Ford Mustang (third generation)
San Jose, California
Metuchen, New Jersey
Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela
|Designer||Jack Telnack (1976)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door convertible
|Platform||Ford Fox platform|
Lincoln Mark VII
|Engine||2.3 L (140 cu in) 86 hp I4
2.3 L (140 cu in) turbocharged I4
3.3 L (201 cu in) I6 85 hp
2.8 L (171 cu in) V6
3.8 L (232 cu in) Essex V6
4.2 L (256 cu in) V8
4.9 L (302 cu in) Windsor V8 (marketed as a "5.0" model)
|Wheelbase||100.5 in (2,553 mm)|
|Length||179.6 in (4,562 mm)|
|Width||1987–1990: 69.1 in (1,755 mm)
1991–93: 68.3 in (1,735 mm)
|Height||1987–1990: 52.1 in (1,323 mm)
1991–93 Coupe: 52 in (1,321 mm)
1991–93 Hatchback: 52.1 in (1,323 mm)
|Predecessor||Ford Mustang (second generation)|
|Successor||Ford Mustang (fourth generation)|
The third-generation Mustang was produced by Ford from 1978 to 1993. Built on Ford’s widely used Fox platform, it evolved through a number of sub-models, trim levels, and drivetrain combinations during its production life. It underwent updates for 1987, and for a time seemed destined for replacement with a front wheel drive Mazda platform before company executives were swayed by consumer opinions. Enthusiasts group the generation into two segments: the 1979-1986 cars, with their quad headlight arrangement, and the 1987-1993 cars, with their "no-grille" (aero) front fascia styling. Production ended with the introduction of the fourth-generation Mustang (SN-95) for the 1994 model year.
The new 1979 model year Mustang was based on the larger Fox platform, initially developed for the Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr twins that debuted in 1977. The larger body meant the interior was engineered with more space for four passengers, even with the smaller back seat, as well as a larger capacity trunk and a bigger engine bay. Body styles included a coupe (notchback) and hatchback (fastback). The only trim level available over the base model was Ghia. There was also a Cobra option available (17,579 produced in 1979) that completed the lineup through 1981. The Cobra featured black lower bodyside paint, colored coordinated pinstripes in the wraparound bodyside moldings and bumper grooves, a snake decal for the hood and Cobra lettering on the doors. For the first time power windows, power door locks, speed control and a tilt steering wheel were options for the Mustang.
Engine choices included the 88 hp (66 kW) 2.3 L Pinto inline-four, 109 hp (81 kW) 2.8 L Cologne V6 (made by Ford of Germany), and the 140 hp (104 kW) 302 cu in (4.9 L) Windsor V8; which was marketed as a 5.0 L engine and front fenders badged as such. All were carried over from the Mustang II line. Supplies of the 2.8 L V6 proved inadequate leading to it being replaced in late 1979 with Ford's 85 hp (63 kW) 3.3 L straight-six. A new 132 hp (98 kW) 2.3 L turbo four-cylinder, debuted that offered similar horsepower to the V8. The automaker had plans this engine would usher in a new era in performance. The 2.3 and 2.3 Turbo and V8 models could also be optioned with the newly developed TRX handling suspension, which utilized Michelin 390 mm tires and specific metric wheels.
The Mustang was again chosen as pace car at the Indianapolis 500. Ford commemorated this with an "Indy 500" pace car edition, of which 10,478 were produced. The two-tone pewter and black colors were complimented with vibrant orange and red graphics. The front end featured a unique front air dam with fog lights, a slotted grille and a rear facing hood dome. The rear end received a spoiler. The black interior featured Recaro seats with patterned black and white inserts. Available were the 2.3 L Turbo with mandatory four-speed manual transmission or the 4.2 L V8 with either the manual or three-speed automatic transmission. The production cars were fitted with a sunroof. However, the three actual pace cars were fitted with a T-roof by Cars & Concepts of Brighton, MI. The T-roof option would not become an available option until the 1981 model year.
