first flying roadster." In 2016, AeroMobil was test-flying a prototype that obtained Slovak ultralight certification. When the final product will be available or how much it will cost is not yet specified. In 2018, it unveiled a concept that resembled a flying sportscar with VTOL capability. The Aeromobil 2.5 has folding wings and a Rotax 912 engine. It can travel at 200 kilometres per hour (124 mph) with a range of 690 kilometres (430 mi), and flew for the first time in 2013. On October 29, 2014, Slovak startup AeroMobil s.r.o. unveiled AeroMobil 3.0 at Vienna Pioneers Festival.
Klein Vision in Slovakia have developed a prototype AirCar, which drives like a sports car and for flight has a pusher propeller with twin tailbooms, and foldout wings. In June 2021, the prototype carried out a 35-minute flight between airports.
The Terrafugia Transition is under development by a private company founded by MIT graduates. It is a roadable aircraft that the company describes as a "Personal Air Vehicle". The aircraft can fold its wings in 30 seconds and drive the front wheels, enabling it to operate as a traditional road vehicle and as a general aviation aeroplane. The company planned to release its Transition "Personal Air Vehicle" to customers in late 2011. An operational prototype was displayed at Oshkosh in 2008 and its first flight occurred on 2009-03-05. Owners will drive the car from their garage to an airport where they will then be able to fly within a range of 500 mi (800 km). It will carry two people plus luggage and its Rotax 912S engine operates on premium unleaded gas. It was approved by the FAA in June 2010, and its anticipated base purchase price is $279,000. On 7 May 2013, Terrafugia announced the TF-X, a plug-in hybrid tilt-rotor vehicle that would be the first fully autonomous flying car. It would have a range of 500 miles (800 km) per flight and batteries are rechargeable by the engine. Development of TF-X is expected to last many years.
The production-ready single-engine, roadable PAL-V Liberty autogyro, or gyrocopter, debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2018, then became the first flying car in production, and was set to launch in 2020, with full production scheduled for 2021 in Gujarat, India. the PAL-V ONE is a hybrid of a gyrocopter with a leaning 3-wheel motorcycle. It has two seats and a 160 kW flight certified gasoline engine. It has a top speed of 180 km/h (112 mph) on land and in air, and weighs 910 kg (2,010 lb) max.
A flying car must be capable of safe and reliable operation both on public roads and in the air. For mass adoption, it will also need to be environmentally friendly, able to fly without a fully qualified pilot at the controls, and come at affordable purchase and running costs.
Design configurations vary widely, from modified road vehicles such as the AVE Mizar at one extreme to modified aircraft such as the Plane Driven PD-1 at the other. Most are dedicated flying car designs.
Like other aircraft, lift in flight is provided by a fixed wing, spinning rotor or direct powered lift. The powered helicopter rotor and direct lift both offer VTOL capability, while the fixed wing and autogyro rotor take off conventionally from a runway.
The simplest and earliest approach was to take a driveable car and attach removable flying surfaces and propeller. However when on the road, such a design must either tow its removable parts on a separate trailer or leave them behind and drive back to them before taking off again.
Other conventional takeoff fixed-wing designs, such as the Terrafugia Transition, include folding wings that the car carries with it when driven on the road.
Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) is attractive, as it avoids the need for a runway and greatly increases operational flexibility. Typical designs include rotorcraft and ducted fan powered lift configurations. Most design concepts have inherent problems.
Rotorcraft include helicopters with powered rotors and autogyros with free-spinning rotors. For road use, a rotor must, like many naval helicopters, be either two-bladed or foldable. The quadcopter requires only a simple control system with no tail. The autogyro relies on a separate thrust system to build up airspeed, spin the rotor and generate lift. However, some autogyros have rotors that can be spun up on the ground and then disengaged, allowing the aircraft to jump-start vertically. The PAL-V Liberty is an example of the autogyro type.
The flying car places unique demands on the vehicle power train. For a given all-up weight, an aero engine must deliver higher power than its typical road equivalent. However on the road the vehicle must handle well and not be overpowered. Power must also be diverted between the airborne and road drive mechanisms. Some designs therefore have multiple engines, with the road engine being supplemented, or even replaced by, additional flight engines.
