Ford Essex V6 engine (Canadian)
- See also Ford Essex V6 engine (UK)
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Displacement||232 cu in (3797 cc)
237 cu in (see note)
256 cu in (4195 cc)
|Cylinder bore||3.810 in (96.8 mm)|
|Piston stroke||3.390 in (86 mm)
3.464 in (87.9 mm)
3.74 in (95 mm)
|Cylinder block alloy||Iron|
|Cylinder head alloy||Aluminum|
|Valvetrain||OHV (pushrod)(2 Valves Per Cylinder, 12 Valves total)|
|Fuel system||2-barrel carburetor
Central Fuel Injection
Sequential Fuel Injection
|Successor||Ford Cyclone engine|
The Ford Essex V6 engine was a 90° V6 engine family built by Ford Motor Company at the Essex Engine Plant in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Unlike the British Essex V6, the Canadian Essex used a 90° V configuration, in addition to having different displacements and valvetrains. With Ford's Essex Engine Plant idled as of November 2007, this engine was succeeded by the Ford Duratec 35.
The Canadian Essex is an overhead valve (OHV, or pushrod) design featuring aluminum heads, which reduced its weight considerably and made it a very powerful engine for its size. The engine was initially offered in only a 3.8-liter displacement, being used in a variety of subcompact through large cars, minivans, and some pickup trucks. A 4.2-liter version was introduced in the mid-1990s for use in the F-150 and Ford E-Series, later, the Freestar and Monterey. The 3.8 L V6 was replaced by a 3.9 L version in 2004, though changes were minimal. The Essex and the smaller Vulcan V6 were the last traditional overhead valve engines built by Ford.
The Canadian Essex's origins are somewhat controversial. A common, but erroneous, belief is that the Essex was based on the 5.0 L Windsor V8 engine, because they both have a 90° vee configuration, are OHV, and that a 5.0 L V8 less two cylinders would make a V6 displacing around 3.8 liters. Though the practice of deriving a V6 from a V8 was not unheard of (auto manufacturers have derived V6s from V8 designs before, such as GM making the 1978-‘79 Chevrolet 200 cid (3.3 L) V6/90° from the lowly 267 cid (4.4L) SBC V8, the 1980-'84 Chevrolet 229 cid (3.8L) V6/90° from the 305 cid (5.0L) SBC V8 and the 1985-up Chevrolet 262 cid (4.3L) V6/90° Vortec 4300 from the SBC Vortec 5700 and Chrysler making the Magnum 3.9 from the 5.2), several important differences between the Windsor's design and the Essex's, such as their considerably different bore and stroke, made a common design lineage implausible.
One source states that the Essex is instead a reverse engineered Buick V6 engine. Toward the end of the 1970s, Ford needed a new six-cylinder engine that was powerful and compact enough to be used in a mid-size car while meeting increasingly stricter emissions and fuel efficiency standards. Since Ford did not have an engine available that could be readily made to meet these requirements, one needed to be developed. The quickest and least expensive approach in accomplishing this was to copy an existing engine from a competitor, which ended up being the Buick V6 from General Motors. Ford's resulting V6 was very similar to that of the original Buick engine — down to an unusual external oil pump design that was common in Buick engines and without precedent in modern Fords — and had a nearly identical displacement. In fact, one of the only major differences between the two engines early on was Ford's use of aluminum heads as opposed to the cast-iron ones used in the original Buick design. However, in the years since the Essex V6's debut, design revisions from both Ford and GM to their respective V6 designs have differentiated their engines from each other to a point that any relationship between the two designs is not as obvious as it once was.
The first version of the Essex V6, a 3.8 L (3797 cc/232 cu in) engine, was introduced for the 1982 model year, appearing as an option on the Ford Granada.
Bore was 3.810 in (96.8 mm) and stroke was 3.390 in (86.1 mm). Output was 112 horsepower (84 kW) at 4200 rpm and 175 lb·ft (237 N·m) of torque at 2800 rpm. It initially had a 2-barrel Motorcraft 2150 carburetor. Central Fuel Injection was made available in 1984. Output was 120 hp (89 kW) at 3600 rpm and 205 lb·ft (278 N·m) of torque at 1600 rpm in these models.
