Folk religion

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For religions sometimes described as "folk religions" or "ethnic religions", see Ethnic religion.

Folk religion is a term used within religious studies and folkloristics to describe various forms and expressions of religion that are deemed distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion. The precise definition of folk religion varies among scholars. Sometimes also termed popular belief, it consists of ethnic or regional religious customs under the umbrella of a religion, but outside of official doctrine and practices.[1]

The term "folk religion" is generally held to encompass two related but separate subjects. The first is the religious dimension of folk culture, or the folk-cultural dimensions of religion. The second refers to the study of syncretisms between two cultures with different stages of formal expression, such as the melange of African folk beliefs and Roman Catholicism that led to the development of Vodun and Santería, and similar mixtures of formal religions with folk cultures.[2]

Chinese folk religion, Folk Christianity, Folk Hinduism, and Folk Islam are examples of folk religion associated with major religions. The term is also used, especially by the clergy of the faiths involved, to describe the desire of people who otherwise infrequently attend religious worship, do not belong to a church or similar religious society, and who have not made a formal profession of faith in a particular creed, to have religious weddings or funerals, or (among Christians) to have their children baptised.[1]

Definition[edit]

In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, John Bowker characterized "folk religion" as either "religion which occurs in small, local communities which does not adhere to the norms of large systems" or "the appropriation of religious beliefs and practices at a popular level."[3]

Don Yoder argued that there were five separate ways of defining folk religion.[4] The first was a perspective rooted in a cultural evolutionary framework which understood folk religion as representing the survivals of older forms of religion; in this, it would constitute "the survivals, in an official religious context, of beliefs and behavior inherited from earlier stages of the culture's development".[4] This definition would view folk religion in Catholic Europe as the survivals of pre-Christian religion and the folk religion in Protestant Europe as the survivals of Medieval Catholicism.[4] The second definition identified by Yoder was the view that folk religion represented the mixture of an official religion with forms of ethnic religion; this was employed to explain the place of folk religion in the syncretic belief systems of the Americas, where Christianity had blended with the religions of indigenous American and African communities.[5]

Yoder's third religion was that often employed within folkloristics, which held that folk religion was "the interaction of belief, ritual, custom, and mythology in traditional societies", representing that which was often pejoratively characterised as superstition.[6] The fourth definition provided by Yoder stated that folk religion represented the "folk interpretation and expression of religion". Noting that this definition would not encompass beliefs that were largely unconnected from organised religion, such as in witchcraft, he therefore altered this definition by including the concept of "folk religiosity", thereby defining folk religion as "the deposit in culture of folk religiosity, the full range of folk attitudes to religion."[7] His fifth and final definition represented a "practical working definition" that combined elements from these various other definitions. Thus, he summarized folk religion as "the totality of all those views and practices of religion that exist among the people apart from and alongside the strictly theological and liturgical forms of the official religion."[8]

Yoder described "folk religion" as existing "in a complex society in relation to and in tension with the organized religion(s) of that society. Its relatively unorganized character differentiates it from organized religion".[9]

Historical development[edit]

In Europe the study of "folk religion" emerged from the study of "religiöse Volkskund", a German term which was used in reference to "the religious dimension of folk-culture, or the folk-cultural dimension of religion".[10] This term was first employed by a German Lutheran preacher, Paul Drews, in a 1901 article that he published which was titled "Religiöse Volkskunde, eine Aufgabe der praktischen Theologie". This article was designed to be read by young Lutheran preachers leaving the seminary, to equip them for the popular variants of Lutheranism that they would encounter among their congregations and which would differ from the official, doctrinal Lutheranism that they had been accustomed to.[11] Although developing within a religious environment, the term came to be adopted by German academics in the field of folkloristics.[12] During the 1920s and 1930s, theoretical studies of "religiöse Volkskund" had been produced by the folklorists Josef Weigert, Werner Boette, and Max Rumpf, all of whom had focused on religiosity within German peasant communities.[12] Over the coming decades, Georg Schreiber established an Institut für religiöse Volkskund in Munich while a similar department was established in Salzburg by Hanns Koren.[13] Other prominent academics involved in the study of the phenomenon were Heinrich Schauert and Rudolf Kriss, the latter of whom collected one of the largest collections of folk-religious art and material culture in Europe, later housed in Munich's Bayerisches Nationalmuseum.[13] Throughout the 20th century, many studies were made of folk religion in Europe, paying particular attention to such subjects as pilgrimage and the use of shrines.[12]