As with other vehicles, power has traditionally been supplied by internal combustion engines, but electric power is undergoing rapid development. It is coming into increasing use on road vehicles, but the weight of the batteries currently makes it unsuited to aircraft. However its low environmental signature makes it attractive, and it is expected to prove viable in the near future, at least for the short trips and dense urban environments envisaged for the flying car.
On the road, most flying cars drive the road wheels in the conventional way. A few use the aircraft propeller in similar manner to an airboat, but this is inefficient.
In the air, a flying car will typically obtain forward thrust from one or more propellers or ducted fans. A few have a powered helicopter rotor. Jet engines are not used due to the ground hazard posed by the hot, high-velocity exhaust stream.
In order to operate safely, a flying car must be certified independently as both a road vehicle and an aircraft, by the respective authorities. The person controlling the vehicle must also be licensed as both driver and pilot, and the vehicle maintained according to both regimes.
Mechanically, the requirements of powered flight are so challenging that every opportunity must be taken to keep weight to a minimum. A typical airframe is therefore lightweight and easily damaged. On the other hand, a road vehicle must be able to withstand significant impact loads from casual incidents while stationary, as well as low-speed and high-speed impacts, and the high strength this demands can add considerable weight. A practical flying car must be both strong enough to pass road safety standards and light enough to fly. Any propeller or rotor blade also creates a hazard to passers-by when on the ground, especially if it is spinning; they must be permanently shrouded, or folded away on landing.
For widespread adoption, as envisaged in the near future, it will not be practicable for every driver to qualify as a pilot and the rigorous maintenance currently demanded for aircraft will be uneconomic. Flying cars will have to become largely autonomous and highly reliable. The density of traffic will require automated routing and collision-avoidance systems. To manage the inevitable periodic failures and emergency landings, there will need to be sufficient designated landing sites across built-up areas. In addition, poor weather conditions could make the craft unsafe to fly.
Regulatory regimes are being developed in anticipation of a large increase in the numbers of autonomous flying cars and personal air vehicles in the near future, and compliance with these regimes will be necessary for safe flight.
A basic flying car requires the person at the controls to be both a qualified road driver and aircraft pilot. This is impractical for the majority of people and so wider adoption will require computer systems to de-skill piloting. These skills include aircraft manoeuvring, navigation and emergency procedures, all in potentially crowded airspace. The onboard control system will also need to interact with other systems such as air traffic control and collision-risk monitoring. A practical flying car may need to be capable of full autonomy, in which people are present only as passengers.
A flying car capable of widespread use must operate acceptably within a heavily populated urban environment. The lift and propulsion systems must be quiet enough not to cause a nuisance, and must not create excessive pollution. For example, pollution emissions standards for road vehicles must be met.
The clear environmental benefits of electric power are a strong incentive for its development.
The needs for the propulsion system to be both small and powerful, the vehicle structure both light and strong, and the control systems fully integrated and autonomous, can only be met at present, if at all, using advanced and expensive technologies. This may prove a significant barrier to widespread adoption.
Flying cars are used for relatively short distances at high frequency. They travel at lower speeds and altitudes than conventional passenger aircraft. However optimal fuel efficiency for aeroplanes is obtained at higher speeds and altitudes, so a flying car's energy efficiency will be lower than that of a conventional aircraft. Similarly, the flying car's road performance is compromised by the requirements of flight and the need to carry around the various extra parts, so it is also less economical than a conventional motor car.
In April 2012, the International Flying Car Association was established to be the "central resource center for information and communication between the flying car industry, news networks, governments, and those seeking further information worldwide". Because flying cars need practical regulations that are mostly dealt with on a regional level, several regional associations were established as well, with the European Flying Car Association (EFCA) representing these national member associations on a pan-European level (51 independent countries, including the European Union Member States, the Accession Candidates and Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine). The associations are also organizing racing competitions for roadable aircraft in Europe, the European Roadable Aircraft Prix (ERAP), mainly to increase awareness about this type of aircraft among a broader audience.
