|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door MPV|
|Predecessor||Ford Escape (hybrid models only)|
|Successor||Ford Escape/Ford Kuga Hybrid|
Ford Explorer Hybrid (For Grand C-MAX)
The Ford C-Max (stylized as Ford C-MAX and previously called the Ford Focus C-Max) is a compact multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) produced by the Ford Motor Company since 2003. The Ford Grand C-Max has a longer wheelbase.
Ford introduced the C-Max in the United States as its first hybrid-only line of vehicles, which includes the C-Max Hybrid, released in September 2012, and the C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid, launched in October 2012. Although the C-Max was initially available only in Europe, the first generation was partially available in New Zealand.
First generation (2003)
|Also called||Ford Focus C-Max (2003–2007)|
|Assembly||Saarlouis, Germany (Saarlouis Body & Assembly)|
|Body and chassis|
|Platform||Ford C1 platform|
|Engine||I4 1.6 L, 1.8, 2.0 Duratec|
I4 1.6 L, 1.8 L, 2.0 L Duratorq TDCi
5-speed manual transmission
6-speed manual transmission
|Wheelbase||2,640 mm (103.9 in)|
|Length||4,371 mm (172.1 in)|
|Width||1,825 mm (71.9 in)|
|Height||1,588 mm (62.5 in)|
|Curb weight||1,372–1,527 kg (3,025–3,366 lb)|
It seats five passengers and has a large amount of cargo space, which can be increased by folding the rear seats flat. Some models feature diagonally sliding outer rear seats. It also shares the control blade independent rear suspension from the Focus.
Engines and transmissions
The available four-cylinder engines are the same as the Focus.
1.6 L Duratec was the basic engine for C-Max, 1.6 L Ti-VCT Duratec was also available.
1.8/2.0 L Duratec HE are the rest of available petrol engines
1.6/2.0 L Duratorq Ford/PSA made diesels were available along with Ford's 1.8 L Endura engine which is upgraded and named Duratorq
|1.6 Duratec||1,596 cc||4/16||100 hp (75 kW; 101 PS) @6000||146 N⋅m (108 lb⋅ft) @4000|
|1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT||1,596 cc||4/16||115 hp (86 kW; 117 PS) @6000||155 N⋅m (114 lb⋅ft) @4150|
|1.8 Duratec HE||1,798 cc||4/16||125 hp (93 kW; 127 PS) @6000||165 N⋅m (122 lb⋅ft) @4000|
|2.0 Duratec HE||1,999 cc||4/16||145 hp (108 kW; 147 PS) @6000||185 N⋅m (136 lb⋅ft) @4500|
|1.6 Duratorq||1,560 cc||4/16||90 hp (67 kW; 91 PS) @4000||215 N⋅m (159 lb⋅ft) @1750|
|1.6 Duratorq||1,560 cc||4/16||109 hp (81 kW; 111 PS) @4000||240 N⋅m (177 lbf⋅ft)/*260 N⋅m (192 lbf⋅ft) @1750|
|1.8 Duratorq||1,753 cc||4/16||115 hp (86 kW; 117 PS) @3700||280 N⋅m (207 lbf⋅ft) /*300 N⋅m (221 lbf⋅ft) @1900|
|2.0 Duratorq||1,997 cc||4/16||136 hp (101 kW; 138 PS) @4000||320 N⋅m (236 lbf⋅ft) /*340 N⋅m (251 lbf⋅ft) @2000|
Transmissions mated with engines are Ford IB5 (1.6/1.8 Duratec), Ford Durashift (2.0 Duratorq), MTX-75 (2.0 Duratec / 1.6-1.8 Duratorq) manual and Ford Powershift double-clutch transmission available with 2.0 Duratorq. The 4F27E mated with the 2.0 Duratec engine. A CVT automatic was also available
In December 2006, the facelifted version of the C-Max was revealed at the 2006 Bologna Motor Show and went on sale in late spring 2007. The pre-facelift version of the car (2003–2007) was called the Ford Focus C-Max. The name change to C-Max is attributable to Ford's MPV strategy of creating a 'Max' branded line of MPVs, starting with the Ford S-Max, launched in 2006.