In the Americas, the study of folk religion developed among cultural anthropologists studying the syncretistic cultures of the Caribbean and Latin America.[14] The pioneer in this field was Redfield, whose 1930 book Tepoztlán: A Mexican Village contrasted and examined the relationship between "folk religion" and "official religion" in a peasant community.[14] Yoder later noted that although the earliest known usage of the term "folk religion" in the English language was unknown, it probably developed as a translation of the German "Volksreligion".[14] One of the earliest prominent usages of the term was in the title of Joshua Trachtenberg's 1939 work Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion.[14] The term also gained increasing usage within the academic field of comparative religion, appearing in the titles of Ichiro Hori's Folk Religion in Japan, Martin Nilsson's Greek Folk Religion, and Charles Leslie's reader, the Anthropology of Folk Religion.[14] Courses on the study of folk religion came to be taught at various universities in the United States, such as John Messenger's at Indiana University and Don Yoder's at the University of Pennsylvania.[14] Although the subject of folk religion fell within the remit of scholars operating in both folkloristics and religious studies, by 1974 Yoder noted that U.S.-based academics in the latter continued to largely ignore it, instead focusing on the study of theology and institutionalised religion; he contrasted this with the situation in Europe, where historians of religion had devoted much time to studying folk religiosity.[15] He also lamented that many U.S.-based folklorists also neglected the subjected of religion because it did not fit within the standard genre-based system for cataloguing folklore.[16]

Problems and critique[edit]

Yoder noted that one problem with the use of the term "folk religion" was that it did not fit into the work of those scholars who used the term "religion" in reference solely to organized religion.[17] He highlighted the example of the prominent sociologist of religion Émile Durkheim, who insisted that "religion" was organized in order to contrast it with "magic".[17] Yoder noted that scholars adopting these perspectives often preferred the term "folk belief" over "folk religion".[17]

A second problem with the use of "folk religion" that Yoder highlighted was that some scholars, particularly those operating in the sociology of religion, used the term as a synonym for ethnic religion (which is alternately known as national religion or tribal religion), meaning a religion closely tied to a particular ethnic or national group and is thus contrasted with a "universal religion" which cuts across ethnic and national boundaries.[18]

Chinese folk religion[edit]

Chinese folk religion or Shenism[19][20][21] are labels used to describe the collection of ethnic religious traditions which have historically comprised the predominant belief system in China and among Han Chinese ethnic groups up to the present day. Shenism describes Chinese mythology and includes the worship of shen (spirit, god, awareness, consciousness) which can be nature deities, Taizu or clan deities, city gods, national deities, culture heroes and demigods, dragons and ancestors. "Shenism" as a term was first published by AJA Elliot in 1955.[22]

Chinese folk religion is sometimes categorized with Taoism, since over the centuries institutional Taoism has been attempting to assimilate or administrate local religions. More accurately, Taoism can be defined as a branch of Shenism, since it sprang out of folk religion and Chinese philosophy. Chinese folk religion is sometimes seen as a constituent part of Chinese traditional religion, but more often, the two are regarded as synonymous. With around 454 million adherents, or about 6.6% of the world population,[23] Chinese folk religion is one of the major religious traditions in the world. In China more than 30% of the population adheres to Shenism or Taoism.[24]

Despite being heavily suppressed during the last two centuries, from the Taiping Rebellion to the Cultural Revolution, it is currently experiencing a modern revival in both Mainland China and Taiwan.[25][26] Various forms have received support by the Government of the People's Republic of China, such as Mazuism in Southern China (officially about 160 million Chinese are Mazuists),[27] Huangdi worship,[28][29] Black Dragon worship in Shaanxi,[30][31][32] and Cai Shen worship.[33]

Folk Christianity[edit]

Further information: Christian mythology and Folk Catholicism
Botánicas such as this one in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, USA, sell religious goods such as statues of saints and candles decorated with prayers alongside folk medicine and amulets.

Folk Christianity is defined differently by various scholars. Definitions include "the Christianity practiced by a conquered people",[34] Christianity as most people live it – a term used to "overcome the division of beliefs into Orthodox and unorthodox",[35] Christianity as impacted by superstition as practiced by certain geographical Christian groups,[36] and Christianity defined "in cultural terms without reference to the theologies and histories."[37]

Folk Islam[edit]

Further information: Islamic mythology, Druze, Alevi, Alawi, Kebatinan, Abangan and Adat

Folk Islam is an umbrella term used to collectively describe forms of Islam that incorporate native folk beliefs and practices.[38] Folk Islam has been described as the Islam of the "urban poor, country people, and tribes",[39] in contrast to orthodox or "High" Islam (Gellner, 1992)[40] Sufism and Sufi concepts are often integrated into Folk Islam.

