Ford E-Series

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Ford E-Series
2008 Ford E-Series wagon.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Ford
Production 1961–present (limited beyond 2015, only stripped chassis and cutaway cab in production)
Model years 1961–present
Assembly Lorain, Ohio, United States
Avon Lake, Ohio, United States
Oakville, Ontario, Canada[1]
Body and chassis
Class Full size van
Chronology
Predecessor Ford F-Series panel van
Successor Ford Transit (United States & Canada)

The Ford E-Series (also known as the Ford Econoline and Ford Club Wagon throughout various stages of its production) is a line of full-size vans (cargo van and passenger van) and truck chassis (cutaway van and stripped chassis) from the Ford Motor Company. Introduced for the 1961 model year as the replacement for the panel van bodystyle of the Ford F-Series, the Ford E-Series has been produced in four distinct generations. After the F-Series and the Australian Ford Falcon, it is the third longest-produced nameplate by the company worldwide.

For the 2015 model year, Ford largely phased out the E-Series cargo/passenger vans in favor of the Ford Transit sold worldwide. As of the 2016 model year, the E-Series is only produced in cutaway-cab chassis and stripped chassis variants. The E-Series is manufactured at the Ford Motor Company Ohio Assembly plant in Avon Lake, Ohio, following the closure of the Lorain Assembly plant in December 2005.

Since 1980, the E-Series has been the best-selling American full-sized van, holding 79.6% of the full-size van market in the United States in 2007, with 168,722 vehicles sold.[2] Ninety-five percent of E-Series sales are to commercial or fleet users, with cargo vans comprising nearly half of production.[3]

First generation (1961–1967)[edit]

Ford E-Series
1st-Ford-Econoline.jpg
1961–1967 Ford Econoline (customized)
Overview
Also called Ford Falcon Club Wagon
Mercury Econoline (Canada)
Production 1961–1967
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door van
2-door pickup truck
Layout FMR layout
Related Ford Falcon
Powertrain
Engine 144 cu in (2.4 L) Falcon Six I6
170 cu in (2.8 L) Thriftpower Six I6
240 cu in (3.9 L) I6
Transmission 3-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 90.0 in (2,286.0 mm)[4]
Width 75.0 in (1,905.0 mm)[4]
Height 76.9 in (1,953.3 mm)[4]

Based on the compact Ford Falcon automobile, the first Ford Econoline was introduced to the public on September 21, 1960 for the 1961 model year based on design sketches that were dated 1957.[5] The Ford models were sized to compete with the Chevrolet Greenbrier and the Volkswagen Type 2, which was 172.3 in (4,376 mm) long and introduced in the U.S. market in the 1950s. The Volkswagen van had made an impact on the marketplace, thus both Chevrolet and Ford responded with their own versions.[6] Originally offered as a cargo van, a window van (called the "Station Bus") with or without seats with up to three rows of seating, offering a maximum eight-passenger capacity (which carried the Ford Falcon name), and as a pickup truck. A 165 lb (75 kg) counterweight was fitted over the rear wheels to balance the front-heavy vehicle; this was sometimes removed by later owners.

The design of situating the driver on top of the front axle with the engine near the front wheels is often called in the U.S. "cab over", short for cab over engine configuration, and in Europe a "forward control" vehicle. The body styling borrowed heavily from the smaller, UK made Ford Thames 400E van that had been in production since 1957, as well as the Jeep Forward Control that were introduced in 1956, but were not factory available as an enclosed van. The 1961 Econoline made Ford the first American manufacturer to offer a van series as it is now known.[7]

Avoiding the use of an air-cooled, rear-mounted engine used by Volkswagen and Chevrolet, as well as other engineering advances, the first E-Series had a conventional front engine between and behind the front seats and a flat nose.[8] Early models had a 144 cu in (2.4 L) I6 engine with a three-speed manual transmission. Later models had 170 cu in (2.8 L) or 240 cu in (3.9 L) I6 engines with a three-speed manual or an automatic transmission. Ford had projections for building more Econoline pickups than vans, but buyers preferred conventional body design and the forward control pickup version was 10% of 1961 Econoline production.[9]

The new Econoline van had almost 40% more load space than the typical 1/2-ton panel delivery truck of the time, featuring an interior load area 54 in (1,372 mm) high and 65 in (1,651 mm) wide with over 204 cu ft (5,777 l) total load space.[10] These closed van body versions were popular as service vehicles, such as with utilities like the Bell Telephone System.