The facelift brought the car in line with Ford's 'Kinetic Design' design language, evidenced through its twin trapezoidal grilles, large wheel arches and angular headlights. However, as the car does not have a bodyshell originally designed for 'Kinetic Design,' Ford officially states that the car contains only 'elements' of the design language.
Second generation (2011)
2012–2018 (United States)
|Model years||2011–2019 (Europe)|
|Assembly||Spain: Valencia (Ford Valencia)|
Germany: Saarlouis (Saarlouis Body & Assembly)
United States: Wayne, Michigan (hybrid)
|Body and chassis|
|Platform||Ford Global C platform|
|Related||Ford Focus Mk III|
|Wheelbase||C-Max: 2,648 mm (104.3 in)|
Grand C-Max: 2,788 mm (109.8 in)
|Length||C-Max: 4,380 mm (172.4 in)|
Grand C-Max: 4,520 mm (178.0 in)
|Width||1,828 mm (72.0 in)|
|Height||C-Max: 1,626 mm (64.0 in)|
Grand C-Max: 1,684 mm (66.3 in)
|Curb weight||C-Max: 1,374–1,550 kg (3,029–3,417 lb)|
Grand C-Max: 1,477–1,697 kg (3,256–3,741 lb)
Alongside the third generation Ford Focus Mk III, the second generation C-Max (C344) is built on Ford's new Global C platform. The appearance is inspired by the Iosis Max concept, shown at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. In addition, Ford added a long wheelbase, seven-seat minivan variant of the C-Max, the Ford Grand C-Max
The vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. Early European models include 5 seats, and 7-seat models entered the market at the end of 2010 (except Russia, where there is only the 7-seat model). At the 2011 North American International Auto Show, Ford announced a 7-seat C-MAX for the North American market. However, this model was cancelled prior to launch.
Ford unveiled the Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid and the C-Max Hybrid at the 2011 North American International Auto Show. Like the conventional C-Max, the C-Max Energi and Hybrid are five-seat only. They replace the Ford Escape Hybrid and Mercury Mariner Hybrid since Ford discontinued the Mercury brand after the 2011 model year and the Escape Hybrid after the 2012 year model. The C-Max is Ford's first hybrid-only line of vehicles. Both the plug-in and hybrid version designs are based on the European gasoline- and diesel-powered versions.
Production of the C-Max Energi in the United States ended in September 2017, while Hybrid production ended in 2018.
The redesigned C-Max features flat folding third row seats, a hands free power lift gate, rear view camera, park assist, and panoramic sunroof. HD Radio, Sirius XM, Sync, dual-zone climate control system, and navigation system come as standard or as available options on the different trim lines.
Conventional engines and transmissions
Like the previous C-Max, the new C-Max also comes with a range of petrol and diesel four-cylinder engines which are shared with the Focus:
- 1.0 L Ecoboost comes available in two states of tune, alongside the 1.6 - 100 hp and 125 hp guises.
- 1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT is available in three spec, 85PS, 105 hp (78 kW) and 125PS
- 1.6 L EcoBoost comes with 150 hp (112 kW) or 182 hp (136 kW) variant, same as in Focus
- 1.6/2.0 L Duratorq TDCi Ford/PSA made diesels are upgraded, Ford's 1.8 L Endura engine is not available any more. They come in 110 hp and 140 hp for the 1.6 and 2.0 respectively.
