Football in South America

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In South America, Football (soccer) is the most popular hobby as well as a professional sport revered by the continent's inhabitants.[1][2] Football was introduced for the first time in South America during the nineteenth century due to the worldwide diffusion of British culture initiated by the British diaspora and the subsequent acceptance of the sport by the region's Anglophile elite. Football was widely regarded as a symbol of modernity and good health and over time it replaced older fashionable sports, such as Bochas, to become the primary mainstream sport across almost all the continent by the middle of the twentieth century.

The sport's organization is governed by domestic federations (or associations) and continental confederations, all of which are members of FIFA. Most South American football federations are part of CONMEBOL (the South American Football Confederation), with a few exceptions, namely the associations based in The Guianas, which are part of CONCACAF (the North American Football Confederation), and the Falklands Islands. Football's development is also organized by these domestic and international federations in conjunction with governmental sports authorities. Every country in South America has a unique infrastructure for the development of the game with varying results, wherein some are arguably more successful than others.

History[edit]

Soccer in South America originated some time during the nineteenth century. European sailors played the game in the port of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and it gradually spread to nearby urban areas.[1] In 1867, the European community in Buenos Aires was around a large girth - many were from Britain and were employed by the British railway companies, which expanded the network on a large scale - and an unofficial league had formed: the so-called "Great British League ", which was divided for the sake of practice into an English and a Scottish league. Two English immigrants, Thomas and James Hogg, organized a meeting in the Argentine capital on May 9, 1867; on this day the first football club was established in Latin America, and was christened the Buenos Aires Football Club. The Buenos Aires Cricket Club granted permission to the football club to use its cricket ground in Parque Tres de Febrero. More than a month after its creation, the Buenos Aires Football Club played its first football game on June 20. It was played with sixteen players on both sides of which only eight players were of British nationality.[2][3]

Participation was less than expected because some players wanted to first gauge how such a contest would be conducted. Founders of football played with their six teammates and won the game with four goals to zero.[note 1]

Gradual rise in the popularity of football after 1867 was mainly due to the influence of schools and related sports.[2]

In Paraguay, the Dutch physical education teacher William, who taught the game, lay down disciplinary rules, but he was not the man who is credited with having provided the breakthrough of the sport in the country. This honour was bestowed upon a Paraguayan who had been present in Buenos Aires and had witnessed one of the first league games.

In 1891, the first official competition was held in Argentina and therefore preceded the football leagues of both the American and the European continents.[4] The La Liga was played in 1891 between five clubs wherein each club faced its opponent twice.[5]

Dissemination of football, as it happened in the port of Buenos Aires and later throughout Argentina, also occurred elsewhere in South America. The same process took place in North America too. The colonial European, which had settled in the United States and Canada in the second half of the nineteenth century, took football with them to their new home [6]

Before the end of the nineteenth century, informal soccer matches were already being held between teams hailing from different parts of the newly formed countries. Ultimately, in the twentieth century soccer was introduced in the United States against American football. In the northern part of Latin America introduction of baseball [7] and basketball posed a serious threat to the development of football. It is due to this reason that the development of football infrastructure in Central America was very slow compared with other parts of the continent. Costa Rica was the first country to sign up for the world football association named FIFA, that had been founded in 1904. In 1929, two years later, it was followed by Mexico. Football was introduced by Europeans who had stayed back in America, but young Latin Americans were also attracted to Europe. When capitalism was introduced in Central and South America, countries like Costa Rica became a link in the global economy. As a result, European countries had an impact not just on political and economic matters, but also in the cultural field. The younger generation went to Western Europe, especially England, and there it was exposed to football at public facilities and university squares.[8]

Courtesy of the British colonies in the Caribbean, cricket won the popularity contest against football [7] among other things. In Jamaican townships, the sport was popular, but at a regional level, it was only towards the end of the twentieth century [6] that the first match between two Caribbean countries was held in 1925. In a series of three encounters the Jamaica won three times over Haiti. Four years later, the first Nations Cup was played on the Central American mainland. This tournament was held to celebrate independence from hundred years of rule of colonial Spain[9][10]

Integration into society[edit]

After Argentina, Brazil is considered as being the second South American country where football made its first appearance. After the Argentines had made first contact with the new sport in 1867, the Briton Charles Miller who had been born in Brazil, brought football into Brazil in 1894.[1] Miler was born in São Paulo; his mother was a Brazilian who belonged to the elite of the population of São Paulo.[11]

Miller's father was a railroad worker of Scottish descent. In 1884, when he was ten years old, his parents sent him to Southampton, to attend school. Like the Costa Rican circular migrants Miller discovered football here, which he brought to Brazil in 1894.[12] Miller founded the first team in Brazil - which was part of the athletics club of São Paulo - and also the first football league, the Campeonato Paulista.

Europeans living in Latin America took apart the sport. The football was increasingly popular among employees of the railways and demanded beside the cricket more and more attention to. In countries such as Panama, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela introduced British football, but real integration into society followed later. Brazilians and Argentineans were the first football shooting in their culture. The sport was infectious, especially in the less affluent neighborhoods. Children played since childhood on the streets, squares or plots and devised strategies and techniques. arose football clubs and youth programs; in the thirties were the highest competition divisions in most countries in Latin America, whether in part from professional football clubs. By that time, the football definitively established in the culture and it enjoyed great popularity almost everywhere. Previously, it was primarily a sport for Europeans; Brazilian CR Vasco da Gama was the first professional club that also local in 1923 - blacks -. Players recruited and thus had established an irreversible trend.[1]

Renewed British influence[edit]

The British brought Latin American football, but a successful and consistent integration policies they did not follow. Across the continent were the ideas about football set within a short time; there was no clear overall game concept and there were no generally accepted rules. In the early twentieth century began with British football tours to American countries, where they learned practitioners of the sport and made an English way of playing for a new development of the Latin American football. Thanks to the tour of British clubs would till then (semi-) amateurish game change established in a professional spectator sport.[13] Southampton FC, even in 1885, moved in 1904 to Buenos Aires on invitation of the Sociedad Hípica, a club for the wealthy living in the Argentine capital. The large number of visitors showed that the friendly match between the local club and Southampton was not only a sporting event but also an (elitist) social event. Accompanied by his Secretary of War and a military escort - when given the recent introduction of football in the Argentine Army - also visited the then President Julio Roca in the clash. During his campaign in Buenos Aires and Uruguay's Montevideo Southampton made with great results impressed with the locals, especially the British. They were strong in their belief of sporting superiority.[14]