In its first year, 29,932 standard vans, 6,571 custom Econoline buses, 11,893 standard pickups, and 3,000 custom pickups were made.

Mercury Econoline[edit]

The Econoline was sold as a Mercury alongside the M-Series truck lineup. Production of the pickup version began in 1961 at Oakville Assembly in Canada, but later that year moved to Lorain, Ohio, and in 1962, the production of Econoline vans and pickups returned to Oakville and remained there until production ended in 1965.[11] For 1966 and 1967, Lorain-built Econolines were exported to Canada.[11]

Production numbers were low; for example, a total of 1,291 Mercury Econoline pickup trucks were built in 1965.[12] Only the first generation of Econolines were sold under the Mercury badge in Canada.

The next van sold by the division would be the 1993 Villager minivan.

Second generation (1968–1974)[edit]

Second generation
Ford Club Wagon -- 12-14-2011 1.jpg
1972–1974 Ford Club Wagon
Overview
Production 1968–1974
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door van
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 240 cu in (3.9 L) I6
300 cu in (4.9 L) I6
302 cu in (4.9 L) Windsor V8
Transmission 3-Speed Manual
3-speed Cruise-O-Matic automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase SWB: 105.5 in (2,679.7 mm)
LWB: 123.5 in (3,136.9 mm)

As the result of a lengthy United Auto Workers strike in the late spring of 1968, the launch of the second-generation Econoline van was pushed back into the 1969 model year. Technically, the model line went on hiatus for the 1968 model year, although it was made up by a relatively early launch for 1969. Shedding its Falcon roots, the second-generation Econoline became a heavier-duty vehicle, sharing many of its underpinnings with the F-Series full-size pickups.

Chassis[edit]

While the unibody construction of the previous generation van was carried over, a major change was made in the overall layout in the body and chassis of the Econoline. To build a heavier-duty chassis, the mid-engine forward-control layout was abandoned in favor of a front-engine layout with the axle placed forward; this also allowed the use of the "Twin I-Beam" front suspension used in the F-Series trucks. The redesign in the configuration resulted in major growth; the Econoline grew 15 inches in wheelbase; an 18-inch longer long-wheelbase model became the largest full-size van offered in North America at the time.

As they had become introduced as options in Dodge and Chevrolet/GMC vans, Ford introduced a V8 engine option into the powertrain line.

Body[edit]

With the change of chassis and axle configurations, the Econoline gained a conventional hood for engine access (though most engine access remained from the interior). To aid in engine compartment ventilation, the model was given a conventional grille, styled similar to the F-Series.

For 1971, the grille was redesigned to match the updated F-Series. For 1972, a sliding rear door became an option; introduced on a cutaway van chassis was the Hi-Cube van, a cab-chassis version of the Econoline with a box-van body. The introduction of the cab-chassis variant would become popular in the recreational-vehicle industry (a Class C RV), a segment still dominated by the E-Series in the 2010s.

Interior[edit]

Inside of the Econoline, the shift of the engine location moved the engine housing from under the seats to in front of the driver and front passenger, under the windshield. While the Econoline cargo van remained, it was joined by an Econoline passenger van (replacing the Falcon van). To attract more buyers to passenger vans, Ford introduced two new trims of the passenger van, the Ford Club Wagon and Ford Club Wagon Chateau. Based on the long-wheelbase version, the Chateau featured air conditioning, houndstooth fabric on all seats, an AM/FM sound system, and the option of 12-passenger seating.

Third generation (1975–1991)[edit]

Third generation
83-91 Ford Club Wagon.jpg
1983–1991 Ford Club Wagon
Overview
Also called Ford Club Wagon
Production 1975–1991
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door van
Layout FR layout
Platform Ford VN platform
Related Ford Carousel
Powertrain
Engine 240 cu in (3.9 L) I6
300 cu in (4.9 L) I6
302 cu in (4.9 L) Windsor V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor V8
460 cu in (7.5 L) 385 V8
6.9 L Navistar diesel V8
7.3 L Navistar diesel V8
Transmission 3-speed manual
4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
4-speed automatic

For 1975, the Econoline/Club Wagon were given a complete redesign. Based on an all-new chassis, Ford became the first American manufacturer to adapt body-on-frame construction to a full-size van.

