Fad diet

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A fad diet is a diet that is popular for a time, similar to fads in fashion.[1] Fad diets usually promise rapid weight loss[2] or other health advantages, such as longer life. They are often promoted as requiring little effort and producing a "quick fix".[3] In many cases, the diet is characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices, which can cause serious health problems.[2][4]

Celebrity endorsements are frequently used to promote fad diets, which may generate significant revenue for the creators of the diets through the sale of associated products.[2][5]

History[edit]

A competitive market for "healthy diets" arose in the 19th-century developed world, as migration and industrialization and commodification of food supplies began eroding adherence to traditional ethnocultural diets, and the health consequences of pleasure-based diets were becoming apparent.[6]:9 As Matt Fitzgerald describes it:

This modern cult of healthy eating is made up of innumerable sub-cults that are constantly vying for superiority. ... Like consumer products in commercial markets, each of these diets has a brand name and is advertised as being better than competing brands. The recruiting programs of the healthy-diet cults consist almost entirely of efforts to convince prospective followers that their diet is the One True Way to eat for maximum physical health ... The specific cult whose "science"-backed schtick a person finds most convincing usually depends on his or her identity biases.[6]:9–13

Sylvester Graham, of Graham cracker fame, is often given credit for creating the first fad diet in the 1830s.[1] Graham promoted a religiously motivated vegetarian diet that emphasized an anti-industrial, anti-medical "simpler" or "natural" lifestyle, with meat and other rich, calorie-dense foods being declared sinful.[1]

Many fad diets were promoted during the 19th century.[1] One of the most effective self-promoters was Bernarr Macfadden, who relentlessly promoted the idea that nearly all diseases were caused by toxins in the blood from poor diet and lack of exercise, and that nearly all diseases could be cured through fasting, eating the correct foods, and physical exercise.[1]

The modern fad diet originated in the 1930s.[7] This was the decade when the first liquid diet drinks were marketed, when the grapefruit diet, first became popular,[7] and when the Zen macrobiotic diet was developed, although it did not become a fad for another generation.[1]

Description[edit]

Most fad diets fall into five general groups:[1]

  • food-specific diets, which encourage eating large amounts of a single food, such as the cabbage soup diet,[1][7]
  • low-carb diets, such as the Atkins diet, which first became popular in the 1970s,[1]
  • high-fiber, low-calorie diets, which often prescribe double the normal amount of dietary fiber,[1]
  • liquid diets, such as SlimFast meal replacement drinks,[1][7] and
  • fasting.[1][7]

Fad diets are generally restrictive, and are characterized by promises of fast weight loss[2][4] or great physical health,[6]:9 and which are not grounded in sound science.[5][2][6]:12

A typical weight-loss fad diet requires 600 to 800 calories per day,[7] compared to 2,000 or more for a healthy adult. The restrictive approach, regardless of whether the diet prescribes eating large amounts of high-fiber vegetables, no grains, or no solid foods, tend to be nutritionally unsound, and can cause serious health problems if followed for more than a few days.[3][7] Fad diet tend to under-emphasize physical activity, and tend not to provide followers with the skills and knowledge they need for long-term maintenance of their desired weight, even if that weight is achieved.[3]

Some fad diets, such as diets purporting to be alternative cancer treatments, promise health benefits other than weight loss.[7]

Marketing[edit]

Most fad diets promote their plans as being derived from religion or science.[1] Fad diets may be based completely on pseudoscience (e.g., "fat-burning" foods or notions of vitalism); Most fad diets are marketed or described with exaggerated claims, not sustainable in sound science, about the benefits of eating a certain way or the harms of eating other ways.[2][6]:33,74, 80, 155

Such diets are often endorsed by celebrities or celebrity doctors who style themselves as "gurus" and profit from sales of branded products, books, and public speaking.[5][6]:11–12[8] One sign of commercial fad diets is a requirement to purchase associated products and pay to attend seminars in order to gain the benefits of the diet.[9]

The audience for these diets is people who want to lose weight quickly[10] or who want to be healthy and find that belonging to a group of people defined by a strict way of eating helps them to avoid the many bad food choices available in the developed world.[6]:11 Each year, these people spend tens of billions of dollars on fad diet products, such as liquid meal replacements, in the US alone.[7]

Results[edit]

Fad diets tend to result in losing small amounts of weight, usually mostly water, in the first few days or weeks.[7] Afterwards, the weight is almost invariably regained.[3][7] According to Boston University School of Medicine, 98% of people who lose weight regain it within 5 years.[11] Many diets fail to produce lasting weight loss because dieters revert to old habits after the end of the diet, many diets are not sustainable, and deprivation of certain foods leads to binge eating.[3][11]