In 1905 followed Nottingham Forest FC. The players, who to Montevideo, Rosario and Buenos Aires traveled to work there on a total of seven games, kept themselves fit during the trip across the Atlantic by playing on deck cricket [13] the results showed the superiority of the local football clubs: Británicos and Liga Argentina [note 2] were with. 13-1 and 9-1 respectively records; also the national team of the Argentines were easily put aside by Nottingham Forest, with five goals against zero. [15] Eventually Nottingham made his tour of South America 52 goals and conceded just three hits against. Due to its impressive supremacy on the pitch, Nottingham ensured the continuing sense of force majeure at the football loving Brits. The popularity of the British club led to the CA Independiente, established in 1904 - which had arisen after a group of employees of a luxury department store in downtown Buenos Aires independent ( independiente in Spanish) of their employers wanted to set up a football club - the color of his uniform changed to red from Nottingham Forest. The desire to make this change was reinforced by the symbolic connection of the color with the socialist movement in the country, which was supported by some of the founders of Independiente.[16]

A turning point in Argentine football and Latin American soccer as a whole followed in 1906, when a team of South Africans came to play a series of matches on the South American continent. South Africa had a development in the field of football known which reasonably similar to that of Latin America. Although the South African club still played below the level of the British, the game had been developed a lot more than the game that was played in countries such as Argentina and Uruguay.[13] For example, the Brazilian Paulista FC was 6-0 records and a student team outplayed in a game that ended with a total of fourteen goals against. Founded in 1898 Alumni Athletic Club was the only club that could make a stand against the South African team. After his 1-0 win, the audience stormed the field, and it carried the players joy at hand; The present President of the Republic congratulated Alumni with the first victory of an Argentine club on an overseas opponent. Presumably it was in Latin America the first win on an opponent from the other side of the ocean [14] The visits of overseas clubs signed the increasing integration of football in society.; reinforced its professionalization and enthused the population even more. British clubs discussed the invitations in order to play a role of "soccer missionary", which proved of great importance for the further development of the Latin American football.

Creation of the first confederations and international competitions[edit]

The number of clubs with paid contracts rose accordingly and both the Board and the game professionalized. In 1910 for the first time, although unofficially and by the CONMEBOL not officially recognized, a country tournament played with more than two national teams. The so-called Copa Centenario Revolución de Mayo was played in May and June between host Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. This tournament, which the Argentines had unbeaten as winners after three games, is also seen as the first Copa América or a direct precursor thereof [17][18] the officially approved first edition of the Copa América, however Campeonato Sudamericano de Football called at that time by Argentina was in 1916 in honor of its centennial independence - which was obtained by the fighting between 1810 and 1818 War of Independence - organized. Four countries took part are: Brazil was also invited in addition to previous participants. Uruguay won twice and played against Argentina right, making it the first South American champion. The then nineteen year old Isabelino Gradín was the best player in the national team of Uruguay - he also had three goals scorer of the tournament. A day after the big victory of Uruguay in Chile, Chilean Football Federation demanded the reversal of the results, because under the Uruguayan players were two Africans. Gradín - who had scored twice in the game - would be one of them, as his great-grandparents had been slaves from Lesotho.[19] Uruguay won again.

The team captured prior to the game against Brazil (4-0) won for the first ten editions six times; once lost the final twice protest Chile was eventually rejected by the organization and Uruguay was designated as the rightful winner. The Campeonato Sudamericano was the world's first-Nation, even earlier than the European Football Championship, which was founded almost half a century later. In 1916, Chile was also the only country that had a national team containing several players blacks.[19]

During the first Copa América on July 9, the continental football confederation CONMEBOL was founded. This lost the Westerners, who had introduced the sport in Latin America permanently their profound influence [13] Although this first tournament was run entirely incident free - found next to the Chilean protest during the last game even riots, which include the wooden bleachers were set on fire - it formed the basis for a first two-year and annually thereafter match tournament, under the auspices of the oldest continental football.

CONCACAF was founded in 1961 for Central America and the Caribbean; before that there were two separate federations. The Confederacion Centroamericana y del Caribe de Fútbol (CCCF) was tied for most countries in Central America and the Caribbean and the North American Football Confederation (NAFC) was created for Canada, the United States, Mexico and Cuba. Together with the establishment in respectively 1938 and 1946, the first international football tournaments were held in this northern part of Latin America. When Tournament of the CCCF Costa Rica won seven of the ten editions; Mexico won three of four times the North American football [20]

Throughout Latin America, the international club tournaments followed later. An exception was the highest-placed clubs from Uruguay and Argentina, which already started organizing small tournaments in the early twentieth century. This tournament, which got the name Copa Río de la Plata, liked both the clubs and supporters; it was an indirect reason for the creation of the first continental club tournament in sports history, the South American Championship of Champions (1948). This once organized tournament took seven clubs from seven CONMEBOL countries along with CD Litoral (Bolivia) and CS Emelec (Ecuador) as the only clubs with no experience due to lack of its own national competition. The Campeonato Sudamericano also led to the creation of the first international form of competition for clubs in Europe. The Frenchman Jacques Ferran, a journalist for L'Equipe , reported on the South American tournament and was so excited that he briefed his boss about the concept. Gabriel Hanot then brought the idea to UEFA and caused indirectly to the introduction of the European Cup in 1955.[21] In the CONCACAF region founded the Champions' Cup in 1962, which served for a short time as a qualifying tournament for the 1960 Copa Libertadores established by CONMEBOL in 1960. Almost right from its inception, the tournament has been dominated by Mexican clubs.[22]

Uruguayan success at its first Games[edit]

The 1924 Summer Olympics was the first global event in which a football team from Latin America participated. Atilio Narancio, a board member of the Uruguayan Football Association, expressed the ambition to join the national team at the tournament in Paris. His ideas led to misunderstanding in South America and even in their own country; they found it incomprehensible and unwise plan. There would be little time to steam a team ready for the trip to Europe and playing such a tournament level. In addition, there are financial deficiencies were and Uruguayans feared a major embarrassment to the European players, despite the successes in their own part of the world.[note 3]