|1.0 Ecoboost||999||3/12||100 hp (75 kW; 101 PS)|
|1.0 Ecoboost||999||3/12||125 hp (93 kW; 127 PS)|
|1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT||1,596||4/16||85 hp (63 kW; 86 PS)|
|1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT||1,596||4/16||105 hp (78 kW; 106 PS) @6000||150 N⋅m (111 lbf⋅ft) @4000-4500|
|1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT||1,596||4/16||125 hp (93 kW; 127 PS) @6000||159 N⋅m (117 lb⋅ft) @4000|
|1.6 EcoBoost||1,596||4/16||150 hp (112 kW; 152 PS) @5700||240 N⋅m (177 lbf⋅ft) /270 N⋅m (199 lbf⋅ft) @1600-4000|
|1.6 EcoBoost||1,596||4/16||182 hp (136 kW; 185 PS) @5700||240 N⋅m (177 lbf⋅ft) /270 N⋅m (199 lbf⋅ft) @1600-5000|
|1.6 Duratorq||1,560||4/8||95 hp (71 kW; 96 PS) @3600||230 N⋅m (170 lbf⋅ft) @1500-2000|
|1.6 Duratorq||1,560||4/8||115 hp (86 kW; 117 PS) @3600||270 N⋅m (199 lbf⋅ft) /285 N⋅m (210 lbf⋅ft) @1750-2500|
|2.0 Duratorq||1,997||4/16||115 hp (86 kW; 117 PS) @3750||300 N⋅m (221 lbf⋅ft) @1500-2250|
|2.0 Duratorq||1,997||4/16||140 hp (104 kW; 142 PS) @3750||320 N⋅m (236 lbf⋅ft) @1750-2750|
|2.0 Duratorq||1,997||4/16||163 hp (122 kW; 165 PS) @3750||340 N⋅m (251 lbf⋅ft) @2000-3250|
Transmissions mated with engines are Ford IB5 (1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT), B6 (1.6 EcoBoost/1.6 Duratorq), Durashift MMT6 (2.0 Duratorq) manual and Ford Powershift double-clutch transmission available with the 2.0 Duratorq engine.
The Ford C-MAX was facelifted in 2015 and the 1.6 ecoboost changed from 1.6 ECOBOOST 125 PS to the 1.0 ECOBOOST 125PS along with the 1.6 TDCI 115PS DUROTORQ changing to the 1.5 TDCI 120 PS DUROTORQ Single Over head cam unit.
Ford developed the C-Max Hybrid with the aim to become "America’s most affordable hybrid utility vehicle." The gasoline-electric hybrid model base pricing starts at US$24,995, including destination and delivery.
The front-wheel drive hybrid has a 2.0-liter four-cylinder Atkinson cycle engine mated to an electric motor and a 1.4 kWh lithium-ion battery for total power output of 188 hp (140 kW). The top speed in all-electric mode of 65 mph (105 km/h) and the car's top speed in hybrid mode is 115 mph (185 km/h).
The hybrid has a maximum cargo volume of 52.6 cu ft (1,490 L) with rear seats folded flat, and 24.5 cu ft (690 L) in the cargo area behind the rear seats, providing more room than the regular Prius liftback, but less cargo room than the Prius v, which provides 67.3 cu ft (1,910 L) with the rear seats folded.
The Hybrid is offered in two trims:
The SE features eco-friendly cloth seating surfaces, Ford SYNC system with A/M-F/M stereo with single-disc CD/MP3 player, USB and auxiliary input jacks, six speakers, a multi-informational gauge cluster and color display screen, keyless entry, alloy wheels, and split-folding rear bench seat, plus a security alarm.
The SEL adds leather seating surfaces, MyFord Touch with AM/FM HD Radio stereo with single-disc CD/MP3 player and USB and auxiliary input jacks, a Sony premium surround sound system, SIRIUS Satellite Radio, power dual front seats, keyless access, push-button start system, and other luxury features. For the 2017 model year, the SEL trim level on both the C-Max Hybrid and Energi will be renamed to the Titanium trim level and also all the 2017 Ford C-Max Hybrids and plug-in Energis are expected to have restyled headlights and taillights.
The Energi Plug-In Hybrid is only available in SEL trim. But for the 2017 model year the C-Max Energi is also available on the SE trim level.