Various practices and beliefs have been identified with the concept of "folk Islam". They include the following:

Folk Hinduism[edit]

The Hindu epics and puranas have contributed to the foundation of Folk Hinduism.[47] Folk Hinduism also includes the Native Dravidian religion, Sanamahism, Bathouism, etc. But today, folk Hinduism ("Indian folk religion" or "popular Hinduism") may still be distinguished from "high" forms of Hindu philosophy, or mystical or ascetic forms.

In sociology[edit]

In sociology, folk religion is often contrasted with elite religion. Folk religion is defined as the beliefs, practices, rituals and symbols originating from sources other than the religion's leadership. Folk religion in many instances is tolerated by the religion's leadership, although they may consider it an error.[48] A similar concept is lived religion, the study of religion as practiced by believers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bowman, Marion (2004). "Chapter 1: Phenomenology, Fieldwork, and Folk Religion". In Sutcliffe, Steven. Religion: empirical studies. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-7546-4158-9. 
  2. ^ Don Yoder, "Toward a Definition of Folk Religion", above
  3. ^ Bowker 2003.
  4. ^ a b c Yoder 1974, p. 12.
  5. ^ Yoder 1974, pp. 12–13.
  6. ^ Yoder 1974, p. 13.
  7. ^ Yoder 1974, pp. 13–14.
  8. ^ Yoder 1974, p. 14.
  9. ^ Yoder 1974, p. 11.
  10. ^ Yoder 1974, p. 2.
  11. ^ Yoder 1974, pp. 2–3.
  12. ^ a b c Yoder 1974, p. 3.
  13. ^ a b Yoder 1974, pp. 3–4.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Yoder 1974, p. 5.
  15. ^ Yoder 1974, p. 6.
  16. ^ Yoder 1974, p. 9.
  17. ^ a b c Yoder 1974, p. 10.
  18. ^ Yoder 1974, pp. 10–11.
  19. ^ Reinventing Chinese Syncretic Religion: Shenism. Google. 2007-02-23. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  20. ^ "How we came to ‘pai shen’". Straits times. 2009-09-07. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  21. ^ Religious Diversity in Singapore. Google. 2001-09-11. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  22. ^ High beam .
  23. ^ "Religion", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011 .
  24. ^ "Chinese Folk Religion Adherents by Country". Charts bin. 2009-09-16. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  25. ^ "Roundtable before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  26. ^ "The Upsurge of Religion in China" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  27. ^ "China's Leaders Harness Folk Religion For Their Aims". Npr.org. 2010-07-23. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  28. ^ "Over 10,000 Chinese Worship Huangdi in Henan". China.org.cn. 2006-04-01. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  29. ^ Compatriots across the strait honor their ancestry
  30. ^ "Return to folk religions brings about renewal in rural China". Wwrn.org. 2001-09-14. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  31. ^ The Policy of Legitimation and the Revival of Popular Religion in Shaanbei, North-Central China
  32. ^ Miraculous response: doing popular religion in contemporary China. Books.google.it. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  33. ^ "苍南金乡玄坛庙成华夏第八财神庙". Blog.voc.com.cn. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  34. ^ Brown, Peter Robert Lamont (2003). The rise of Western Christendom. Wiley-Blackwell, 2003. ISBN 0-631-22138-7, p. 341. Last accessed July 2009.
  35. ^ Rock, Stella (2007). Popular religion in Russia. Routledge ISBN 0-415-31771-1, p. 11. Last accessed July 2009.
  36. ^ Snape, Michael Francis (2003). The Church of England in industrialising society. Boydell Press, ISBN 1-84383-014-0, p. 45. Last accessed July 2009
  37. ^ Corduan, Winfried (1998). Neighboring faiths: a Christian introduction to world religions. InterVarsity Press, ISBN 0-8308-1524-4, p. 37. Last accessed July 2009.
  38. ^ Cook, Chris (2009). Spirituality and Psychiatry. RCPsych Publications. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-904671-71-8. 
  39. ^ Ridgeon, Lloyd (2003). Major World Religions: From Their Origins To The Present. Routledge. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-415-29796-7. 
  40. ^ Malešević, Siniša; et al. (2007). Ernest Gellner and Contemporary Social Thought. Cambridge University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-521-70941-5. 
  41. ^ Masud, Muhammad Khalid; et al. (2009). Islam and Modernity: Key Issues and Debates. Edinburgh University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7486-3793-5. 
  42. ^ Makris, JP (2006). Islam in the Middle East: A Living Tradition. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4051-1603-9. 
  43. ^ Chelkowski, Peter J; et al. (1988). Ideology and Power in the Middle East: Studies in Honor of George Lenczowski. Duke University Press. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-8223-0781-5. 
  44. ^ Hinde, Robert (2009). Why Gods Persist: A Scientific Approach to Religion. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-415-49761-9. 
  45. ^ Hefner, Robert W; et al. (1997). Islam In an Era of Nation-States: Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8248-1957-6. 
  46. ^ Khan, IK (2006). Islam in Modern Asia. MD Publications. p. 281. ISBN 978-81-7533-094-8. 
  47. ^ Collier's encyclopedia - Volume 10 of Collier's Encyclopedia: With Bibliography and Index. 1957. p. 68. 
  48. ^ Leibman, Charles. "The Religion of the American Jew". The Ambivalent American Jew. Jewish Publication Society. 1975.