Most players had a regular job and could not from one day to leave their jobs. A typical example was the position of captain of the Uruguay national team. José Nasazzi during the week was a marble cutter, and he was told during his work that the decision was taken to participate despite the criticism of the Games. This decision could be taken only after the necessary lobbying in the Uruguayan parliament, which was to give consent before could be made on the final preparations.[23] The cheapest boat they could find, the Uruguayan selection left for Europe as a destination Spain. There would be played a series of exhibition games. This friendly confrontations were intended to pay for the costly trip across the Atlantic, as well as stay in Paris during the tournament.[13] The Uruguayan team did not lose a single friendly match in Spain, the country that barely a century earlier was still the colonizers of the South Americans. Atletico Madrid, one of the biggest clubs at the time, saw club after club defeated the Uruguayans and decided nothing to chance: made quickly talents from across the country to Madrid, the arbitration would take the necessary decisions and benefiting as extra motivation for the Spaniards was also the king of twenty thousand spectators, Alfonso XIII. It did not help - even Madrid was unable to win. Despite Uruguay satisfy itself prior to maneuver the tournament in the position of underdog: the European participants were not impressed with the overseas opponent who no further than did Argentina,[5] and fell into a state of overconfidence. Yugoslavia was humiliated as Uruguay's first opponent 7-0. The result was not the greatest in the first round, but it led to consternation - the game was taken care of, the cooperation between the players smoothly, but who were still those unknown Uruguayans who Yugoslavs, six years later third in the first world, fully had played in the field? Three days later the South Americans won over by the United States; in the quarterfinals of the French were defeated smoothly. In the semifinals, Uruguay got some resistance when only nine minutes from time through a penalty was settled profits against the Dutch team. On June 9, 1924 Uruguay won the eyes of the world public the football tournament of the Summer Olympics, after beating Switzerland 3-0. At the next Games in Amsterdam were again Uruguay, but also Argentina were successful: the Argentinian team reached the final book by large victories, including an 11-2 victory over the United States. It was a global introduction to the successful Latin American concept of play and play.

The first world championships[edit]

Uruguay gets the scoop[edit]

Uruguay was appointed in May 1929 as host for the first World Cup 1930. As the winner of the preceding its two Olympic football tournaments in the country was logically one of the candidates for the organization of the tournament; also several European countries put themselves forward, but withdrew shortly after each other again. By withdrawing the candidacy, several countries tried to give the Italian bid more likely. The award of the organization to the Latin American Uruguay led to a boycott by Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. Two months before the start of the world championship was still no European country addressed his invitation. Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Switzerland also withdrew because they were too long trip to Uruguay.[24]

The organization offered financial compensation for the two-week transatlantic cruise, but that did not convince. British countries were not eligible to participate because they were not yet a member of FIFA. The only European countries that ultimately agreed to the trip to Uruguay were Belgium, France, Yugoslavia and Romania. Latin America, however, was well represented eight of the thirteen participants came from this part of the world, including Argentina, Bolivia and Mexico. Seventeen days were long three stadiums in and around Montevideo the scene of the first global soccer tournament next Olympics. Thirteen countries were divided into four groups, with a place in the semi-finals for each group winner [25] the construction of the first stadium a capacity of more than one hundred thousand spectators was a fact: Estadio Centenario, named after the centennial independence, was finalized only five days after the start of the championship. The delay was caused by heavy rain, causing some duels were diverted to two other stadiums in the area, which resulted in no further problems.[26]

The favorite for the title of first world champion was Uruguay that his profit on the Olympic Games of 1924 and 1928 had profiled as a strong football country. The Uruguayans were expected many disciplines: two months isolated the selection is to prepare as resting on the tournament. Exemplary was the story of goalkeeper Andrés Mazali, who was present at both games, but was put off the selection unceremoniously when he did not follow the set by the president curfew.[24]

On July 13, 1930 the first game was played for the championship. France beat Mexico with three goals difference - as the first scorer at a World Cup, the Frenchman Lucien Laurent the book was. It was the only win for France in the tournament and one of the (only) four in all European countries. A controversial act of the Brazilian referee in the third match between favorites Argentina and France led to tumult: six minutes before the end of regular time he finished already the game, just after the Argentine Monti a free-kick had been unsuccessful and the French striker Langiller set up a counterattack and to make was about the same. The action of the arbitrator led to anger among the French and chaos on the field, until he decided the two teams again conduct on the field and to play the remaining time.[24][27]

The Argentines were playing their second game against the also from Latin America derived Mexico. The level difference between South and Central America was illustrated by the final -. Argentina won its second game 6-3. Manuel Ferreira had opted out shortly before the confrontation because he had to take a university exam in his homeland; his replacement was Guillermo Stábile, which ultimately is the first scorer of the world would be football. Against the Mexicans he scored three goals, but the record of the first hat trick in the history of the tournament Stabile did not get his name [note 4]

The final of the first world championship a repeat of the Olympic final was in 1928. Argentina and Uruguay defeated their opponents in the semifinals, respectively, the United States and Yugoslavia, 6-1. Prior to this match were several incidents. There was disagreement over the game ball: two finalists wanted to play football with a homegrown, which FIFA forced to intervene. The conflict was settled by the players to the first half with an Argentine football games and continued the second half with a ball of Uruguayan origin.[27] Thousands of Argentines with ferries the River Plate about, the natural border between the two countries, in order to attend the match. Just three hours before the start of the game, the composition of the arbitration was announced, fearing harassment by supporters; the ultimate arbiter, the Belgian John Langenus, demanded the preparation of a police escort and a boat that would take him immediately after the final land him.[26] Both finalists had already proved their scoring ability during the tournament.[note 5]

In the first half has already scored three times. After twelve minutes the Uruguayan Dorado opened the scoring; the rest of the first game raises certain the Argentinian team play. Eight minutes after the opening goal, and Stábile made the equalizer was put in the thirty-seventh minute Argentina with a controversial goal - the Uruguayans protested to the referee for alleged offside, but in vain - the lead. After the break there was a different situation: not Argentina had the force majeure on the field, but Uruguay. With a long distance shot and a header the final ranking of the first final was scored twice more and was determined to be 4-2 in favor of host Uruguay, which confirmed his status as the best soccer country. Twice in a row was a football tournament on a global scale ended in a confrontation between the two South American countries, and it was confirmed that no European country was able to cope with any of them. The same applied to other Latin American countries. If Mexico had three group matches thirteen goals against Peru and not much outperformed. Bolivia had before the start of the championship clear little hope of its own success, as it showed wear every player of the starting line one of the letters "VIVA URUGUAY" on his uniform. It had no effect on the Uruguayan referee in the match against Yugoslavia - on the contrary. At least four goals from Bolivia were incorrectly disapproved.[13]

Less success on Boxing World[edit]

While most European countries lay down beside him the invitation, the spirit in the run-up to the Second World had risen rapidly for the first edition in 1930. The success of the first tournament the World Cup was now the largest global football event and wanted more countries a chance to win the World Cup. Thirty-two of the then fifty FIFA members made their interest known; the large number of participants was the creation of a qualifying tournament necessity. Two countries from Latin America decided to participate, including surprisingly not defending champion Uruguay: do not forget the country was the massive rejection of calls by European countries in 1930 and therefore decided not to bother doing a selection to send over the ocean.[24] Brazil and Argentina were representing the American continent with the United States on the Benito Mussolini assigned championship.