Ford's design aimed for the C-Max Hybrid to deliver better fuel economy than the Toyota Prius v. Ford had reduced its estimated fuel economy twice, once in 2013 and again in 2014, with the second revision placing fuel economy below the Prius V. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initially rated the hybrid model at 47 mpg‑US (5.0 L/100 km; 56 mpg‑imp) with the same rating for combined/city/highway cycles. These ratings allowed the C-Max Hybrid to improve the fuel economy of the Toyota Prius v by 3 mpg-US on the city cycle, by 7 mpg-US on the highway cycle and by 5 mpg-US combined. However, after criticism and lawsuits about worse-than-expected real-world fuel economy, in August 2013 Ford voluntarily lowered the EPA ratings and issued customer rebates. The revised fuel economy ratings were reduced to 45 mpg‑US (5.2 L/100 km; 54 mpg‑imp) for city driving, 43 mpg‑US (5.5 L/100 km; 52 mpg‑imp) for combined and 40 mpg‑US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg‑imp) for highway. The revised rating for the updated 2013 C-Max Hybrid is still better than the 42 mpg‑US (5.6 L/100 km; 50 mpg‑imp) combined rating for the Toyota Prius v. A second downward revision was made during June 2014.
Ford boosted the on-road fuel efficiency of its three 2013 model year hybrids through changes in the cars' vehicle control software in an effort to improve customer satisfaction. The upgrade was offered free of charge to existing owners of these hybrids. Some of the changes include:
- Increasing the maximum pure electric speed from 62 to 85 mph (100 to 137 km/h), allowing increased use of electric-only mode on the highway
- Optimizing the use of Active Grille Shutters to reduce aerodynamic drag under more driving and temperature conditions including cold weather, during air conditioner use and when the engine coolant temperature is higher
- Reducing the electric fan speed as a function of coolant temperature to minimize the fan’s energy consumption
- Shortening engine warm-up time by up to 50% to enable electric-only driving and engine shutdown at stops sooner after cold starts
- Optimizing the climate control system to minimize use of the air conditioning compressor and reduce the energy used in cold weather operation.
A total of 969 units were sold during September 2012, allowing the C-Max Hybrid to rank as the ninth-best selling hybrid car in the United States that month. During October, its first full month in the market, 3,182 units were sold, outselling the Prius v by more than 400 units, which had ranked as the fourth most sold hybrid in the previous months. Sales of the C-Max Hybrid also led Ford to achieve its best October hybrid sales month ever with a total of 4,612 sales, up 142% over October 2011. Ford reported that 25% of C-Max Hybrid sales took place in California, with Los Angeles and San Francisco as the top selling regional markets. A total of 10,935 C-Max Hybrids were sold during 2012, and a total of 28,056 units in 2013. After Ford cut the car's EPA fuel economy rating by 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) per gallon to 43 mpg in the middle of 2012, the car experienced its three worst sales months since it debuted in the U.S. Since its inception, a total of 72,330 units have been sold in the United States through December 2015.
Fuel economy controversies
This section needs to be updated.June 2014)(
In December 2012, Motor Trend reported that Consumer Reports and Green Car Reports have found that the 2013 Ford C-Max Hybrid and 2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid, which share the same powertrain, do not deliver their triple 47 mpg‑US (5.0 L/100 km; 56 mpg‑imp) EPA ratings in real-world use. After running both vehicles through Consumer Reports real-world tests, the magazine found that C-Max hybrid achieved a combined fuel economy average of 37 mpg‑US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg‑imp), with 35 mpg‑US (6.7 L/100 km; 42 mpg‑imp) and 38 mpg‑US (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg‑imp) for city and highway. Green Car Reports found that the C-Max delivered 37 mpg‑US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg‑imp) over 50 mi (80 km) of mixed freeway and urban driving, and 40 mpg‑US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg‑imp) over 240 mi (390 km) mostly at freeway speeds.
Consumer Reports concluded that the overall fuel economy for the C-Max Hybrid is off by 10 mpg, representing a deviation of about 20%. The consumer magazine said that their overall fuel economy results are usually close to the EPA's combined-mpg estimate, and among current models tested, more than 80% fall within 2 mpg margin. The largest discrepancy the magazine has previously found was 7 and 6 mpg for the Toyota Prius C and the Prius hatchback, respectively. Ford responded in a statement, saying that, "Early C-MAX Hybrid and Fusion Hybrid customers praise the vehicles and report a range of fuel economy figures, including some reports above 47 mpg. This reinforces the fact that driving styles, driving conditions, and other factors can cause mileage to vary."