The new-generation Econoline would become common not only in its own right, but as the basis for other vehicles. With a full frame, the Econoline became popular as a cutaway van chassis; the design served as a basis for many ambulances, and various types of trucks and buses. The shared drivetrain with the F-Series marked the beginning of aftermarket four-wheel drive conversions. During the 1970s, the Econoline became popular as a basis for van conversions. Using the sparsely-equipped Econoline cargo van as a basis, a luxurious interior was fitted, along with extensive customization of the exterior.

A stillborn variant of the Econoline, the Ford Carousel, nearly reached production as the first American minivan. While a running prototype was produced and planned for a potential 1975-1976 introduction, lack of funding led to the discontinuation of the project.

Chassis[edit]

1975-1978 Ford Econoline 150 Chateau
1988 Econoline 350 cutaway van
1980s Ford Club Wagon XLT

To increase the versatility of the full-size van line, the Econoline was developed using body-on-frame construction for the first time. In addition to increasing the strength of the chassis, the configuration allowed more commonality with the F-Series trucks. As before, the Twin I-Beam front suspension was utilized. In its new configuration, the engine was moved further forward and lowered, relative to the body. In a massive growth spurt, the short-wheelbase configuration was 0.5 inches longer than the previous long-wheelbase chassis; the new long-wheelbase chassis was 138 inches, the longest wheelbase full-size van sold until 1990. In 1988, the 124-inch wheelbase was discontinued, leaving the 138-inch wheelbase as standard.

In 1982, to increase the fuel economy of the Econoline without a major loss in engine output, Ford introduced the option of a 6.9L IDI diesel V8 produced by International Harvester; in 1988, this was enlarged to 7.3L. The diesel V8 engines were available only in Econoline 350s (or Club Wagons sold on the same chassis).

Due to the popularity of automatic transmissions in full-size vans, Ford discontinued the 3-speed manual and 4-speed manual transmissions after the 1987 model year.

Body[edit]

Unlike its predecessors, Ford designed the 1975 Econoline with a true "two-box" layout. Similar to the Ford Transit of the time, the configuration moved the engine as far forward as possible and lower in the chassis than in its predecessor; although the hood was nearly twice as long, the hoodline was much lower. A higher degree of parts commonality with the F-Series made itself known in the bodystyling: the vent windows, taillights, bumpers, and wheels were common items between the two vehicles.

During its sixteen-year production run, the exterior of the Econoline/Club Wagon would remain nearly unaltered. In 1978, the Super Van/Super Wagon was introduced; based on the 138-inch wheelbase, it was a rear body extension allowing for extra cargo room or an extra row of seating (for up to 15 passengers). In 1979, a minor facelift updated the grille design; round headlights were replaced by rectangular units. In 1983, the Ford Blue Oval was added to the grille, replacing the "FORD" lettering on the hood.

Although the 1986 Ford Aerostar minivan would introduce styling far different from the Econoline, the basic styling of the full-size van would heavily influence the Ford Ranger (and its SUV offspring, the Ford Bronco II).

Interior[edit]

Inside, the redesign of the chassis expanded interior room, though the rear of the engine still remained between the front seats; an engine cover still provided access for servicing. Sharing many controls with the F-Series, the new design also improved interior ergonomics. In three body sizes, the Econoline was produced in a cargo van and passenger van, with the latter produced in three trim levels; base, Custom and Chateau. In addition, the Club Wagon was produced solely as a passenger van. After 1980, this was replaced by F-Series nomenclature of XL and XLT. In line with the F-Series, the Econoline/Club Wagon was sold in 100/150/250/350 variants, with the Econoline 100 discontinued in 1983 (Club Wagon chassis variants were not denoted).


1975–1991 Ford E-Series dimensions[13]
124" WB 138" WB (Standard Van) 138" WB (Super Van)
Length 186.8 in (4,745 mm) 206.8 in (5,253 mm) 226.8 in (5,761 mm)
Wheelbase 124 in (3,149.6 mm) 138 in (3,505.2 mm)
Height 79.1–79.9 in (2,009.1–2,029.5 mm) 79.2–84.4 in (2,011.7–2,143.8 mm) 80.9–84.8 in (2,054.9–2,153.9 mm)
Width 79.9 in (2,029 mm)

Fourth generation (1992–present)[edit]