Teenagers following fad diets are at risk of permanently stunted growth.[7]

Mainstream diet advice[edit]

Healthy eating is simple, according to Marion Nestle, who expresses the mainstream view of nutrition:[6]:10

The basic principles of good diets are so simple that I can summarize them in just ten words: eat less, move more, eat lots of fruits and vegetables. For additional clarification, a five-word modifier helps: go easy on junk foods. Follow these precepts and you will go a long way toward preventing the major diseases of our overfed society—coronary heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, stroke, osteoporosis, and a host of others ... These precepts constitute the bottom line of what seem to be the far more complicated dietary recommendations of many health organizations and national and international governments—the forty-one “key recommendations” of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, for example. ... Although you may feel as though advice about nutrition is constantly changing, the basic ideas behind my four precepts have not changed in half a century. And they leave plenty of room for enjoying the pleasures of food.[12]:22

David L. Katz, who reviewed the most prevalent popular diets in 2014, noted:

The weight of evidence strongly supports a theme of healthful eating while allowing for variations on that theme. A diet of minimally processed foods close to nature, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention and is consistent with the salient components of seemingly distinct dietary approaches. Efforts to improve public health through diet are forestalled not for want of knowledge about the optimal feeding of Homo sapiens but for distractions associated with exaggerated claims, and our failure to convert what we reliably know into what we routinely do.[13]