Sources[edit]

Bock, E. Wilbur (1966). "Symbols in Conflict: Official versus Folk Religion". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 5 (2): 204–212. JSTOR 1384846. 
Bowker, John (2003) [2000]. "Folk religion". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191727221. 
Kapaló, James A. (2013). "Folk Religion in Discourse and Practice". Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics 1 (1): 3–18. 
Primiano, Leonard Norman (1995). "Vernacular Religion and the Search for Method in Religious Folklife". Western Folklore 54 (1): 37–56. JSTOR 1499910. 
Yoder, Don (1974). "Toward a Definition of Folk Religion". Western Folklore 33 (1): 1–15. doi:10.2307/1498248. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Allen, Catherine. The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989; second edition, 2002.
  • Badone, Ellen, ed. Religious Orthodoxy and Popular Faith in European Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
  • Bastide, Roger. The African Religions of Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations. Trans. by Helen Sebba. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.
  • Blackburn, Stuart H. Death and Deification: Folk Cults in Hinduism, History of Religions (1985).
  • Brintnal, Douglas. Revolt against the Dead: The Modernization of a Mayan Community in the Highlands of Guatemala. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1979.
  • Christian, William A., Jr. Apparitions in Late Medieval and Renaissance Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.
  • Gellner, David N. Hinduism. None, one or many?, Social Anthropology (2004), 12: 367-371 Cambridge University* Johnson, Paul Christopher. Secrets, Gossip, and Gods: The Transformation of Brazilian Candomblé. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Gorshunova, Olga V. (2008). Svjashennye derevja Khodzhi Barora…, ( Sacred Trees of Khodzhi Baror: Phytolatry and the Cult of Female Deity in Central Asia) in Etnoragraficheskoe Obozrenie, № 1, pp. 71–82. ISSN 0869-5415. (Russian).
  • Nepstad, Sharon Erickson (1996). "Popular Religion, Protest, and Revolt: The Emergence of Political Insurgency in the Nicaraguan and Salvadoran Churches of the 1960s–80s". In Smith, Christian. Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism. New York: Routledge. pp. 105–124. ISBN 0-415-91405-1. 
  • Nash, June (1996). "Religious Rituals of Resistance and Class Consciousness in Bolivian Tin-Mining Communities". In Smith, Christian. Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism. New York: Routledge. pp. 87–104. ISBN 0-415-91405-1. 
  • Nutini, Hugo. Ritual Kinship: Ideological and Structural Integration of the Compadrazgo System in Rural Tlaxcala. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  • Nutini, Hugo. Todos Santos in Rural Tlaxcala: A Syncretic, Expressive, and Symbolic Analysis of the Cult of the Dead. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
  • Panchenko, Aleksandr. ‘Popular Orthodoxy’ and identity in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia, Soviet and Post-Soviet Identities. Ed. by Mark Bassin and Catriona Kelly. Cambridge, 2012, pp. 321–340
  • Sinha, Vineeta. Problematizing Received Categories: Revisiting ‘Folk Hinduism’ and ‘Sanskritization’, Current Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 98-111 (2006)
  • Sinha, Vineeta. Persistence of ‘Folk Hinduism’ in Malaysia and Singapore, Australian Religion Studies Review Vol. 18 No. 2 (Nov 2005):211-234
  • Stuart H. Blackburn, Inside the Drama-House: Rama Stories and Shadow Puppets in South India, UCP (1996), ch. 3: " Ambivalent Accommodations: Bhakti and Folk Hinduism".
  • Taylor, Lawrence J. Occasions of Faith: An Anthropology of Irish Catholics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
  • Thomas, Keith (1971). Religion and the Decline of Magic. Studies in popular beliefs in sixteenth and seventeenth century England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. ISBN 0-297-00220-1. 

External links[edit]