The World Cup 1934 was not successful. Argentina had sent a selection to Italy with almost only (semi) amateurs, because local clubs refused to let their players go. The board committees feared that if it would allow, once in Italy, their players irresistible offers would be made by European clubs. The Brazilian team played until then mainly in the shadow of Uruguay and Argentina. Lack of preparation combined with a naive attitude to international competition undermining the individual qualities in the selection.[13]

In 1936, France was designated by FIFA as host of the Third World cup. It led to a storm of criticism from Argentina and throughout Latin America. The country was assumed that there would be an interaction between the South American and European continent for the allocation of the tournament; the unwritten rule, however, was now broken by the world football. FIFA would have taken into account the number of FIFA members by continent in its decision - the vast majority of the then total of 57 members came from Europe - and had difficulties in the first championship and the few countries that dared travel to Uruguay yet do not forget. Additionally wanted it this way express his loyalty to Jules Rimet, the initiator of the first edition in 1930.[24] Argentina decided after his failed candidacy for a boycott. Uruguay again decided not to participate. Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico and Suriname withdrew from the qualifier, which Brazil and Cuba were assured of a place in the main tournament.

Cuba, a country that had not mixed a few times in the world of football in 1938, surprised by maintaining the strong Romanian team to a 3-3 tie. In the second game against the Romanians were not Europeans, but the Caribbean players who had the supremacy on the pitch. The victory over Romania was considered the biggest surprise of the tournament. Its short preparation time for the quarterfinals, however, Cuba had no chance against the more fit Sweden (8-0). The Brazilian team was reformed and consisted of both blacks and players mulatto as if from white players. His formerly naive attitude and tendency to improvisation was gone and had been replaced by more structured football. The use of only two defenders had its impact on the final score: Brazil defeated after extension Poland 6-5. The confrontation with Czechoslovakia in the quarterfinals left, despite his renewed personality, see the fierce and reckless play of Brazil. The match (1-1) finished with sixteen of the twenty-two players on the field, the referee gave three red cards and had to watch three injured players were taken off the field, particularly after a brawl.[28] The second game against the Czechoslovaks went quiet and was won by Brazil with one goal difference. After the heavy battles in the quarterfinals, the coach decided to give some players rest in the semi-final against Italy, a tactical miscalculation revealed: there was lost of the later world champion. Thirdly, however, give courage to the young Brazilian squad for the subsequent years.[13]

Latin America dominated the world of football[edit]

In the area of international football put the Latin American growth, as the global supremacy of the three biggest football countries: Brazil - that was missing at any World Cup, Argentina - that was absent only four times in the main event - and Uruguay, which won the first championship after World War II. In 1962, Chile was hosting the seventh edition. Brazil extended his world, which no country to date would still succeed. Although the Caribbean countries in no way could play a significant role on the world stage, that some Central American countries did so. Mexico demanded attention, culminating in 1970, when the country was the organizer of the first and only World Cup in Central America. The Aztec Stadium was the scene of one of the most, briefly finals. The Italians were defeated 4-1 by Brazilian "dream team"; the national newspaper Il Messaggero wrote that Italy was defeated by "the best footballers in the world." [29] Uruguay, which finished fourth after losing a semi-final against the later champion, was overtaken by Brazil. Four years later, the stage was completely European; the five Latin American countries made no impression. In 1978, Argentina was host and defeated it in the Final Netherlands. In subsequent editions booked more countries in both Central and South America success on the World Cup.

In 1990, all Spanish-speaking countries reached the eighth finals, including Spain, which is now the same performance put down as Uruguay - the country in the 30s for commotion caused in Spain by his class solution on the football there. Mexico knows to qualify continuously since 1994 and reached the tournament since then each edition the second round, where it is always off. The hitherto four championships in the twenty-first century the tournament in Germany in 2006 was the least successful when no country in Latin America reached the semi-finals. The World 2014 in Brazil was a Latin American success story, despite the European first and third place. Colombia and Chile beards stir with their strong play; Colombian James Rodríguez finished as top scorer of the tournament, was named player of the tournament and received a prize for scoring the best goal; Central America Costa Rica surprised by the "group of death".[note 6] to survive and reach the quarterfinals.; Argentina earned a place in the final, where it lost 0-1 to Germany. Host country Brazil was an exception to the success into the semifinals with 1-7 and in the consolation final with 2014 World Cup (consolation final) Brazil - Netherlands | 0 -3] to lose]].

At club level, Latin America has not developed as a technical game and aware of the money and in Europe. The most talented players are scouted and purchased by European clubs, which does not stimulate the further development and increase the overall level of national competitions.[note 7] In 2000, FIFA launched a World Cup for clubs, with Brazil as the first host country. The most successful clubs from all continents come worldwide confrontations at this tournament. Central American clubs, almost always from Mexico, played no significant role in the first ten editions. Brazilian clubs Corinthians, São Paulo and Internacional jointly won four titles; the other tournaments were won by West European clubs. Argentina's Independiente won the South American club tournament Copa Libertadores seven times. Also, in the second place is a club from Argentina.[30]

The equivalent of this tournament for Central America and the Caribbean is the CONCACAF Champions League, of which finished the hitherto 51 played seasons thirty times with a champion from Mexico.[31]

The promising footballers in their youth sensation beards remained with their talents in Latin America, as described above, less domestically and yielded to offers from clubs in Europe. So did Romário in 1988, moving from Brazilian club Vasco da Gama to the Dutch PSV, where he made 98 goals in just five years; Another example is Daniel Passarella, which a few years after winning the World Cup with Argentina emigrated to Italy. The Brazilian Ronaldo In 1994, also at PSV, his appearance in Europe and won three years later, the first Latin American to the Ballon d'Or, an annual award for the best footballer in Europe. The best footballer in the world of the twentieth century, Diego Maradona,[note 8] was at SSC Napoli 115 goals in seven years.

