Ford LTD (Americas)
1972 Ford LTD 2-Door Hardtop
|Body and chassis|
|Successor||Ford LTD Crown Victoria (for full-size LTD)
Ford Taurus (for mid-size LTD)
The Ford LTD (pronounced el-tee-dee) is a car that was manufactured by Ford for the North American market, with some vehicles made and sold in South America. A range of full-size cars wore various forms of the LTD nameplate from 1964 to 1991 in the United States. The LTD debuted as the highest trim level on the 1965 full-size Ford range under the name Galaxie 500 LTD and became its own series for the first time in 1965.
For the 1977 model year, the LTD nameplate was applied to a midsize entry. The "LTD II" was introduced to replace the "Torino" as well as "Elite" car lines. The "LTD II" was originally offered in Coupe, Sedan, and station wagon form. The wagon was dropped after 1977, all cars were offered with 3 speed (C4, C6, and FMX) automatic transmissions, and could be powered by a 302 CID (5.0L), 351 CID "Windsor" (5.8L), 351 CID "Modified" (5.8L), or 400 CID (6.6L) V8 engines. The "LTD II" was said to "Combine the LTDs luxury with the Mustang IIs sporty spirit". 1977-78 sales were strong, but for 1979 the introduction of the downsized LTDs made the LTD II a land barge by comparison, sales fell, and it was discontinued (along with the Ranchero, that shared its platform) after 1979.
For the 1983 model year, the LTD was split once again into two distinct lines. The LTD nameplate shifted to a mid-size car based on the Fox platform while the top-trim LTD Crown Victoria remained a full-size car. The smaller LTD continued in sedan and station wagon forms through 1986, overlapping with the first Ford Taurus model year of 1986, which eventually became its successor. In North America, the LTD nameplate was last used on the 1991 LTD Crown Victoria sedan and station wagon, which dropped the LTD prefix for the 1992 model year.
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The LTD designation is considered by some an abbreviation of "Luxury Trim Decor" and by others as a limited trim designation for the Galaxie. In British English it is the written abbreviation for the term, "limited liability company". It is used in the name of a company or business enterprise whose owners' individual proprietary liability (responsibility); is for each, legally recognized as being "limited" to the market value of the share of their individual ownership(s). And beyond that share, they have no monetary responsibility for the firm in any way whatsoever. There is evidence in early 1970s Australian LTD sales brochures that "Lincoln Type Design" was adapted by Ford's Australian marketing as the meaning of the LTD nameplate to play up Lincoln-like exclusitivity and design influence of it's Falcon-based LTD luxury car since actual Lincoln models were not sold in that country. However there is no evidence of "Lincoln Type Design" ever being used in brochures or advertising copy of North American sales literature. The original Car Life review at the time the first Galaxie 500 LTD was released suggests that "LTD" stood for nothing and was ambiguous in meaning just like the "XL" suffix of the Galaxie 500 XL model.
|Also called||Ford Galaxie 500 LTD (1965)|
Mahwah, New Jersey
Pico Rivera, California
St. Louis, Missouri
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door hardtop
4-door sedan (1967-1968)
4-door station wagon.
Mercury Park Lane
Mercury Colony Park
Ford Country Squire
|Engine||289 cu in (4.7 L) Challenger/Windsor V8
302 cu in (4.9 L) Challenger/Windsor V8
352 cu in (5.8 L) Thunderbird (FE) V8
390 cu in (6.4 L) Thunderbird Special (FE) V8
427 cu in (7.0 L) Cobra (FE) V8
428 cu in (7.0 L) Thunderbird (FE) V8
|Wheelbase||119 in (3,023 mm)|
The Ford Galaxie 500 LTD was introduced in 1964, and prompted the Chevrolet Caprice mid-year, the AMC Ambassador "DPL," the Plymouth Fury "VIP," and the similar Dodge Monaco. These upscale models had features found primarily on luxury models from these same manufacturers, but were sold with much lower retail prices. These cars commonly came equipped with options like power windows, a power driver's seat, power brakes, power steering, air conditioning, a full or half-vinyl top (called a landau or brougham interchangeably across different models by the same manufacturers). Other upgrades were interiors made of better materials and more powerful engines. Most of these upper trim models were usually hardtops as opposed to pillared bodies. In 1966, the LTD series became separate from the Galaxie 500, which continued as the mid-line offering (The Galaxie 500 XL shared top billing with the LTD). The Twin Comfort Lounge Seat (a split bench seat) was a new option.