Fourth generation
Ford--Econoline.jpg
1997–2002 Ford Econoline
Overview
Also called Ford Econoline (until 2006; name still used in Mexico according to Ford Mexico's website)
Ford Club Wagon (until 1998)
Ford Econoline Wagon (1999–2005)
Production 1991–2014 (passenger/cargo van)
1991–present (cutaway/stripped chassis)
Model years 1992–2014 (passenger/cargo van)
1992–present (cutaway/stripped chassis)
Body and chassis
Body style 3/4-door van
Layout FR layout
Platform Ford VN platform
Powertrain
Engine 4.9 L (300 cu in) Truck Six I6
4.9 L (302 cu in) Windsor V8
5.8 L (351 cu in) Windsor V8
7.5 L (460 cu in) 385/Lima V8
Navistar 7.3 L IH IDI Diesel V8
Navistar 7.3 L Power Stroke Diesel V8
4.2 L Essex V6
4.6 L Triton V8
5.4 L Triton V8
6.8 L Triton V10
Navistar 365 CID 6.0 L Power Stroke Diesel V8
Transmission 4-speed AOD automatic
5-speed TorqShift automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 138 in (3,505 mm)
Length 1992–2008
Regular: 212 in (5,385 mm)
Extended: 232 in (5,893 mm)
2009–
Regular: 216.7 in (5,504 mm)
Extended: 236.7 in (6,012 mm)
Width 79.3–79.9 in (2,014–2,029 mm)
Height 80.7–84.1 in (2,050–2,136 mm)
Curb weight 4,773 lb (2,165 kg)

For the first time since 1975, the Ford Econoline was given a major redesign for the 1992 model year. Although the body and interior saw extensive changes, the fleet-oriented Econoline 150/250/350 made its return in both cargo and passenger configurations. For retail markets, the Club Wagon XLT made its return, joined by the luxury-oriented Chateau trim (reviving a trim used in the late 1970s). The Ford Club Wagon Chateau would go on to become the 1992 winner of Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award.

Sold in a single wheelbase with two body lengths, the Econoline/Club Wagon was available in several passenger configurations, seating from 2 to 15 passengers.

For 1999, the Club Wagon name was discontinued, with all Econoline passenger vans sold as Wagons. For 2001, in the United States, the Econoline name was dropped (it was dropped in Canada in 1995), with the Econoline nomenclature being shortened to E-150, E-250, E-350, similar to the F-Series nomenclature.

To celebrate its half-century mark, the E-Series featured a Special 50th Anniversary version for the 2011 model year.[14]

After 2014, the passenger van and cargo van variants of the E-Series were discontinued in North America in favor of the newly introduced Ford Transit, but cutaway cab and stripped-chassis variants remained in production for 2015 and will be built "until the end of the decade", according to Ford.[15]

Chassis[edit]

While the body and interior saw massive changes, to lower development costs, Ford retained the existing VN platform that had underpinned the Econoline/Club Wagon. Sharing many components with the F-Series trucks, the E-Series maintained the "Twin I-Beam" front suspension common to nearly all rear-wheel drive Ford trucks in North America. The rear suspension consisted of a live rear axle with rear leaf springs.

In 1992, the powertrain line was largely carried over; the E-Series was equipped with the 300 CID (4.9 L) inline-six as a base engine with an option of three gasoline V8s: 302 cu in (4.9 L), 351 cu in (5.8 L), and a 460 cu in (7.5 L)). A T444E with 444 cu in (7.3 L) diesel V8 sourced from Navistar was also an option, becoming turbocharged in 1993. In 1994, the 444 cu in (7.3 L) IDI turbodiesel was replaced by a 444 cu in (7.3 L) Ford Powerstroke diesel, also sourced by Navistar.

For 1997, nearly the entire engine line was replaced, with only the (7.3  L Powerstroke diesel remaining. A 4.2 L Essex V6 replaced the 4.9 L inline-6 and the 7.5 L V8 was replaced by a 6.8 L Triton V10. The 302 cu in (4.9 L) and 351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor V8s were replaced by 4.6 L and 5.4 L Triton V8s, respectively.

During the 2003 model year, the 7.3 L Powerstroke diesel was replaced by a 6.0 L Powerstroke diesel, again sourced by Navistar; due to the lack of airflow in the engine compartment compared to the Ford Super Duty trucks, the version used in the E-Series required to be slightly detuned. In contrast to the 7.3 L V8, the 6.0 L Powerstroke is intercooled.

For 2006, the 4.2L V6 was dropped from the E150, with the 4.6L V8 becoming the base engine; for the first time in its production, the base engine for all E-Series models was a V8 (a first in American full-size vans). Output of the 6.8 L Triton V10 was increased to 305 hp (227 kW; 309 PS) and 420 lb·ft (569 N·m) torque, and to 235/440 for the 6.0 L diesel.