Playing Style[edit]

Game Conception in the initial period[edit]

In the decades after the introduction of football in Latin America its own soccer style was - way of playing - developed. In the early days were almost all players of British descent; they used an originally British concept of play. With this style of play and sportsmanship were fairness more important than found passion and combativeness. Typical was the Argentine Alumni Athletic Club, which refused an assigned by the referee penalty to take, because the players were of the opinion that it was wrongly attributed to them. It was mainly of interest according to the rules of play. In Britain and elsewhere, where at that time was playing football they used a system with two defenders, three midfielders and five attackers (called 2-3-5 system). This format was long departed by any club in Latin America, as it was the global standard. The domination by the British gradually declined on all fronts in the football culture, so the influence of the style of play took power and discipline, possibly by increasing influence of Spanish and Italian immigrants, place for agility. Where they played in Britain in large fields, men played soccer in Latin America in poor neighborhoods with small spaces, usually on an unkempt ground. The game was adapted to these restrictions; in the streets and small squares in the neighborhoods of cities like Buenos Aires, Montevideo and Rio de Janeiro was a new way of playing developed that met the poor living and playing conditions. Players wanted to precisely hold the ball to one side and located on learned in order to be able to do so in all kinds of tricks. The disciplined teamwork disappeared with teammates, it alone knocking out the opponent - and thereby create additional space for the player himself - came on. The first generation of this type of footballer called his style el toque ', Spanish for "the touch", as if the ball a being petted.[11]

This new game concept conflicted with the old British standard. The previously described advent of Nottingham Forest FC in 1905 to Argentina and Uruguay Kokoshkin was defending this collision. The English club, example of the original way of playing, caused mixed feelings among the players and spectators at the game between Nottingham and a local representative team. While the Argentines tried to win through skill and cleverness, the British showed their physical play. Supporters of European descent were enthusiastic about the action and the supremacy of Nottingham, while the locals felt wronged by the disdain towards the ball skills of the private players. The English and anglophile Buenos Aires Herald criticized the representative team that "had dared to criticize the play of Forest". The newspaper wrote that the sport was intended to improve the endurance of its practitioners and to test the fitness of young men, and that it served as a parlor game.[14] English Swindon Town FC, which seven years later organized a tour of South America, was one of the few clubs that open to the new game concept. The manager acknowledged that he had never seen amateurs still play so well and was generally praised the opponents, though he was also concerned about the "use of every opportunity to exhibit solo agility." Such an attitude towards the playing style also took part of the Anglo-Argentine footballers, among which Jorge Brown, who felt that football is now more refined and would be even more artistic, but also saw that the enthusiasm thus seemed to disappear from the game. Most critics have expressed concern about the excess Matching and tricks and the lack of shots on goal.[11]

Success of the South American style to the first world tournament[edit]

The football team of Uruguay in 1924 traveled down to France to display his game. Despite the success in Spain were the visitors to the Games not impressed with the style of play with only three thousand spectators attended the first game against Yugoslavia bij.[32] After the victory over the Yugoslavs (7-0), however, spread the news about the Latin American supremacy rapidly through Paris. The 3-0 of the United States won match in the second round has already been attended by ten thousand supporters, who had become curious by the enthusiastic stories about the unknowns from the New World. On June 1, 1924 Uruguay faced the French team in the quarterfinals. The competition was attended by over forty thousand Frenchmen and was the first confrontation with a Western European team. The dominated French soccer players, like the British, giving a long and high pass and were able to bridge long distances in a relatively short time. The Uruguayan players had himself contrast mastered the short, quick passes and were able to go past at high speed (running while keeping the ball on the foot). The South American won the agility of the European physical: the host was easily defeated, and the subsequent two (again European) opponents.

On the next matches Olympic 1924 Games were also organized several music and art competitions; Some musicians and writers sought inspiration in the sports performance that were delivered during the tournament. The French essayist and novelist Henry de Montherlant responded in one of his works on the success of Uruguay. " A revelation ! This is real football . In comparison, what we knew so far, what we played nothing but the hobby of a schoolboy ," he wrote .[11] Even skeptics had to admit to the unapproachable -looking style of play. The then former French international and later editor of L'Équipe , Gabriel Hanot, drew a comparison between the Uruguayan and British football " like comparing an Arabian thoroughbred with a workhorse".[14]

Argentina and Uruguay met again at the first World Cup final in 1930 after the Olympic final of 1928. The Argentines were 4-2 records. Media tried to identify the difference between the neighboring countries, and came to the conclusion that the Uruguayan defensive organization was better structured than the defense of Argentina. Both countries played with them usual spontaneity and artistry, but Uruguay also held the defense in the eye, while the individualistic style of playing Argentina brought more confusion. The Argentine defenders were no less capable than the Uruguayans, but they missed discussed tactics to intercept attackers of the counterparty. An Italian journalist said that although Argentina gracefully played football, but that it was unable thus playing without compensating tactics. The Argentines dominated an indispensable part of the tactical balance not: therefore the balance between attacking agility and speed lacking one hand and structured, thought-defense on the other. Throughout Latin America, the British influence now has been virtually eliminated; European style of football was no longer considered an obligation, but as a football way to compete against and overcome. The discipline and structure were present, especially in the Uruguayan football, but to a lesser extent than in Western Europe. The so-called Rioplatense - football [note 9] was above a crowd: the fanaticism, the unpredictability, the sportsmanship and the speed masses of spectators flocked to the stadiums and signed the difference with the Western football is becoming increasingly apparent.[11]

Catching the Brazilian way of playing[edit]

Original game concept does not bring success[edit]

Like footballers in the rest of Latin America learned to move the individualistic in Brazil and combine intelligently with fellow players.[2] The combined football was reinforced by the impact of the erected by Scottish immigrants in 1912 Scottish Wanderers. Pair it with a discussed tactics in order to play out the opponent was remarkably in Brazil 'sistema inglês ( "English system") called, when in fact contradicted the British way of playing. Two players of Wanderers were nationally known for their striking game. McLean and Hopkins played together on the left and there performed a series of quick and short passes out, quickly named tabelinha ( "small graphics") gained. Although the Wanderers playing style was considered to be (too) innovative and perhaps even revolutionary, names, or after some time, the local footballers - with success - of play on.[33]

In contrast to the rapid decline of British influence in Argentina and Uruguay include the British community in Brazil remained relatively long hold the most say in the football culture. As taught Harry Welfare, which at Liverpool FC played before he went to Rio de Janeiro to get started there as a teacher, the players of Fluminense FC technique for giving a depth or width pass. The members of these and other football clubs were only Europeans; Welfare introduced its game ideas not explicitly with the locals. However, the Brazilians saw the game does: from roofs of buildings were they watched the workouts for the football. For them, football proved a godsend - the cricket was difficult to play in the tight spaces of the residential areas, but football was a possibility. With homemade footballs, consisting mainly of a collection of rags, began informal soccer game parties. The Scot McLean was not impressed: he expressed his dissatisfaction over the lack of discipline and was convinced that "their antics in Scotland would never be accepted" [11]