The 1967 LTD 2-door Hardtop got a new formal roofline, keeping up with the competition. All models received the 1967 Federally-mandated safety features, including an energy-absorbing steering column and wheel, non-protruding instrument panel knobs, a dual-circuit brake master cylinder, four-way hazard flashers, and front outboard shoulder belt mounting points.
The 1968 model year would be transitional for the LTD and all full-size Fords. Though the body and frame of the 1965-1967 models were carryover, the 1968 model featured horizontal hidden headlights and a more formal roofline. It was the last model with the 119" wheelbase. The standard LTD interior was downgraded a bit in luxury compared to past versions, but a new "Brougham" option package effectively brought the interior trim up to previous standards of luxury.
This generation was introduced with covered headlights on the top level LTD coupe, sedan and station wagon, which were deployed using a vacuum canister system that kept the doors down when a vacuum condition existed in the lines, provided by the engine when it was running. If a loss of vacuum occurred, the doors would retract up so that the headlights were visible if the system should fail. 1968s also included side marker lights and reflectors, and the parking lights now illuminated with the headlights. Front outboard shoulder belts were fitted to cars built effective January 1, 1968.
A limousine version of the car was also considered, with the extra length at the C-pillar and the rear doors. At least one example was built, by Lehmann-Peterson. This car does not appear to have a B-pillar or a division window. Andy Hotton Associates also built about 10 examples of an LTD limo, in which the extra length was added at the B-pillar and C-pillar.
1971 Ford LTD Brougham 2-Door Hardtop
|Assembly||Canada: Oakville, Canada (Oakville Assembly)
United States: Hazelwood, Missouri (St. Louis Assembly Plant)
Mahwah, New Jersey (Mahwah Assembly)
Pico Rivera, California (Los Angeles Assembly)
Hapeville, Georgia (Atlanta Assembly)
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door hardtop
4-door station wagon
Mercury Colony Park
Ford Country Squire
|Engine||302 cu in (4.9 L) Windsor V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) Cleveland V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) 351M V8
400 cu in (6.6 L) 335 V8
429 cu in (7.0 L) 385 V8
460 cu in (7.5 L) 385 V8
|Transmission||3-speed Toploader manual
4-speed Toploader manual
3-speed FMX automatic
3-speed C6 automatic
3-speed C4 automatic
|Wheelbase||121.0 inches (3,070 mm)|
|Length||224.1 inches (5,690 mm) (coupe, sedan)
225.7 inches (5,730 mm) (wagon)
For the 1969 model year, the LTD was given a major redesign. Based on a largely carryover chassis, the wheelbase of all full-size Ford sedans now stretched to 121 inches. In a major change for the 1969 model year, Ford eliminated the separate model series for its full-size station wagons; the wood-grained Country Squire became the first LTD station wagon.
- 1969: Ford LTD is given a redesign on a longer (121-inch) wheelbase chassis; the hidden headlights and formal roofline introduced in 1967 are retained. An all-new body features a split grille with a horizontal center divider (shared with XLs and Country Squires).
- 1970: The split grille was discontinued; while its Mercury Marquis counterpart continues its Lincoln-style fascia, Ford redesigned the front end of the LTD with a three-segment grille with a prominent center section (a toned down version of the Ford Thunderbird (fifth generation)). All LTDs got a new Federally-mandated locking steering column and wheel, with the ignition switch located on the right side of the column.
- 1971: The LTD was given a styling update. In the rear, the long-running Ford styling tradition ended as the twin round or square "jet exhaust" taillights were replaced by horizontal taillights on all full-size Fords. In between the two tail lamps was a center "third" brakelight; on the Galaxie 500, this space was an alloy trim panel while Custom 500s had body-color trim. In front, the LTD lost its hidden headlamps to Lincoln-Mercury, but got a new front end treatment with a tall center grille section and "LTD" spelled out in block letters on the hood.