As part of the 2008 update of the E-Series, the chassis underwent several updates. Although the Twin I-Beam front suspension was carried over (becoming one of two Ford vehicle to use the system, other is superduty chassis), other upgrades to the braking, suspension and steering systems improved ride and handling, braking performance and load carrying capability.[16] The chassis and suspension improvements increased in the maximum gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) from 14,050 lb (6373 kg) to a class-leading 14,500 lb (6577 kg). Additionally, the maximum front gross axle weight rating (GAWR) is increased by about 10 percent, from 4,600 lb (2087 kg) to a class-leading 5,000 lb (2268 kg).

In 2009, Ford became the first automotive manufacturer to offer a full-size van that is capable of using E85; it was available on the 2009 4.6 L and 5.4 L engines.

Following the introduction of the 6.7L Powerstroke V8 in the Ford Super Duty trucks in 2010, the diesel engine option was discontinued in the E-Series. According to Ford the primary reason is due to space limitations.[17] It was unconfirmed whether this means the engine physically does not fit or there is not enough space to allow for proper ventilation.

Engine Configuration Production Transmission
Ford Truck Six 4.9 L (300 cu in) OHV I6 1992-1996 4-speed AOD automatic

4-speed E4OD automatic

4-speed 4R100 automatic

5-speed 5R110W automatic (TorqShift)

Ford Windsor V8 4.9 L (302 cu in) OHV V8 1992-1996
5.8 L (351 cu in) OHV V8 1992-1996
Ford 385 V8 7.5 L (460 cu in) OHV V8 1992-1996
Navistar 7.3L IDI V8 7.3 L (444 cu in) OHV V8 diesel 1992
7.3 L (444 cu in) OHV V8 turbodiesel 1993
Navistar T444E V8

(Ford PowerStroke)

7.3 L (444 cu in) OHV V8 turbodiesel 1994-2003
Ford Essex V6 4.2 L (256 cu in) OHV V6 1997-2005
Ford Triton V8 4.6 L (281 cu in) SOHC 2V V8 1997-2014
5.4 L (330 cu in) SOHC 2V V8 1997-
Ford Triton V10 6.8 L (413 cu in) SOHC 2V V10 1997-

Exterior[edit]

While using the same two-box layout and proportions, the 1992 redesign of the E-Series was given a far more aerodynamic body than its predecessor. Although Ford utilized the longest forward body of any full-size van, the hood was angled downward slightly and the windshield raked back; if specified, all side window glass was flush-mounted. For the first time, the E-Series utilized flush-mounted wraparound taillights and flush-mounted headlights (the latter were an option, standard on Club Wagons). In addition, the E-Series was the first full-size van to utilize a center-mounted brake light.

For 1995, a minor change was made as the amber turn signals were removed from the taillights.

For 1997, a minor facelift involved the grille; to keep in line with other Ford products, the eggcrate grille was replaced by an eight-hole grille with an oval cutout (combining the styling of both Ford cars and trucks).

For 2003, another facelift updated the E-Series with a larger grille. Similar to the Super Duty trucks, the Ford emblem was centered in a 3-slot grille in between two openings. The front turn signals were now completely amber.

For 2008, the E-Series was given a major exterior redesign forward of the windshield, with new fenders, hood and a larger grille, similar in a style to both the Super Duty trucks and the 1979-1991 Econolines.

Interior[edit]

When redesigning the interior of the E-Series for 1992, Ford chose to modernize the driver compartment of the vehicle. Sharing its controls and components with the Ford F-Series and Aerostar, the E-Series/Club Wagon was notable for being the first full-size van equipped with a driver's side airbag as standard equipment (on all models except the Econoline 350). While the front engine cover still dominated the space between the front seats, part of the redesign freed up additional passenger room.

For 1994 model year vehicles, air-conditioning systems were converted to CFC-free R134a refrigerant beginning with September 1993 production.

For 1997, the entire drivers' compartment was redesigned. In addition to a smaller engine cover, a more ergonomic dashboard was added; dual airbags were added to all models, replacing the "brick"-style steering wheel.

For 2001, the E-150 Traveler was launched, partially intended as a successor to the previous Club Wagon and Chateau models; due to the adoption of minivans and SUVs for family vehicles, it was sold only for 2001.