Multi-point fuel injection (single port) became standard on the 3.8 L V6 in 1988. All applications where the engine was used initially put out 140 horsepower (100 kW) at 3800 rpm and 215 lb·ft (292 N·m) of torque at 2400 rpm. Engines upgraded with Ford's EEC-V Powertrain Control Module (PCM) received a small increase in output to 145 horsepower (108 kW), if they did not have other enhancements to increase output beyond this already. The 1991–1995 Police Package Taurus, 1991–1994 Lincoln Continental and 1995 Ford Windstar had a high-output version of the 3.8 with better cylinder heads and other modifications. It produced 155–160 hp (116–119 kW) and 220–225 lb·ft (298–305 N·m) of torque depending on application and model year. A supercharged version of the 3.8 L V6 was used in the 1989–1995 Thunderbird Super Coupe and 1989–90 Cougar XR-7. Initial output of the engine was 210 horsepower (160 kW) at 4000 rpm and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) of torque at 2600 rpm under an 8.2:1 compression ratio. The Super Coupe was the sole user of this engine after the beginning of the 1991 model year when it was replaced by a V8 in the Cougar XR-7. Output of the supercharged V6 was increased to 230 horsepower (170 kW) at 4400 rpm and 330 lb·ft (447 N·m) of torque at 2500 rpm for the 1994 and 1995 Super Coupe. To accomplish this, the engine's Eaton M90 roots-type supercharger was given a larger, square-style inlet, a larger attaching inlet plenum, and Teflon coated rotors. Additionally, the engine received larger fuel injectors and an increase in compression to 8.6:1.
A 3.8 L V6 with split port cylinder heads was introduced in the 1996 Ford Windstar along with a variable length intake manifold and intake manifold runner control (IMRC) in the six shorter runners. This engine was rated at 200 horsepower (150 kW) at 5000 rpm and 230 lb·ft (312 N·m) of torque @ 3000 rpm.
The Mustang version of the 3.8 L V6 was updated for 1999 to use the split port cylinder heads originally introduced on the Windstar. However the 1999–2000 Mustang did not use IMRC, instead leaving all 12 intake runners open at all times. Output of the V6 in these Mustangs was 190 horsepower (140 kW) at 5250 rpm and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque @ 2750 rpm. With the addition of IMRC to Mustang in 2001, engine output increased slightly to 193 horsepower (144 kW) @ 5500 rpm and 225 lb·ft (305 N·m) (305 N·m) of torque @ 2800 rpm.
A nine-digit serial number appears on a label on the right side (front) valve cover. It also appears on a barcode label on the transmission side of the right side head.
- 1982 Ford Granada
- 1982–1983 Ford F-100
- 1982–1997 Ford Thunderbird and Mercury Cougar
- 1982–1986, 1994–2004 Ford Mustang
- 1982–1986 Mercury Capri
- 1983–1986 Ford LTD and Mercury Marquis
- 1988–1995 Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable
- 1988–1994 Lincoln Continental
- 1995–2003 Ford Windstar
A 3.9 L (237 cu in) version of the Essex V6 was introduced in 2004. It used the same 3.810 in bore diameter as the 3.8 L Essex, but had a slightly longer 3.464 in (88.0 mm) stroke. It was installed in a running change on later production 2004 Mustangs (starting October 7, 2003), though overall engine output was identical. Ford marketing information says that the bore is 3.8 inches and that the displacement is 3802 cc (232 cu in). The bore and stroke, however, work out to 3883 cc (237 cu in). Use of the 3.9 was short-lived in the Mustang though as it was replaced by Ford's 4.0 L Cologne OHC V6 when the Mustang was redesigned for 2005. The 3.9 continued on in the Ford Freestar minivan (successor to the Windstar) for a few years until production of the engine was discontinued in 2007.
A 4.2 L (256 cu in/4195 cc) version of the Essex V6 appeared in the 1997 model year as a replacement for the durable, but aging, Ford 300 straight six in the F-150. Like the 3.8 it had 12 valves and pushrods, but the 4.2 featured a longer, 3.74 in (95.0 mm) stroke. Bore diameter was the same at 3.81 in (96.8 mm). Initial output of the 4.2 L V6 in the F-150 was 217 horsepower (162 kW) at 4800 rpm and torque of 262 lb·ft (355 N·m) at 3400 rpm. Ford Power Products sells this engine as the ESG-642.
Ford experienced problems with this engine in the 1997 and 1998 model years. These included issuing all 1997 engines made at the Essex plant with a bad front cover gasket. The lower intake manifold has a bad reputation for cracking at relatively low mileage. Ford ended production of the 4.2 L V6 after the 2008 model year, marking the end of the Essex V6. The engine's final recipient, the F-150, was only available with V8 engines starting with the 2009 model year until the 2011 model year, when the 3.7L Duratec was made standard.
- 1997–2008 Ford F-150
- 1997–2005 Ford E-150
- 1997–2005 Ford E-250
- 2004–2007 Ford Freestar
- 2004–2007 Mercury Monterey
- List of Ford engines
- The Ford 4.2 engine is alluded to have the same bell housing bolt pattern as the 4.9, and small block engines of Ford.
- Anderson, Doug. "Rebuilding the Ford 3.8L Engine." Babcox Publications. http://web.archive.org/web/20080616115539/http://www.babcox.com/editorial/ar/ar90134.htm
- Ford Motor Company. Ford Media. 2000 Mustang. 2000. http://media.ford.com/products/presskit_display.cfm?vehicle_id=7&press_section_id=398&make_id=92
- Ford Motor Company. Ford Media. 2001 Mustang. 2001. http://media.ford.com/products/presskit_display.cfm?vehicle_id=298&press_section_id=398&make_id=92