Despite their "individual genius and spontaneity were" Brazilian soccer players with their game unsuccessfully abroad. Surprising the rapid elimination of the first world given the inexperienced players selection was not; four years later was (lack of) experience no valid excuse. In the squad there were some very talented players, including Leônidas - which shortly thereafter would be one of the first blacks footballers member of the elite CR Flamengo - but naive and inadequate preparation nekten the Brazilian national team. The 8-4 lost friendly match against Yugoslavia, played after the also unsuccessful World Cup of 1934, made it painfully clear that Brazil not only on his Latin American opponents, but also by his opponents who were in the Far East-Europe tactical level significantly lagging behind. The biggest problem were the spaces between the lines: [note 10] the Yugoslavs the large pieces were unoccupied field use to easily perform their own tactics and regularly traversed without much difficulty the Brazilian midfield and defense. The Brazilian football community came the realization that it was necessary to slightly change the style of play.

Brazil sees his shortcomings[edit]

Already at the end of the 30s tried the previously unknown Brazilian Gentil Cardoso, who arrived with his work as a jack of all trades regularly in Europe and there are free time devoted to watching football, to introduce a new tactical system . He had witnessed the emergence of the so-called stopperspil system with the English Arsenal FC and saw this as the solution to the problem that was called Brazilian football. In this system, playing the attackers in a "W-formation" and the midfielders and defenders "M-formation" (3-2-2-3) - in the tactical set-up for the final between Brazil and Uruguay in 1950 (see right) this is visible. The "outside supporters" or "backs" in the case of this arrangement Bigode Augusto, the wing players of the opposing catch; the "inner defense" or "half-backs", here Danilo and Bauer, face the back line of three defenders and ensure the collection of attackers who attempt over the middle of the field to break the defense; the stopperspil, to whom the system was named, and in this arrangement Juvenal, stands between the two outside defenders and is primarily intended to deal with the middle attacker or "mid (s) for" opponent. The Cardoso managed to get a place as a coach at a small club from Rio de Janeiro. He led the system and trained it with the players, but saw that the game does not correspond to the British variant that he had seen. An arrangement was to take over, but copying the British style of play was not just possible. The attempt of Cardoso failed.

Brazil needed a European to come to a definite change in style of play. In the form of the Hungarian Izidor Kürschner it was found. In 1937, the president of CR Flamengo approached him and Kürschner accepted the offer, though he realized the difficulty of his position as coach by the conservative attitude that now the Brazilians had developed in the field of football after the British. Cardoso had tried to introduce the British stopperspil system; Kürschner, who had most of his football career spent in Switzerland, did not share that ambition. The system was also he called "a W-M", but in reality it was more like a "W-W ', the stopperspil now played before the rear defenders. Popular Hungarian was not his style, though he was well asked by the Brazilian Football Association to travel to France with the national team in 1938 in the role of advisor. The system did not achieve success in the following years, with the 1950 FIFA World Cup as low. Strikingly, the Brazilian team defeated opponents who used a similar system, but was lost to the different tactical Uruguay. It was an unusual circumstance that the Uruguayan players with the same defensive intent to play football as Brazil had done herself on the won Copa América in 1919.[11] The failure of 1950 marked the final end of the Brazilian stopperspil system . For years it had prevailed in the fields, but in 1966 it was both clubs disappeared from the national team out tactics.

In the period between 1950 and 1966 Brazil was despite vertwijfeldheid about his tactics have certainly been successful: both the world championship was won in 1958 as in 1962. They had understood that the Brazilian football would do themselves short when tactic was chosen over technique. The result was that the coaches gave players a lot of freedom and tactical arrangement made as flexible as possible. The world's best players were in the 60s and 70s often from Brazil. To the qualities of players like Garrincha and Valdir Pereira optimal use, it was decided to form a tactic that offered enough space for the usual creativity and artistry which had characterized the Latin American football. On the evening of the Final of the world championship in 1970, Joao Saldanha, head coach during the qualification process for this World Cup, asked why he felt that the football the best football that was played in Brazil in was world. He suggested that this would be the result of four factors.

  1. Allereerst Climate would play an important role because in Brazil the climate is such that it can be played soccer throughout the year;
  2. ten second he suggested that poverty Brazilian youth would be encouraged to achieve a competitive spirit;
  3. de variation in ethnicity and had in Brazilian society Saldanha said a third factor for success, because a significant portion of the population ancestors of African descent and thus a past in slavery and inherited here a combative attitude would have;
  4. ten fourth would be the "boundless passion for the 'futebol' also have been vital in achieving success in the second half of the twentieth century.[14]

Brazil experienced after the pivot stopper system just one typical football system, the so-called 4-2-2 - system, which was similar to the "W- W " system. With the mention of this tactic, however, is impossible to summarize all Brazilian tactical view. As was played in 1994 with four defenders, four midfielders and two attackers and in 2014 with five midfielders and one striker, the striker Fred. At the moment, Brazil is therefore not known for a particular system, but to be frivolous and flexible players.

Origin of the first confederations and international competitions[edit]

The number of clubs with paid contracts rose accordingly and both the Board and the game professionalized . In 1910 for the first time, although unofficially and not officially recognized by CONMEBOL, played -Nation with more than two national teams . The so-called Copa Centenario Revolución de Mayo was played in May and June between host Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. This tournament, which the Argentines had unbeaten as winners after three games, is also seen as the first Copa América or a direct precursor thereof.[35][36]

Club Football[edit]

All Central American countries and the vast majority of South America [note 11] use a league system with two separate halves, the Apertura (Spanish for "opening") and Clausura (Spanish for "closure"). While in Europe the season runs continuously from autumn to spring (usually from August to May or June), in some Latin American countries played in one calendar year in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Haiti, Paraguay and Peru from January or February until the end of the year played a league. The rest of Latin America uses the European season calendar. Both the first and the second half of the season provides a champion. Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela play at the end of the season the two winners a mutual duel to determine the final season champion. In addition to these general league form with two separate halves season several countries have slight differences with regard to the regulation of promotion and relegation or the awarding of the championship title. So playing in the Mexican league at the beginning of each season the two champions from the previous season against each other in a small mutual competition, similar to the Super Cup in European competitions. In Costa Rica - where not Apertura and Clausura, but Invierno ( "winter") and Verano ( "Summer") is spoken - the four best teams of both seasonal halves qualify for a second round, where the eventual champion will be determined.[37]

