Foggia

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Foggia
Comune
Comune di Foggia
The Villa Comunale in Foggia
The Villa Comunale in Foggia
Coat of arms of Foggia
Coat of arms
Foggia within the Province of Foggia
Foggia within the Province of Foggia
Foggia is located in Italy
Foggia
Foggia
Location of Foggia in Italy
Coordinates: 41°27′51″N 15°32′46″E / 41.46417°N 15.54611°E / 41.46417; 15.54611Coordinates: 41°27′51″N 15°32′46″E / 41.46417°N 15.54611°E / 41.46417; 15.54611
CountryItaly
Region Apulia
ProvinceFoggia (FG)
FrazioniArpinova, Incoronata, Cervaro, Tavernola, Segezia, Duanera La Rocca
Government
 • MayorFranco Landella (from 09/06/2014)
Area
 • Total507 km2 (196 sq mi)
Elevation76 m (249 ft)
Population (31/12/2013)[1]
 • Total153,143
 • Density300/km2 (780/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Foggians
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code71121 - 71122
Dialing code0881
Patron saintMadonna dei Sette Veli
Saint dayMarch 22
Websitewww.comune.foggia.it

Foggia ([ˈfɔddʒa] (About this soundlisten); Foggiano: Fògge [ˈfɔddʒə]) is a city and comune of Apulia, in southern Italy, capital of the province of Foggia. In 2013 its population was 153,143. Foggia is the main city of a plain called Tavoliere, also known as the "granary of Italy".

History[edit]

Piazza Cavour in Foggia

The name "Foggia" might derive from Latin "fovea", meaning "pit", referring to the pits where wheat was stored. The name's etymology remains uncertain however, as it could as well stem from "Phocaea", or most probably from the Medieval Greek word for "fire", which is "fotia", as according to legend the original -11th-c-AD- settlers were peasants, allegedly after having [miraculously] discovered there a panel portraying the Madonna, on which three flames burnt.

The area had been settled since Neolithic times, and later on a Greek colony known as Argos Hippium existed nearby (in Greek, Ἀργόριππα or Ἀργύριπποι).

However the first document attesting the existence of the modern city dates from circa 1000 AD, during the catepanate era of Byzantine sovereignty. The area remained marshy and unhealthy, until Robert Guiscard directed draining the wetland, boosting the economic and social growth of the city. The city was the seat of Henry, Count of Monte Sant'Angelo during the last twenty years of the 11th century. In the 12th century, William II of Sicily built a cathedral here and further enlarged the settlement.

Frederick II had a palace built in Foggia in 1223, in which he often sojourned. It was also seat of his court and a studium, including notable figures such as the mathematician and scholar Michael Scot, but little of it remains now. In 1447, King Alfonso V of Aragon built a Custom Palace to tax the local sheep farmers. This caused a decline of the local economy and the progressive ruin of the land, which again became marshy. In 1456, an earthquake struck Foggia, followed by others in 1534, 1627 and 1731, the last destroying one third of the city. The House of Bourbon promoted a certain economic growth by boosting the cereal agriculture of Capitanata and rebuilding much of the settlement.

In the 19th century, Foggia received a railway station and important public monuments. The citizens also took part in the riots which led to the annexation to Italy in 1861. By 1865, there was a definitive shift from the custom of sheep farming in favour of an agricultural economy.

During World War II, Foggia heavily bombed by the Allied air forces for its important airfields and marshalling yards. After the armistice of Cassibile on 8 September 1943, the town was briefly occupied by German troops in Operation Achse. There was some fighting there during the Allied invasion of Italy. In response to the Allied advance towards them, the German troops occupying Foggia abandoned the city on the 27th of September. By the 1st of October British troops had successfully occupied the city. In order to clear the Germans from the hills north and west of the Fogia plain and to reach the Vinchiaturo-Termoli road near the Biferno River, Britain's General Montgomery sent his British 13th Corps beyond Foggia on a two division drive, the 78th Division (sometimes known as "the Battle Axe division"[2]) moved on the coastal road to Termoli and the 1st Canadian Division struck inland through the mountains. 5th Corps followed, protecting the west flank and the rear. The German 1st parachute division had largely withdrawn to the Biferno River near Termoli and dug in. Based out of Foggia, the British launched Operation Devon and succeeded in dislodging the Nazi German forces from Termoli.[3]

The historical lack of water resources was solved with the construction of the Apulian aqueduct in 1924, when Foggia was already an important hub between northern and southern Italy. On 1 October 1943, the British 8th Army liberated Foggia, making it a stronghold of their slow offensive towards the north of the peninsula. In 1959 and 2006, Foggia received, respectively, the Gold Medal for Civil and Military value for its role in World War II.

The makers of the well-known American TV sitcom All in the Family included in the biography of the main character Archie Bunker a World War II service at Foggia, in the ranks of the United States Army Air Corps.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Foggia experiences mild winters and hot summers. Winter days can vary between 5-6 °C but can be as cool as single figures. Low temperatures are generally above freezing, but frosts are experienced a handful of times a year. Summers are very hot, with temperatures in July and August often reaching 33–38 °C (91–100 °F). Temperatures exceed 40 °C (104 °F) a handful of times a decade. Extremes are −10.4 °C (13 °F) on 8 January 1985 and 47 °C (117 °F) - the highest temperature recorded in Italy and one of the highest recorded in Europe - on 25 June 2007.