A few days later the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) said it would review claims that two new Ford hybrid vehicles were not delivering the advertised 47 mpg. Linc Wehrly, Director of Light-duty Vehicle Center Compliance Division at EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan commented that hybrids had far more variability in miles per gallon than conventional vehicles. All vehicles are run through the same EPA fuel-efficiency test but the test is not administered by the EPA; instead the automakers conduct the test and EPA often conducts reviews. Most vehicles's real-world gas mileage is less than the EPA sticker number, and can often be 20% less than depending on speed, temperature and other factors. The EPA explained that with hybrids the gap was much wider, as high as 30%.
The problem lay with EPA's rules that allowed automakers to group similar vehicles and apply the same ratings, which Ford did with the Fusion hybrid and C-Max hybrids.
Ford Motor Co. officials said the real-world fuel-efficiency in the C-Max Hybrid depended on driving style and other factors, and that the company did not expect the car's fuel efficiency numbers to change, as they followed EPA's test guidelines. Ford said they we re working closely with the EPA to determine if changes were needed for the industry relative to hybrid vehicle testing. They explained that several factors could affect hybrid fuel economy more than that of regular gasoline engines, including speed (as the difference between 75 mph and 65 mph could produce a 7-mpg difference in fuel economy); outside temperature (the difference between 40 °F and 70 °F could result in a 5 mpg difference); and vehicle break-in (a 5 mpg difference could occur from the difference 0 miles to 6,0 miles).
Due to the criticism and lawsuits, in July 2013 Ford announced it would boost the on-road fuel efficiency of the C-Max and its other two 2013 hybrids through changes in the vehicle control software, in an effort to improve customer satisfaction. In August 2013, the carmaker voluntarily reduced the official EPA ratings in August 2013. They also announced they would issue rebates to some 32,000 C-Max owners who would be notified by mail. The payment would be US$550 to U.S. customers who purchased C-Maxes, and US$325 to customers who had leased them.
After the Ford announcement, the EPA stated that it will update the test procedures used to assign fuel economy ratings to cars "to ensure that the requirements keep pace with industry trends and innovations in advanced high-efficiency vehicles." Ford used the Fusion Hybrid test to generate the fuel economy label for the C-Max Hybrid following EPA's rules. These, which date to the 1970s, specify that automakers can use the same fuel economy numbers for similar-size vehicles equipped with the same engines and transmissions. The EPA requires automakers to test the fuel economy of the biggest-selling model in a specific category. In its midsize hybrid class, Ford tested the Fusion sedan version because it was the top seller, and Ford was allowed to apply the 47 mpg‑US (5.0 L/100 km; 56 mpg‑imp) achieved with the Fusion Hybrid in combined, city and highway driving to the C-Max hybrid. Ford has no plans to change the fuel economy ratings on the 2013 Fusion hybrid.
|Ford C-Max Energi|
|Assembly||United States: Wayne, Michigan|
|Body and chassis|
|Related||Ford Fusion Energi|
|Battery||7.6 kWh lithium-ion|
|Electric range||20 mi (32 km)|
The C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid started at US$27,995 including the destination fee. According to its battery size, the plug-in car qualified for a federal tax credit of US$4,007, and it is eligible for additional incentives at the state and local level, such as California's US$1,500 rebate.
The C-Max Energi was designed with total 188 hp (140 kW) in hybrid mode delivered by a 2.0-liter Atkinson cycle four-cylinder gasoline engine plus an electric motor powered by a 7.6 kWh lithium-ion battery pack, which is smaller and lighter than nickel metal hydride batteries used in previous Ford generation hybrids. The electric drivetrain can produce a peak power of 68 kW, limited by the size of the electric motor and the power delivery capability of the battery pack, and delivers a total system power of 195 hp (150 kW) in charge-depleting mode (EV mode). The C-Max Energi is capable of reaching a top electric-only speed of 85 mph (137 km/h), exceeding the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid by more than 20 mph (32 km/h). The top speed in hybrid mode is 115 mph (185 km/h).
The C-Max Energi uses a regenerative braking system capable of capturing and reusing more than 95% of the braking energy normally lost during the braking process. The charging time for the C-Max Energi is 7 hours with a 120 volt charger, and 2.5 hours with a 240 volt charger. The charge port has a LED light ring like the Ford Focus Electric and is located on the driver’s side and near the front of the car. The light ring illuminates to indicate charge status. The battery is covered by an eight years or 100,000 mi (160,000 km) component warranty.