With the discontinuation of the XL series, the convertible was moved to the LTD line. These were produced with bucket seats and center consoles; the console was similar to the console in the XLs and Mercury Marauders of 1969-70, with a "stirrup" style shift handle.
A customized 1971 LTD is featured prominently in the 1973 American film White Lightning. It is the car driven by the film’s lead character, portrayed by Burt Reynolds.
- 1972: 1972 models were virtually the same as the '71s, although the bumper now stretched across the lower section of the grille. A new rear bumper integrated the taillights; also in the rear, the design of the trunklid was squared off. Due to decreased demand in the segment, 1972 was the final model year for the LTD convertible.
- 1973: In 1972, in order to comply with federal regulations, the LTD was given a major redesign for 1973. The requirements for 5-mph front bumpers had taken effect, with larger rear bumpers to be added in 1973. While the redesign slightly decreased the weight of the LTD, it still was far in excess of two tons, making agility and fuel economy both key weak points. The new styling was bulkier, making the car look significantly larger and heavier than previous models. Four-door models (sharing rooflines with Mercury) were given thin B-pillars for roof reinforcement and branded as "pillared hardtops" (frameless door glass remained on all Ford LTD models).
- 1974: Five-mph bumpers added to the rear. Mostly carryover from the 1973 model year. Mid-year, a non-woodgrain LTD wagon became available. A new Federal law required seat belts to be buckled before the starter would operate; public protests prompted the government to relax this requirement. Subsequent models got a simple "Fasten Seat Belt" warning light and buzzer for 1975, and owners were now permitted to disable the starter interlock on their '74s.
- 1975: Following the discontinuation of the Galaxie series after 1974, Ford sought to fill its place by expanding the LTD trim lineup. Above the Custom 500 was the standard LTD, the LTD Brougham, and newly introduced for 1975, the LTD Landau. In an effort to comply with pending rollover standards (as well as to differentiate it from the Mercury Marquis), the two-door was converted from a hardtop to a coupe with wide B-pillars and a tall, narrow "opera window" (Chevrolet did the same thing in 1973 with the Caprice Coupe). More or less the Ford counterpart to the Mercury Grand Marquis, the LTD Landau featured rear fender skirts and various decor packages for additional luxury; it was distinguished by the return of hidden headlamps (exclusive to its trim level). Hidden headlamps were also shared with the LTD Country Squire wagon. The 429 engine was replaced by the 460 V8 sourced from Lincoln-Mercury for 1975. A catalytic converter now required the use of unleaded fuel, and the gas gauge and fuel filler sported warnings to this effect.
- 1976: Last year for LTD Brougham trim level.
- 1977: Since the LTD Brougham had been discontinued, the LTD Landau received the former Brougham interior as the base offering. Optional interiors, including the LTD Landau Luxury Group, were still available.
- 1978: Final year for 121-inch wheelbase LTD, as it is replaced by the downsized Panther-platform generation LTD for 1979.
For the first time since the 1940s, the full-size Ford line was powered exclusively by V8 engines. The base engine was the 302 cid V8. The next largest engine was Ford's 351 CID V8, the most common choice. Still larger was Ford's 400 CID V8. Topping the range was the 429 cid V8, in 1974 this was replaced by the 460 CID V8. The full-sized Fords remained strong sellers each year during this period, due to their high comfort, powerful engines, good build quality and reasonable cost.
When Ford updated its mid-size product line for 1977, they took on the LTD name as well. To differentiate them from the full-size product lineup, the mid-size cars were called the LTD II in an attempt to appeal to buyers as a downsized alternative to the full-sized LTD which had competition from GM's newly downsized full-sized cars. The LTD II was based on the Ford Torino and served as a restyled replacement for it. The LTD II styling was also adapted to update the final generation of the Ford Ranchero. The LTD II was discontinued after 1979 without being replaced, as the new Panther-platform LTD was nearly a foot shorter than an LTD II and the Granada became Ford's mid-size product line with its 1981 redesign.