List of flying cars
|Aerauto PL.5C||Italy||Folding wings||1949||Prototype||1|
|Aerocar||US||Detachable wings||1946||Production||5||4 Aerocars and one Aerocar III built (The Mk. II was not a flying car).|
|Aerocar 2000||US||Detachable wings||2000 approx.||Project|
|AeroMobil||Slovakia||Folding wings||2013||Prototype||v3.0 crashed. 4.0 under development|
|Airmaster||1944||Project||Designed by Herbert & Helen Boggs.|
|Audi Pop.Up Next||Quadcopter||2018||Project|
|Autogiro Company of America AC-35||US||Autogyro||1935||Prototype||1|
|AVE Mizar||US||Detachable wings||1971||Prototype||1|
|AviAuto||1981||Project||Designed by Harvey Miller / Aviauto Corp / Florida Institute of Technology.|
|Bel Geddes||US||Folding wings||1945||Concept|||
|Bryan Autoplane||US||Folding wings||1953||Prototype||2||Model II converted to Model III.|
|Butterfly Super Sky Cycle||US||Autogyro||2009||Homebuild||Registered motorcycle|
|Convair Model 116 ConVairCar||US||Detachable wings||1946||Prototype||1|
|Convair Model 118 ConVairCar||US||Detachable wings||1947||Prototype||2||Second vehicle re-used the aircraft section from the first.|
|Curtiss Autoplane||US||Detachable wings||1917||Prototype||1||Never flew|
|Dixon Flying Ginny||US||Helicopter||1940||Prototype||1||Co-axial rotor.|
|Flight Innovations Sky Commuter||US||Ducted fan||1990||Project||3||Prototypes built but no evidence of flight|
|Ford Volante||US||Ducted fan||1958||Concept|||
|Fulton Airphibian||US||Detachable wings||1946||Prototype||4|
|Hafner Rotabuggy||UK||Detachable rotor||1942||Prototype.||Willys MB jeep, air-towed as a rotor kite.|
|Halsmer Aero Car||1959||Prototype|||
|Klein Vision AirCar||Slovakia||Folding wings||2021||Prototype||1||Production model in development.|
|Lebouder Autoplane||France||Detachable wings||1973||Prototype||Won prizes.[clarification needed]|
|Moller M400 Skycar||US||Vectored fan||1960s||Project||Unsuccessful as of 2019|
|Monster Garage "Red Baron"||US||Detachable wings||2005||Prototype||1||Host Jesse James led a team which combined a Panoz Esperante sports car with a custom bolt-on airframe and the engine from an old Cessna light aeroplane.|
|PAL-V Liberty||Netherlands||Autogyro||2012||Prototype||Several prototypes flown. Production model under development.|
|Piasecki VZ-8 Airgeep||US||Ducted rotor||1959||Prototype||VTOL "flying jeep".|
|Plane Driven PD-1||US||Folding wings||2021||Prototype||2||Modified Glasair Sportsman 2+2 aircraft. The second prototype is designated the PD-2.|
|Scaled Composites Model 367 BiPod||US||Detachable wings||2011||Prototype||1||Twin-fuselage technology development vehicle. Not flown.|
|Skroback Roadable Airplane||US||Multiplane||1925||Prototype|
|SkyRider X2R||US||Project||Under development.|
|Southernaire Roadable||1939||Prototype||1||Designed by Ted Hall of the Southern Aircraft Co.|
|Taylor Aerocar||See Aerocar|
|Terrafugia Transition||US||Folding wings||2009||Prototype|
|Terrafugia TF-X||US||Hybrid||Project||VTOL convertiplane with folding wings and rotors. Under development.|
|Urban Aeronautics X-Hawk||Israel||Project||||VTOL. Under development.|
|Waterman Arrowbile||US||Folding wings||1935||Prototype|
Flying cars have been under development since the early days of motor transport and aviation, and many futurologists have predicted their imminent arrival. Aircraft manufacturer Glenn Curtiss unveiled his unflyable Autoplane in 1917. In 1940, vehicle manufacturer Henry Ford predicted that; "Mark my word: a combination airplane and motorcar is coming. You may smile, but it will come.”