Ford equipped the C-Max Energi with a button mounted in the center stack that enables drivers to choose an electric-only driving mode, and allows the driver to switch vehicle operation between three modes: electric-only driving without gasoline engine power ("EV Now" setting); normal hybrid mode where the powertrain blends electric and gasoline engine power as appropriate ("EV Auto" setting); or a battery-saving mode that reserves the battery power for later use ("EV Later" setting). Like the Ford Fusion Hybrid, the C-Max Energi comes with a SmartGauge with EcoGuide that provides in-vehicle customizable displays, including instantaneous fuel economy readings and coaching functions to help drivers understand and optimize their fuel efficiency. The plug-in hybrid also features ECO Cruise which saves energy by relaxing acceleration compared to standard cruise control.
Ford designed the C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid to deliver better miles per gallon equivalent (MPG-e) in all-electric mode than the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. Initially, the EPA rated the Energi combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at 100 MPG-e (2.4 L/100 km). Later, due to complaints from owners not achieving the sticker fuel economy, and following a technical review, the official EPA rating in EV mode was downgraded to 88 MPG-e (2.7 L/100 km). In a similar way, initially the EPA rating in hybrid-gasoline mode was 43 mpg‑US (5.5 L/100 km; 52 mpg‑imp), but it was later downgraded to 38 mpg‑US (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg‑imp). EPA's rating for combined EV/hybrid operation is 51 MPG-e (4.6 L gasoline equivalent/100 km), which allows the C-Max Energi to rank in sixth place, together with the Fusion Energi, among the top ten EPA-Rated Fuel Sippers since 1984.
The C-Max Energi has an all-electric range of 20 mi (32 km), for a total EPA certified range of 550 mi (890 km), which in 2012 surpassed both the generation 1 Chevrolet Volt (380 mi (610 km)), and the Prius Plug-in Hybrid (540 mi (870 km)).
Ford released the C-Max Energi in the U.S. market by mid October 2012, and during that month 144 units were delivered to U.S. retail customers, and ended with 2,374 units delivered in 2012. The C-Max Energi ranked as the fifth top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. during 2013, and climbed to number fourth in 2014. Over 35,700 units have been sold in North America and Europe through December 2016, with 33,509 units delivered in the U.S. through December 2016, 967 units in Canada through December 2016, and 1,229 in the Netherlands in 2015.
C-Max Solar Energi concept
Ford Motor Company announced the C-MAX Solar Energi concept, a solar PV-powered vehicle to run electrically without depending on the electric grid for fuel. The C-MAX Solar Energi Concept was unveiled at the 2014 International CES in Las Vegas. This is a collaborative project of Ford, SunPower Corp. and the Georgia Institute of Technology.
For the North American market, the C-Max Hybrid was assembled alongside the 2012 Focus and Ford Focus Electric at Ford's Wayne plant in Michigan. The C-Max Energi was also assembled in Michigan. Since 2015, all European versions are built in the Saarlouis Body & Assembly, Germany. Ford of Europe announced that it would end production of both the C-Max and Grand C-Max in Germany by the end of the second quarter of 2019.
- The C-Max Energi was awarded the 2012 Green Car Vision Award by the Green Car Journal at the 2012 Washington Auto Show.
- Both the Ford C-Max hybrid and the Energi plug-in hybrid were among the five finalists for the 2013 Green Car of the Year awarded by the Green Car Journal at the 2012 Los Angeles Auto Show.
In Europe, the C-Max is designed with lower VOC and allergens, along with several other Ford vehicles.
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- Woodyard, Chris. "Ford lowers C-Max hybrid's mpg rating, offers rebates". USA Today. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
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- "2017 Ford C-Max Energi". NADAguides.com.
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- "Ford". Ford article on Green vehicles. Ford.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ford C-Max.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ford C-Max Energi.|
- Ford C-Max at Ford UK
- Ford C-Max Owners Club
- Real world performance data on the Ford C-Max Energi, Idaho National Laboratory, December 2013
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