1979 Ford LTD Landau two-door sedan
|Also called||Ford Custom 500 (Canada)|
St. Louis, Missouri
Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door sedan
5-door station wagon
|Platform||Ford Panther platform|
|Related||Ford Country Squire
Mercury Colony Park
LTD Crown Victoria
|Engine||255 cu in (4.2 L) Windsor V8
302 cu in (4.9 L) 5.0L Windsor V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor V8
|Length||209 inches (5,300 mm) (coupe, sedan)
214.7 inches (5,450 mm) (wagon)
|Successor||Ford LTD Crown Victoria|
For the 1977 model year, General Motors downsized its full-size car lines closely within the exterior size of many intermediates. At the time, Ford marketers took a cynical view that such a radically smaller "full-size car" would turn off buyers; advertisements for LTD and Mercury Marquis touted the "road-hugging weight" of the larger cars and compared their larger dimensions side by side with GM flagship sedan Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham. For owners who would still prefer a downsized big car, Ford offered the "Trim Size LTD II," which was simply a refreshed Torino with stacked quad rectangular headlights and LTD-like styling at the rear.
Ford were taken by surprise when the downsized GM cars proved to be an enormous sales success and along with the event of CAFE regulations, they were forced to follow suit. Unlike the Chrysler R platform, the Ford Panther platform was completely new from the ground up. The LTD and Marquis lost nearly 15 inches in length and some 400 pounds of curb weight without a significant loss of interior space over the old 1969-vintage platform. Big-block engines were gone and the small 302 V8 became standard, with the bigger 351 V8 being optional (standard on station wagons). However, due to CAFE requirements, the 351 was dropped in 1981 except for police vehicles. For 1981 and 1982, to further improve fuel economy (while avoiding diesel or 6-cylinder engines), Ford introduced a 255 cu in (4.2 L) variant of the Windsor V8. The 255 proved an unreliable and unpopular choice; at 115 hp, its output was ill-suited for the LTD's two-ton curb weight. In 1979-81, LTDs were available with an variable venturi carburetor, but they proved unreliable and were quickly dropped.
In Canada, the Custom 500 continued as the base model through 1981. Low-end cars were identifiable by single square headlamps, while the higher models received duals. For 1980, the LTD S was added as a lower-priced model and the Crown Victoria replaced the Landau on a permanent basis; it had a landau roof with a traditional Ford styling appearance chrome band, borrowing from the roofline of the Ford Thunderbird (seventh generation), and the 1955 Ford. First introduced in the U.S. in the mid-1950s, the Crown Victoria returned as a trim package for the LTD in 1979; its Mercury equivalent was the Grand Marquis.
In 1982, the LTD got a new grille with the revived Ford blue oval emblem and throttle body fuel injection became available.
For 1983, as part of a major product shift, the LTD and LTD Crown Victoria were split into separate product lines. The LTD was downsized to the Fox platform (and Mercury Marquis) to replace the Granada, while the full-size LTD Crown Victoria became a stand-alone model (along with the Mercury Grand Marquis).
1983-1984 Ford LTD sedan (aftermarket Ford Mustang wheels)
Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
|Platform||Ford Fox platform|
|Engine||2.3 L Lima I4
3.3 L Thriftpower Six I6
3.8 L Essex V6
4.9L 5.0L Windsor V8
|Transmission||3-speed C5 automatic
4-speed AOD automatic
|Predecessor||Ford Granada (1981–1982)|
For the 1983 model year, the LTD underwent a major rebranding as part of a major model shift within both Ford and Mercury divisions. As a successor to the unsuccessful 1980-1982 Ford Granada and Mercury Cougar sedan/wagon, Ford gave the two models a mid-cycle refresh with more contemporary styling; as before, they shared the Fox platform with the Fairmont/Zephyr. To move the cars slightly upmarket as well as create downsized models at minimal cost, the mid-size cars adopted the LTD and Marquis nameplates; the Granada nameplate was retired (in North America) while the Cougar reverted to its traditional role as a personal-luxury coupe. In a move upmarket, the full-size cars retained only the LTD Crown Victoria and Grand Marquis; Lincoln followed suit, with the Town Car becoming its sole full-size vehicle in 1983. This mid-sized LTD is often mistaken as an LTD II which was only a name used on intermediate Torino-based cars from 1977-1979.