From 1945, industrial designer Norman Bel Geddes promoted his concept for a streamlined flying car with folding wings. In the late 1950s, Ford's Advanced Design studio publicised a 3/8 scale concept car model, the Volante Tri-Athodyne. It featured three ducted fans, each with its own motor, that would lift it off the ground and move it through the air. Ford admitted that "the day where there will be an aero-car in every garage is still some time off", also suggesting that "the Volante indicates one direction that the styling of such a vehicle would take".
Where's my flying car?
Despite a century of anticipation, no flying car has yet proved a practical proposition and they remain an experimental curiosity. This long-term failure to make any impact on society has led to the meme, "Where's my flying car?"
Here we are, less than a month until the turn of the millennium, and what I want to know is, what happened to the flying cars? We're about to become Americans of the 21st century. People have been predicting what we'd be like for more than 100 years, and our accoutrements don't entirely live up to expectations. (...) Our failure to produce flying cars seems like a particular betrayal since it was so central to our image.— Gail Collins, (1999) 
This new millennium sucks! It's exactly the same as the old millennium! You know why? No flying cars!"
Fictional flying cars
The flying car has been depicted in many works of fantasy and science fiction. Some notable examples include:
- Supercar starred in its own children's TV show in the UK, between 1961 and 1962. It was jet-powered with VTOL capability, and on the road it hovered rather than used wheels. Created by Gerry Anderson, it was the first show to credit his supermarionation puppet technology.
- The Jetsons American animated cartoon sitcom was originally aired from 1962 to 1963. It featured flying cars as ubiquitous. They typically had a large bubble roof, the design being inspired by a Ford concept road car from 1954, the FX-Atmos.
- A flying 1974 AMC Matador coupe features in The Man with the Golden Gun (1974), the ninth in the James Bond film series. The Matador coupe is transformed into an aeroplane in similar manner to the AVE Mizar, by attaching a large wing with engine and tail unit to the car. In aircraft configuration it is 9.15 m (30 ft) long, 12.80 m (42 ft) in span and 3.08 m (10 ft) high. The film prop was not airworthy and a 1 m (39 in)-long remote control model was used for the aerial sequences.
- In the Blade Runner (original 1982) films, flying cars are called Spinners. They have Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) capability. The vehicle was conceived and designed by Syd Mead who described it as an "aerodyne"—a vehicle which directs air downward to create lift, though press kits for the film stated that the spinner was propelled by three engines: "conventional internal combustion, jet, and anti-gravity" A Spinner prop is on permanent exhibit at the Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame in Seattle, Washington.
- In the Back to the Future (1985) films, the DeLorean time machine car is also capable of normal flight.
- In the film The Fifth Element (1997), as with The Jetsons, flying cars are the main mean of personal transport. The production design for the film was developed by French comics creators Jean Giraud and Jean-Claude Mézières. Director Luc Besson had been inspired by Mézières' book The Circles of Power.
- Thomas Vinciguerra (11 April 2009). "Flying Cars: An Idea Whose Time Has Never Come". New York Times.
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- "Plane Sheds Wing To Run On Ground". Popular Science. May 1937.
- "Tailless Flivver Plane Has Pusher Propeller" Popular Science, May 1934, rare photos in article
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2005). Jeeps 1941–45. Osprey Publishing. pp. 37–38. ISBN 1-84176-888-X.
- Andrew Glass (25 August 2015). Flying Cars: The True Story. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-0-547-53423-7.