List of fad diets[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Smith, Andrew F. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2004. pp. 387–389. ISBN 978-0195154375. OCLC 53476629.CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Fact Sheet—Fad diets" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Fad-diets can be tempting as they offer a quick-fix to a long-term problem.
  3. ^ a b c d e Hankey, Catherine (23 November 2017). Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 179–181. ISBN 9781118857977.
  4. ^ a b Flynn MAT (2004). Gibney MJ (ed.). Chapter 14: Fear of Fatness and Fad Slimming Diets. Public Health Nutrition. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 236–246. ISBN 978-1-118-69332-2.
  5. ^ a b c Paradowski, Robert J. (2015). "Nutrition and Science". In Holbrook, J. Britt (ed.). Ethics, Science, Technology, and Engineering: A Global Resource, Vol. 3 (2nd, online ed.). Macmillan. pp. 297–301. ISBN 978-0028661964. Even in developed countries, citizens have the right to be provided with good food, but in the United States, for example, many consumers have either wasted their money or harmed their health by various food and diet fads. Many nutrition scientists consider it unethical for “medical quacks” to be making large amounts of money in this way from gullible Americans.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Fitzgerald M (2014). Diet Cults: The Surprising Fallacy at the Core of Nutrition Fads and a Guide to Healthy Eating for the Rest of US. Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-60598-560-2.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Williams, William F. (2 December 2013). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. pp. 107–108. ISBN 9781135955229.
  8. ^ a b Tina Gianoulis, "Dieting" in the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Ed. Thomas Riggs. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 2013. p106-108. ISBN 978-1-55862-847-2
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Nutrition for Weight Loss: What You Need to Know About Fad Diets". familydoctor.org. August 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  10. ^ a b Alters S, Schiff W (22 February 2012). Chapter 10: Body Weight and Its Management. Essential Concepts for Healthy Living (Sixth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-4496-3062-1.
  11. ^ a b Robbins, J .; et al. "Popular Diets". Boston University School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.
  12. ^ Nestle, Marion (2006). What to Eat. New York: North Point Press (Farrar, Straus and Giroux). ISBN 978-0-86547-738-4.
  13. ^ Katz DL, Meller S (2014). "Can we say what diet is best for health?". Annu Rev Public Health. 35: 83–103. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351. PMID 24641555.
  14. ^ Hiatt, Kurtis. 1 March 2011, U.S. News & World Report, "'The 4-Hour Body'—Does It Deliver Results?".
  15. ^ a b "How to diet". 27 April 2018.
  16. ^ Collins, Sonya. "Alkaline Diets". WebMD. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  17. ^ Wait, Mariane. "The Baby Food Diet Review". WebMD. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d Crosariol, Beppi. 9 January 2014,The Globe and Mail, "Feeling frugal after the holidays? Try these 11 affordable wines". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  19. ^ a b c webmd.com, 22 April 2011, "Are Fad Diets Worth the Risk? Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  20. ^ Tunc, Tanfer Emin. (2018). The “Mad Men” of Nutrition: The Drinking Man’s Diet and Mid-Twentieth-Century American Masculinity. Global Food History 4 (2): 189-206.
  21. ^ Forbes, Gilber, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1980. "[Food Fads: Safe Feeding of Children http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/1/7/207]" Pediatrics in Review. 1980;1:207-210. doi:10.1542/10.1542/pir.1-7-207.
  22. ^ Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PH (October 2015). "Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity". BMJ (Review). 351: h4347. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4347. PMC 4596973. PMID 26438584. Some population groups seem to be especially wed to the gluten-free diet, with nearly 50% of 910 athletes (including world class and Olympic medalists) adhering to a gluten-free diet, mainly because of the perceived health and energy benefits.
  23. ^ Gluten-Free, Whether You Need It or Not. New York Times.
  24. ^ "Gluten-free diet fad: Are celiac disease rates actually rising?". CBS News. 31 July 2012. People buy gluten-free food "because they think it will help them lose weight, because they seem to feel better or because they mistakenly believe they are sensitive to gluten."
  25. ^ a b c d Sandra Bastin for University of Kentucky Extension Service. August 1998; revised March 2004. University of Kentucky Extension Service: Fad Diets
  26. ^ Barrett, Stephen; Jarvis, William T. (1993). The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America. Prometheus Books. pp. 151-152. ISBN 0-87975-855-4
  27. ^ Jonathan. "How to Spot Fad Diets". ahm Health Insurance. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  28. ^ Valiant M (27 May 2015). "Do Juice Cleanses Work? 10 Truths About The Fad". Huffington Post.
  29. ^ news.com.au. 8 January 2014, "The worst diets of 2013 - and the best for 2014". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  30. ^ Newman, Judith. "The Juice Cleanse: A Strange and Green Journey" (PDF). New York Times. New York Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  31. ^ Toyama, Michiko. Time, 17 October 2008, "Japan Goes Bananas for a New Diet" Accessed 1 July 2011.
  32. ^ "Caveman fad diet". 9 May 2008.
  33. ^ Frassetto, L.; Schloetter, M.; Mietus-Synder, M.; Morris, Jr., R.; Sebastian, A. (2009). "Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet" (PDF). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 63 (8): 947–955. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.4. PMID 19209185. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  34. ^ Fad Diets Sandra Bastin, Ph.D., R.D., L.D. Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky - College of Agriculture. March 2004. Retrieved August 28, 2015
  35. ^ Dr. Paul Martiquet, Medical Health Officer, Vancouver Coastal Health. Muscles for brains: How fad diets can hurt you.
  36. ^ Jane E Brody for the New York Times. June 3, 1981 Personal Health: Another Entry in the Annals of Fad Diets
  37. ^ Southern Nevada Health District. 2015 Back to the 80s: Fad Diets Archived 18 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ DeBruyne L, Pinna K, Whitney E (2011). Chapter 7: Nutrition in practice — fad diets. Nutrition and Diet Therapy (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-133-71550-4. 'a fad diet by any other name would still be a fad diet.' And the names are legion: the Atkins Diet, the Cheater's Diet, the South Beach Diet, the Zone Diet. Year after year, 'new and improved' diets appear ...
  39. ^ "People to watch". Nature Medicine. 12 (1): 29. 2006. doi:10.1038/nm0106-29. ISSN 1078-8956. James Hill wants Americans to shed pounds. But instead of promoting any one fad diet, he embraces most--Atkins, South Beach, grapefruit-only--as relatively effective ways to lose weight.
  40. ^ "Fad diets: Low Carbohydrate Diet Summaries" (PDF).
  41. ^ Cohen, Larry et al. Prevention Institute, San Jose State University. "The O Word: Why the Focus on Obesity is Harmful to Community Health". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  42. ^ a b Daniels, June RN, MSN. Nursing: December 2004 - Volume 34 - Issue 12 - p 22–23, "Fad diets: Slim on good nutrition". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  43. ^ Akis, Eric. (2017). "The original low-carb diet". Times Colonist. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  44. ^ Kuske, Terrence T. Quackery and Fad Diets. In Elaine B. Feldman. (1983). Nutrition in the Middle and Later Years. John Wright & Sons. p. 297. ISBN 0-7236-7046-3
  45. ^ MD, Marcelo Campos (27 July 2017). "Ketogenic diet: Is the ultimate low-carb diet good for you?". Harvard Health Blog.
  46. ^ Fad Diets: The Whole30, International Food Information Council Foundation, 25 July 2017

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Fad diets at Wikimedia Commons