For 2003, coinciding with the exterior facelift, the interior received a new engine cover with redesigned cup holders. For the first time since 1974, the E-Series was given a glove box. Shared with the Super Duty trucks, the instrument panel was given a digital odometer; for the first time, certain versions were available with a tachometer.

For 2009, the dashboard was completely redesigned, with only the steering column carried over. Designed to share components with the Super Duty trucks, the E-Series now comes with the Ford Sync system, in-dash navigation as an option, and integrated auxiliary switches. The glovebox was relocated from the engine cover to forward of the passenger seat. Another option first introduced on the vehicle is a rear-view backup camera; widely available on smaller vehicles, it is the first in the full-size van segment.

Sales[edit]

Calendar year US sales
1997 186,690[18]
1998 206,026[19]
1999 202,024[20]
2000 187,027
2001 159,565
2002 165,085[21]
2003 161,721
2004 171,017[22]
2005 179,543
2006 180,457
2007 168,722
2008 124,596
2009 85,735
2010 108,258
2011 116,874
2012 122,423
2013 125,356[23]
2014 103,263[24]

Phaseout[edit]

For the 2015 model year, the Ford Transit was introduced for sale in North America for the first time, replacing the E-Series passenger and cargo vans. Although the Transit was also introduced in cutaway and chassis-cab configurations for North America, Ford has continued commercial production of the E-Series in cutaway cab and stripped chassis configuration; no planned date is set for the end of production.[15][25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Plant Information: Oakville Assembly Complex". Media.ford.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Crossovers, Lincoln highlight Ford's 2007 sales performance; further growth expected in 2008". Media.Ford.com. January 3, 2009. 
  3. ^ "Ford Introduces The New 2008 E-Series Van". BlueOvalNews. March 7, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b c "1963 Ford Falcon Van brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  5. ^ Lee, Peter (2015). Ford Transit: Fifty Years. Crowood. ISBN 9781847978745. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  6. ^ Statham, Steve (1995). Ford Pickup Trucks. Motorbooks. p. 72. ISBN 9780879389871. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  7. ^ Chilton Book Company Repair Manual: Ford vans, 1961 to 1988. Chilton. 1988. p. 4. ISBN 9780801978418. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  8. ^ Gunnell, John. American cars of the 1960s. 2005. p. 212. ISBN 9780896891319. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  9. ^ Ernst, Kurt (19 January 2014). "Hemmings Find of the Day – 1961 Ford Econolpne pickup". Hemmings. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  10. ^ Gunnell, John (2003). Standard Catalog of Light-Duty Ford Trucks 1905-2002. Krause Publications. p. 118. ISBN 9780873494113. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Truesdell, Rich (November 3, 2014). "Mercury Trucks Dare to Be Different". Vintage truck magazine. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  12. ^ "1965 Mercury Econoline pickup truck for sale". American Dream Cars. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  13. ^ "1980 Ford Econolpne Van". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Ford’s E-Series Vans Celebrate 50 Years of Success; 2011 lineup features special anniversary edition". Media.ford.com. September 13, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b Jonathon Ramsey (April 18, 2014). "Ford E-Series chassis cabs and cutaways to survive mass Transit onslaught". autoblog.com. Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Ford Rolls Out Super Duty-Inspired 2008 E-Series Vans". Edmunds Inside Line. March 9, 2007. 
  17. ^ Ford Power Stroke engine
  18. ^ http://www.theautochannel.com/news/press/date/19990106/press002196.html
  19. ^ http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ford-motor-company-topples-december-and-full-year-us-sales-records-71957662.html
  20. ^ "Ford Motor Company Sets New Full Year U.S. Sales Record". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved April 28, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Ford's F-Series Truck Caps 22nd Year in a Row as America's Best-Selling Vehicle With a December Sales Record". Theautochannel.com. November 17, 2004. Retrieved April 28, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Ford Achieves First Car Sales Increase Since 1999". Theautochannel.com. November 17, 2004. Retrieved April 28, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Ford Motor Company Delivers Best Sales Year Since 2006; Ford Is Top Brand with Records for Fiesta, Fusion, Escape" (Press release). USA: Ford. January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Ford Posts Best U.S. December Sales Results since 2005; Ford Once Again Best-Selling Brand and Best-Selling Vehicle" (Press release). USA: Ford. January 5, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Ford Will Continue E-Series Cutaway/Stripped Chassis - PickupTrucks.com News". news.pickuptrucks.com. Retrieved 2016-06-22. 

External links[edit]