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- "Vest-pocket VTOL. (vertical take-off-and-landing aircraft, Sky Commuter) (column)". Mechanical Engineering-CIME. 1 December 1990. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Sky Commuter vehicle prototype for sale". Urbanaero.com. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Warwick, Graham. Leading Edge blog: DARPA's Transformer - a Humvee That Flies Archived 2013-10-23 at the Wayback Machine, AW&ST On Technology, Aviation Week online website, April 16, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- Warwick, Graham. "Is Darpa's Fly-Drive Transformer on the Right Road?". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Logan Ward, 10 Most Brilliant Innovators of 2009: I-TEC’s Flying Dune Buggy Archived 2010-02-12 at the Wayback Machine, Popular Mechanics, November 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- Budd Davisson (October 2010). "The PD-1 Roadable Glastar". Sport Aviation.
- "Company Moves On Transformative Roadable Glasair". Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- Blain, Loz. "The flying motorcycle - road-registered and available now" GizMag, 17 April 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Pictures of the day" The Daily Telegraph, 9 November 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Vance, Ashlee; Stone, Brad (9 June 2016). "Welcome to Larry Page's Secret Flying-Car Factories". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
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- "After ups and downs, Boeing and Kitty Hawk reboot flying-car venture as Wisk". GeekWire. 3 December 2019.
- Muoio, Danielle. "These 7 companies are looking to make 'flying cars' a reality by 2020". Business Insider.
- "Volocopter's 2X eVTOL records a first with flight at Helsinki International Airport".
- "Watch the EHang 216 fly with passengers in China".
- "Uber adds another flying taxi partner".
- Reilly, Claire (25 September 2018). "How Uber is getting flying cars off the ground". CNET. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- Dickey, Megan (12 June 2019). "Uber Air's plan to get you from a skyport to an airport". TechCrunch. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- "IOC, IPC, Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee and Tokyo Metropolitan Government announce new dates for the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020 – Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 30 March 2020.
- "Watch a Toyota-backed flying car's first public, piloted test flight". Engadget.
- Johnson, Lauren M. "Japanese company successfully tests a manned flying car for the first time". CNN.
- Mack, Eric. "Finally! A Flying Car Could Go On Sale By 2017". Forbes. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- "AeroMobil: Flying car". aeromobil.com. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- "Will this futuristic flying car ever get off the ground?". NBC News.
- ALYSSA DANIGELIS. "Slovakian Flying Car Prototype Takes Off" Discovery News, OCT 21, 2013. Accessed: 22 October 2013.
- Melin, Jan. "Här lyfter en ny flygbil". Ny Teknik.
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- Zoe Kleinman; "Flying car completes test flight between airports", BBC, 30 June 2021.
- "Klein Vision – Flying Car".
- "Terrafugia, Inc". Terrafugia.com. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- "Terrafugia ready for road, flight testing". Airventure.org. 2 August 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
- Haines, Thomas B. "AOPA Online: First roadable airplane takes flight". Aopa.org. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
- Jerry Garrett (5 April 2012), "For $279,000, Terrafugia Transition Puts the Wind Beneath Your Wings", Wheels blog, The New York Times, retrieved 20 April 2013
- O'Carroll, Eoin. "Flying Car – just like the Jetsons – gets green light from FAA". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- "The Transition". Terrafugia.com. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- "World's first flying car on track for 2020 launch". South China Morning Post. 25 July 2018.
- "Flying car PAL-V to be built in Gujarat, MoU inked with Dutch firm" – via The Economic Times.
- Quick, Darren. "PAL-V flying car makes successful first test flight" GizMag, 2 April 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "PAL-V". PAL-V. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- "Announcing ASKA™ The Electric Take Off And Landing Flying Car For Consumers". 15 April 2021.
- "Your Flying Car? Delayed again, but you WILL get it, says Terrafugia". theregister.co.uk. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "When cars fly". haaretz.com. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Top 5 Reasons You Don't Want a Flying Car". howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Gail Collins; Dan Collins (1 December 1990). The Millennium Book: Your Essential All-purpose Guide to the Year 2000. Main Street Books. ISBN 978-0-385-41165-3.
- Barney L. Capehart (2007). Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology, Volume 1. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-3653-8, ISBN 978-0-8493-3653-9.
- "IFCA Announces Flying Cars About To Hit World Market". Various. 2 April 2012. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- "European Flying Car Association". EFCA. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
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