Brazil is not played with a double league system. The competition usually takes place from May to December, according to the American seasonal calendar, but also uses the same rules as in Europe. Very old is the system, there was passed by the size of the country only in the 60s and 70s of small local tournaments to a national competition. The Campeonato Brasileiro is the largest competition of Latin America: it contains the largest number of winners of the Copa Libertadores (clubs in the league won the tournament seventeen times); Three clubs from the Campeonato won a total of four times the world championship for clubs, a world record; it is the most valuable competition from Latin America, with a value of almost one and a half billion dollars. The football club with the most brand value was (in 2012), Sport Club Corinthians Paulista, with $77 million; worldwide value puts the club on the twenty-fourth place, behind Everton FC.[38]

International competitions[edit]

Latin America has several international club competitions, with the Copa Libertadores and CONCACAF Champions League main tournament [39][40] Both copa's serve as the qualifying campaign for the club world championship. In South America, the Copa Sudamericana, equivalent to the European UEFA Europa League, the secondary tournament - the winner will qualify for the Copa Libertadores next season. The Recopa Sudamericana found in South America annually at the beginning of the new season and is one meeting between the winners of the Copa Sudamericana and the Copa Libertadores. CONCACAF region has no such system. The three best clubs in the Caribbean tournament, the CFU Club Championship, will qualify for the main draw of the Champions League; all countries in the Central American mainland to get default a number of places allocated to the group stage. In South America, the Argentine club Independiente and Boca Juniors most successful, both with a total of eight victories; Cruz Azul from Mexico six times won the CONCACAF Champions League; in the Caribbean, most winners were from Trinidad and Tobago. Although Mexican clubs in the South American club competitions are welcome, there is also now no overlap between the two parts of Latin America at club level. To this end, plans were however two former international club competitions would be replaced from 2002 by the Pan-American tournament. Six Brazilian clubs and two from Panama and Costa Rica were already registered as participants, but due to financial difficulties the football were forced to cancel Copa Pan-Americana.[41]

International Football[edit]

At club level, Central American and South American soccer are treated as distinct entities, and the situation is no different on the international stage as well. South American national teams participate in tournaments with no input from Central America (and the Caribbean) and vice versa. This involves two football confederations, CONCACAF and CONMEBOL, which hold individual tournaments, but as yet there is no salvation in terms of holding a pan American tournament, given that (a trial held sometime in the 1960s not stand). CONMEBOL was the organized in 1916 the first Copa América, which was christened as "Campeonato Sudamericano de Football". CONCACAF Gold Cup was held in 1991, and it was the first time since 1970 when North America and Central America had played in separate championships. In South America, Uruguay won maximum times, and in Central America, it was Mexico. Both tournaments were aware, despite the clear separation between the two confederations, of the tradition to invite countries outside the region. Participation in the Gold Cup consisted of four CONMEBOL member countries and in Copa América also four CONCACAF countries were included[42][43] in addition to these two championships, which are not inferior to the European football championship in the UEFA region in terms of importance, qualifiers are held for Central and South American countries to determine participation in the world's largest tournaments. The relatively lesser number of countries in the CONMEBOL region qualify without group play, as this is the system in Central America.

Rivalries[edit]

Rivalry between any two countries at international match level is most intense between Argentina and Brazil. This duel, which has taken place more than hundred times, has not occurred more than the Argentina vs Uruguay, encounter, but now it is the most intense in South America. This is not owing to past political conflicts, but because these countries are regarded as being the greatest footballing nations in the American continent. The sporting hostility has led to several conflicts in the twentieth century, culminating into mass vechtpartij between players, supporters and police during the finals of the South American championship 1946.[13] In 2011, Superclásico de las Américas was first held and an annual game between Argentine and Brazilian national teams was organized, as against the non-competitive derby [7]. In addition to Argentina, Uruguay is also regarded as being a rival - this rivalry burgeoned specifically after the World Cup final in 1950, when millions of Brazilian football fans were traumatized by a 1-2 defeat. Furthermore, in South America, Peru and Chile are also regarded as being traditional rivals, with the confrontation between the two nations being referred to as "Clásico del Pacífico" ( "Pacific derby"). Roots of this rivalry can be traced back to the 1890s, when the Saltpeter War was fought.[44]

In the CONCACAF region, there are two historic clásicos (Spanish for classic) that deserve mention. Among all neighboring countries, the United States, which is outside the Latin American region, and Mexico are traditional rivals. The national team of Mexico is the traditional leader in Central America, but encounters in the CONCACAF tournament have been getting more and more competitive, especially those involving the North American neighbor. The sporting rivalry gained traction on the Mexican side courtesy the Battle of the Alamo and Mexican–American War that occurred during the nineteenth century as also the treatment of Mexicans residing in the United States.[44] Honduras and Costa Rica have been playing each other since April 3rd, 1935, in a so-called clásico centro americano , or a Central American classic. The two countries, which played against each other for the fiftieth time in January 2011, run fairly equal in terms of the number of wins — though Costa Rica has been more successful on the world stage than Honduras.[45]

Organization[edit]

en

Domestic[edit]

CONMEBOL[edit]

CONCACAF[edit]

International[edit]

CONCACAF[edit]

CONMEBOL[edit]

  • Copa Libertadores, major club competition of South America, with the champions (Unless they are Mexican, a CONCACAF member) qualifying to the FIFA Club World Cup
  • Copa Sudamericana, second major club competition of South America, with the champions qualifying to the Copa Libertadores.
  • Recopa Sudamericana, the meeting of the Copa Libertadores and the Copa Sudamericana champions. If the same team wins both, no Recopa is disputed.
  • Suruga Bank Championship, with the Copa Sudamericana and Japan's J. League Cup champions, disputed in Japan.

