Forces of Freedom and Change

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Forces of Freedom and Change
FoundedJanuary 2019 (2019-01)[1]
FounderSudan Revolutionary Front, Sudanese Professionals Association, National Consensus Forces,[1] Sudanese resistance committees[2]
Focuswide political coalition to restore democracy in Sudan
Location

The Forces of Freedom and Change alliance (FFC,[3] Alliance for Freedom and Change, AFC,[4] or Declaration of Freedom and Change, DFC[5]) is a wide political coalition of civilian and rebel coalitions of Sudanese groups, including the Sudanese Professionals Association, the Sudan Revolutionary Front, the National Consensus Forces, Sudan Call, the Unionist Gathering,[1] and the Sudanese resistance committees,[2] created in January 2019 during the 2018–19 Sudanese protests.[1] The FFC drafted a "Declaration of Freedom and Change"[6] and "Freedom and Change Charter" which called for president Omar al-Bashir to be removed from power, which occurred after several more months of protest in the April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état.[7] The FFC continued coordinating protest actions, and in July 2019, negotiated a power-sharing plan with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) for a transition to return to democracy.[3][4] The agreement was signed on 17 July 2019.[5]

Creation and composition[edit]

The 2018–19 Sudanese protests had already lasted about six weeks when a wide array of civilian and rebel coalitions of Sudanese groups, including the Sudanese Professionals Association, the Sudan Revolutionary Front, the National Consensus Forces, Sudan Call, the Unionist Gathering,[1] and the Sudanese resistance committees,[2] drafted and signed a "Declaration of Freedom and Change"[6] and "Freedom and Change Charter" in which they called for president Omar al-Bashir to be removed from power.[1] The alliance of groups supporting the charter came to be known by several similar names, including the "Forces of Freedom and Change" alliance (FFC or AFC).

In August 2019, Rosalind Marsden claimed that although Sudanese women and youth had played a major role in the 2018–19 Sudanese protests ("the revolution"), they had been "largely excluded from FFC decision-making bodies".[8]

Role in 2019 political changes[edit]

Throughout the first half of 2019, the FFC supported continuing mass peaceful civil disobedience actions, especially mass street protests for several months. In April 2019, military forces rebelled against al-Bashir and arrested him in the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état.[7]

The FFC continued coordinating protest actions, prior to the 3 June Khartoum massacre by the Rapid Support Forces, and after the massacre. In July and August 2019, the FFC negotiated a detailed power-sharing plan with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) for a Sudanese transition to democracy.[3][4] On 20 August 2019, the TMC transferred power to the Sovereignty Council of five civilians nominated by the FFC, five military chosen by the TMC, and a civilian, Raja Nicola, chosen by mutual agreement between the FFC and the TMC.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Sudan rebel umbrella calls to develop political charter for post-regime phase". Sudan Tribune. 29 January 2019. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Abbas, Reem (8 May 2019). "In Sudan, neighbourhoods mobilised against al-Bashir". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "'Our revolution won': Sudan's opposition lauds deal with military". Al Jazeera English. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Kirby, Jen (6 July 2019). "Sudan's military and civilian opposition have reached a power-sharing deal". Vox. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  5. ^ a b FFC; TMC; Idris, Insaf (17 July 2019). "Political Agreement on establishing the structures and institutions of the transitional period between the Transitional Military Council and the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces" (PDF). Radio Dabanga. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Declaration of freedom and change" (PDF). Radio Dabanga. 1 January 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Sudan's Ibn Auf steps down as head of military council". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  8. ^ Marsden, Rosalind (13 August 2019). "Can Sudan achieve peace and democratic transition?". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  9. ^ "Sudan's Sovereign Council appointed". Radio Dabanga. 21 August 2019. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.