As with the Granada, the LTD was available in a four-door sedan and five-door station wagon body styles; in contrast to the Fairmont, Tempo, or the LTD Crown Victoria, no two-door version was produced. At its launch, the LTD/Marquis shared a common engine with the Fairmont and Granada; a 2.3 L Lima 4-cylinder, a 3.3 L Thriftpower Six inline-6, and a 4.9L 5.0L Windsor V8 (upgraded to fuel injection). Inherited from the Granada was a 3.8 L Essex V6; after 1984, the V6 replaced the inline-6 entirely. For 1984, the V6 gained fuel injection in United States versions (Canadian-market versions remained carbureted until 1986). A rare option, seen only in 1982-84, was an LPG (propane)-powered version of the four-cylinder engine; it was largely discontinued due to poor sales and lack of propane fueling infrastructure.
The LTD would meet with far better success than its Granada predecessor, becoming the third-best-selling car in the United States in 1983-84. However, in comparison to its competition, it fast became a dated design; the success of the Chrysler K-Cars and the General Motors X-body cars quickly popularized the use of front-wheel drive in the mid-size segment; the LTD/Marquis was officially replaced by the Ford Taurus/Mercury Sable for the 1986 model year. As a hedge against the potential market failure of the radically designed front-wheel drive Ford Taurus, the company sold both the LTD and the Taurus for the 1986 model year. The last Ford LTD rolled off the Atlanta, Georgia assembly line on December 13, 1985 and the last Ford LTD rolled off the Chicago, Illinois assembly line on January 3, 1986.
From the middle of the 1984 model year and throughout the 1985 model year, Ford had a performance version of the LTD called the LTD LX. It came standard with the high output 5.0L CFI V8 engine, four-speed automatic transmission with overdrive, 600 lb-in front and 270 lb-in rear coil springs, front and rear sway bars, 10 inch front disc and 10 inch rear drum brakes, and a 3.27:1 rear gear ratio with a Traction-Lok differential. The LX model was the only LTD to have a tachometer in the instrument cluster. The center console and floor-mounted shifter re-appeared, having last been available in the full-size 1972 model year. Police Package editions were also produced along side the LX. Notable for its bigger sway bars and brakes, it also included bench seats with an automatic trunk opener located underneath the steering wheel. They were a factory option and most were equipped with light bars and police accessories, although some came without. Mercury's sister car to the LX, the Marquis LTS, was available only in Canada and only in the 1985 model year, with only 134 produced that year.
The LTD was introduced into the Venezuelan market in 1966, aiming to compete with Chrysler's New Yorker, with the LTD performing much better than its rivals. Over 85,000 LTDs were assembled in the Ford plant of Valencia, Venezuela, some for exportation to Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru.
- John Gunnell, Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975, Revised 4th Edition, page 417
- John Gunnell, Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975, Revised 4th Edition, page 423
- 1966 Ford LTD Limousine as seen in an episode of Mission: Impossible
- Ford LTD limousines by Andy Hotton Associates
- Odin, L.C. A concise guide to the Ford and Mercury full-size automobile production 1969-1978. Belvedere Publishing, 2016. ASIN: B01HE91Y4K.
- Kowalke, Ron (1997). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-521-3.
- Flammang, James Standard Catalog of American Cars 1976–1999 3rd Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc. 1999)
- 1976 Ford Full-Line Factory Sales Brochure
- 1979 Ford LTD Factory Sales Brochure
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ford LTD.|
- LTDworld.com - Ford LTD World
- Four Eyed Pride —- A resource for all early Foxes, including 1983-1986 LTD
- LTD LX Registry and Owners Association —- For the preservation and restoration of 1984 & 1985 Ford LTD LX
- 1979 Ford LTD Landau
- Decode LTD and other classic Ford VINs
- Ford LTD in television and film
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