Development[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Chile[edit]

Colombia[edit]

Ecuador[edit]

Paraguay[edit]

Peru[edit]

The Guianas[edit]

Uruguay[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

Economics[edit]

Culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ An image of a match report from The Standard d.d. 23 June 1867 is here to view.
  2. ^ with the name "Liga Argentina" was probably a star ensemble or representative team of Argentine football meant. This team is in said multiple sources at treating conflicting Argentine style of play with the original British way of playing, and would have consisted almost entirely of Anglo-Argentines
  3. ^ By the time Uruguay announced its participation in the Summer Olympics of 1924, the country had already four times the South American championship won and it was often the other two major South American football countries, Argentina and Brazil, been the boss.
  4. ^ Until November 2006 remained vague about. first hat-tricks of the World Cup. Most archives and literature essentially to the record Stábile; a minority wrote the first hat-trick to the American Bert Patenaude, two days before the match between Argentina and Mexico would already have scored three times against Paraguay. After review by FIFA was designated Penaude on November 10, 2006 as the first footballer in the history of the World Cup which made a hat trick.
  5. ^ Argentina made during the 1930 FIFA World Cup eighteen goals, Uruguay fifteen. The ultimate goal average of the tournament ended at 3.89 goals per game, one of the highest averages in the history of the championship. After 1954 FIFA World Cup (5.38 - the all time record) was never reached such an average
  6. ^ The term "group of death" is usually relative. When the positions of the four countries, an average is taken into the eight groups, however, can be established in fact which group contains the strongest countries. In 2014 this group D appeared with the countries of Costa Rica, England, Italy and Uruguay
  7. ^ The economic position. Latin America in the world has a direct impact on the position of Latin America in the world of football. The entire Latin American zone is a geographical seen normally assigned to the (semi-) peripheral part of the world system. It is not of an economic power depends on not enough to invest in the necessary infrastructure and specific provisions to create an environment in which to develop the football itself (including its financial implications) - construction of modern stadiums with good fields investment in youth education, prevention of match-fixing, et cetera. Creaming of the group of talented players from Latin America and therefore stagnation of the development is a result of the economic situation. With Brazil now as one of the four BRIC countries and gradually solicitation of Latin America at the center countries would, however, mitigating the problem situation can be put in motion.
  8. ^ Diego Maradona was voted footballer of the century by the public, via the FIFA website could vote: more than 55% of the vote, he was the number two, Pelé, with nearly forty percent. At the same election was voted by selected experts from all over the world. They chose it for Pele.
  9. ^ It refers regularly with the name Rioplatense to the countries Argentina and Uruguay, which are both on and are separated by the river. On This Image is visible on the upper left (north of the river) is the Uruguayan capital Montevideo and right below the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires
  10. ^ A "line" is in the football terminology tactical designation of a row of football players on a field. Normally there is three lines: defense, midfield and attack; When one speaks of lines in a specific gaming system, they do this by setting the number of players per line of succession - for example, a "5-3-2 system" with five defenders, three midfielders and two strikers. When there is talk of "too big spaces between the lines", it usually refers to the utilization of certain lines, allowing the opponent to that part of the field is given too much space.
  11. ^ In Central America, all countries have a formal system of Apertura and Clausura. South American countries that use the same system are Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, as well as the Caribbean Haiti.
  12. ^ French Guiana is in italics because they are a French overseas department, so, they can't affiliate to FIFA.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d Mangan; DaCosta (November 2001). Sport in Latin American Society: Past and Present. pp. 25–26, 139, 150.
  3. ^ Wilson (2007). Buenos Aires: A Cultural and Literary History. p. 239.
  4. ^ Pears, Tim (4 June 2006). "Salvation army". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
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  6. ^ a b Rollin (14 July 2014). "Football (soccer) - North and Central American and the Caribbean". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  7. ^ a b c Augustyn (August 2011). The Britannica Guide to Soccer. pp. 21, 27.
  8. ^ (in Spanish) -CR / Historia del fútbol and CR on the official website of the Costa Rican Football Federation. Accessed on 9 November 2014.
  9. ^ Courtney (RSSSF) (February 2013). "El Salvador - List of International Matches". Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  10. ^ Romero (RSSSF) (August 2009). "Costa Rica - List of International Matches". Retrieved 9 November 2014.
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  12. ^ Lacey. God Is Brazilian Charles Miller, the Man Who Brought Football To Brazil.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Campomar (May 2014). Golazo !: The Beautiful Game from the Aztecs to the World Cup: The Complete History of How Soccer Shaped Latin America.
  14. ^ a b c d e Mason. Passion of the People ?: Football in South America. pp. 15–18.
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  19. ^ a b Galeano. Soccer in Sun and Shadow. pp. 38–39.
  20. ^ Lugo, Di Maggio, Stokkermans and Toma (RSSSF) (August 2013). "Gold Cup". Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  21. ^ /uefachampionsleague/history/background/index.html Football's top club competition on the official website of European football UEFA. Accessed on 9 November 2014.
  22. ^ Augustyn (August 2011). The Britannica Guide to Soccer. pp. 23–24.
  23. ^ The monumental Story of Uruguay's 1924 Olympic Campaign LaCelesteBlog.com. Accessed on 9 November 2014.
  24. ^ a b c d e Lisi (2011). A History of the World Cup, 1930-2010. pp. 9–19.
  25. ^ Jose (RSSSF) (November 2006). "World Cup 1930". Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  26. ^ a b c /classicfootball/stadiums/stadium=34866/index.html Classic Football - Stadiums - Centenario on the official website of world football FIFA. Accessed on 9 November 2014.
  27. ^ a b Hosts Uruguay beat arch-rivals to first world crown on the official world Football website FIFA. Accessed on 9 November 2014.
  28. ^ Pozzo the mastermind as Italy Retain Their crown on the official website of world football FIFA. Accessed on 9 November 2014.
  29. ^ worldcup / mexico1970 / index.html Mexico in thrall to Brazilians' beautiful game on the official website of world football FIFA. Accessed on 9 November 2014.
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  32. ^ Match Report on the official FIFA website. Accessed on 9 November 2014
  33. ^ Kay (December 2011). The Scottish World: A Journey Into the Scottish Diaspora.
  34. ^ Diário de Pernambuco, 18/06/1938
  35. ^ Laine (February 2012). Facts About Association Football – History Timeline. p. 16.
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  37. ^ Andrés, Coto (RSSSF) (September 2014). "Costa Rica - List of Champions and Runners Up". Retrieved 9 November 2014.
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  40. ^ Stokkermans (RSSSF) (August 2014). "Cup CONCACAF". Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  41. ^ Gonzalez (RSSSF) (March 2003). "Copa Pan-Americana 2003". Retrieved 9 November 2014.
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  43. ^ Tabeira (RSSSF) (July 2007). "The Copa América Archive". Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  44. ^ a b Duke (6 November 2006). "Top 10 international rivalries". CNN. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  45. ^ "2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa - Ticos keen to stay top". FIFA. August 2009. Retrieved 9 November 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]