Climate data for Foggia ITA, Temperatures 1980–2017, Rainfall 1980 to 2009
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
22.0
(71.6)
32.0
(89.6)
30.3
(86.5)
36.0
(96.8)
47.0
(116.6)
45.2
(113.4)
43.6
(110.5)
43.0
(109.4)
35.4
(95.7)
27.0
(80.6)
23.4
(74.1)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
12.6
(54.7)
15.6
(60.1)
19.1
(66.4)
24.6
(76.3)
29.5
(85.1)
32.6
(90.7)
32.6
(90.7)
27.6
(81.7)
22.6
(72.7)
16.7
(62.1)
12.8
(55)
21.5
(70.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.8
(46)
8.2
(46.8)
10.8
(51.4)
13.9
(57)
18.7
(65.7)
23.5
(74.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
22.0
(71.6)
17.5
(63.5)
12.6
(54.7)
8.9
(48)
16.4
(61.5)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
3.8
(38.8)
6.0
(42.8)
8.7
(47.7)
12.8
(55)
17.4
(63.3)
20.3
(68.5)
20.4
(68.7)
16.4
(61.5)
12.5
(54.5)
8.5
(47.3)
5.0
(41)
11.3
(52.3)
Record low °C (°F) −10.4
(13.3)
−6.0
(21.2)
−5.0
(23)
−4.0
(24.8)
1.1
(34)
3.8
(38.8)
6.0
(42.8)
10.0
(50)
6.4
(43.5)
0.0
(32)
−2.8
(27)
−5.0
(23)
−10.4
(13.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 46.3
(1.823)
36.4
(1.433)
39.7
(1.563)
37.2
(1.465)
32.8
(1.291)
40.8
(1.606)
20.0
(0.787)
38.7
(1.524)
39.4
(1.551)
43.4
(1.709)
49.7
(1.957)
67.9
(2.673)
492.3
(19.382)
Average relative humidity (%) 80.1 76.5 74.0 71.4 64.9 57.4 53.6 56.2 66.2 74.2 80.3 80.6 69.6
Source #1: Il Meteo[4] All temperatures, humidity and rainfall to 2009.
Source #2: Wunderground[5] Temperatures, rainfall and humidity from 2010 onwards.

Average number of days per month with temperatures between:

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
30-34.9 C 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 3.0 12.0 16.0 16.6 7.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 55.7
35-39.9 C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 2.7 7.8 8.3 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.3
40+ C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4

The above table is for the period 1980-2017.

Government[edit]

Main sights[edit]

Foggia, Cathedral from via Arpi
  • The cathedral of Santa Maria de Fovea, which is directly linked with the patron saint "Madonna dei Sette Veli" (Madonna of the Seven Veils) This important site has two levels of architectural style. The lower part is Romanic as with many Pugliese churches. The upper part is a very remarkable example of Baroque. The upper part was reconstructed after an earthquake that destroyed a great part of the historical centre.
  • Palazzo Dogana, the historical seat of the sheep custom. On July 2013 this Palace was elected by UNESCO as "Messenger Monument of the Culture of Peace" for the important role it had in the cultural exchanges during centuries.
  • Chiesa delle Croci ("Church of the Crosses").
  • I Tre Archi ("The Three Arches").
  • Arco di Federico II ("Arch of Frederick II").
  • Archaeological park of Passo di Corvo.

Economy[edit]

It is a communication and industrial center and the main wheat market of Southern Italy. Foggia is famous for its watermelons and tomatoes.[6]

Although less important than once before, the agricultural sector remains the mainstay of Foggia's economy. This area is nicknamed the "granary of Italy". The few industries present are mostly devoted to food processing. Craftsmanship is also encouraged and developed.

Transport[edit]

Foggia railway station, opened in 1864, forms part of the Adriatic Railway (Ancona–Lecce), and is the terminus of the Naples–Foggia railway. It is also a junction for several other, secondary lines, namely the Foggia–Manfredonia, Lucera–Foggia and Foggia–Potenza railways, making Foggia the most important railway junction of southern Italy and the third one of whole Italy. Foggia is served by Gino Lisa Airport,[7] which offers direct flights operated with helicopters to Tremiti Islands and Vieste.

Sport[edit]

Foggia's stadium is named after Pino Zaccheria, a local pioneer of basketball killed during World War II. It is home of the town's football team U.S. Foggia, which was very popular in early 1990s because of its sparkling interpretation of total football led by coach Zdenek Zeman. U.S. Foggia currently plays in Serie B[8] (the second highest football division in Italy).

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Foggia is twinned with:

In popular culture[edit]

The TV character Archie Bunker on All in the Family spent time in Foggia when he was in the Army Air Corps.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ All demographics and other statistics from the Italian statistical institute (Istat)
  2. ^ https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30072645
  3. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=YIJvCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT255&dq=United+States+Army+in+WWII+-+the+Mediterranean+-+Salerno+to+Cassino++%22To+clear+the+Germans+from+the+hills%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjitfKj-tvdAhVEnKwKHQviBxkQ6wEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=United%20States%20Army%20in%20WWII%20-%20the%20Mediterranean%20-%20Salerno%20to%20Cassino%20%20%22To%20clear%20the%20Germans%20from%20the%20hills%22&f=false
  4. ^ "Che tempo faceva a Foggia" (in Italian). ilmeteo.it. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  5. ^ "Weather History for LIBF". www.wunderground.com. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  6. ^ Italy World Club: Foggia, Puglia (Apulia), Italy
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2015-07-18.
  8. ^ http://www.legab.it/

External links[edit]