Following the second oil crisis in 1979, the 5.0 L engine was dropped in favor of a new 255 cu in (4.2 L) V8 due to its better fuel economy. It was the only V8 offered in 1980 and 1981. Basically a sleeved down 302, the 4.2 L V8 had restrictive heads and managed to produce 120 hp (89 kW), the lowest power ever for a Mustang V8. The 4.2 L was mated only with the three-speed automatic transmission. This meant the 2.3 L Turbo 4 was the sole "performance" engine. The Turbo 4 was plagued with reliability issues from its release. Inadequate lubrication led to premature turbo failure and some engines caught fire. It was listed as an option through 1981, but dropped for 1982, although it was still available in Canada. This engine would return in the new-for-1983 Turbo GT. The "Traction-Lok" limited slip differential was available for the first time in 1981, with all engine combinations. A five-speed manual option arrived late during the 1980 model year, originally only in the 2.3-liter four-cylinder engines. New for 1981 was an optional Traction-Lok rear axle (all engines), and a T-bar roof. The 1980-81 Cobra was revised to include the slotted grille, front air dam with fog lamps, raised hood dome, rear spoiler and Recaro seats from the previous year's pace car replicas. Graphics were revised to include dual colored upper bodyside stripes, a snake hood decal and Cobra lettering on the rear quarter windows and rear spoiler.
In 1982, the Mustang GT returned after 13 years beginning the new horsepower race for the 1980s. The new GT featured a re-engineered high output 160 horsepower 5.0 Liter 302 CID V8 engine with new valves, a more aggressive cam (from a 1973 351W Torino application), a larger twin-barrel carburetor, and a revised firing order, as well as a better breathing intake and exhaust system. The GT featured the front air dam with fog lamps, slotted grille, rear spoiler and Recaro seats from the previous year's Cobra model which was discontinued. The GT also received the forward facing hood scoop from prior year Turbo models to provide clearance for the tall air cleaner housing. The GT famously boasted it's engine size with fender mounted "5.0" badges which were recycled from the 1979 model year. The GT was only available with a 5-speed manual transmission and offered only in dark red, silver and black in a monotone scheme matching the grille, bumper strips and bodyside moldings. The 4.2 Liter V8 was available for the last time on all other Mustang models still only with an automatic. Trim levels were also revised to now include the L (base), GL, GLX under the GT model.
While most of the Mustang was carried over in late 1982 for 1983, there were some changes and improvements on the then five-year-old "Fox-platform" model. The front end was restyled with a more rounded nose and a V-shaped grille which resulted in the headlamp openings being revised to follow the grille shape. New wider horizontal taillights with dedicated amber turn signals replaced the vertical sectioned units similarly styled to the Ford Fairmont. Ford added a convertible to the Mustang line for 1983 in response to the 1982 Chrysler convertibles, this after a nine-year absence. The majority of the convertibles were equipped with the new 3.8 L V6 in GLX form, though 1,001 (993 for US, 8 for Canada) 5.0 V8 GT models were also produced. The Mustang GT received a four-barrel carburetor and a new intake manifold, bringing power to 175 hp (130 kW). The turbocharged 2.3 L four-cylinder also returned, now fuel-injected, and producing 145 hp (108 kW). The 3.8 L Essex V6 replaced the 3.3 L I6, as the 3.3 L engine had little demand and was dropped after 1982.
For 1984, the GL and GLX were dropped, leaving L, LX, GT, Turbo GT, and a new addition, the SVO. Ford also recognized the 20th Anniversary of the Mustang with the G.T.350, which consisted of a limited run of 5,260 hatchback and convertible models all trimmed in Oxford White exteriors and Canyon Red interiors. They featured red GT 350 rocker stripes and tri-bar Pony emblems on the front fenders. They could be equipped with either the 2.3 Turbo or 302 cu in (4.9 L) V8. Two 302 V8s were available, the four-barrel, or a new 165 hp (123 kW) electronic-fuel-injected engine. A new "Quadra Shock" rear suspension, which replaced the slapper bars with horizontally mounted axle shocks, became available after a few months of production. After 1984, the TRX option was retired.
The new Mustang SVO appeared first in 1984 and was produced through 1986. Carrying a far more powerful and refined 2.3 L turbocharged inline-four, it produced initially 175 hp (130 kW) for 1984, uprated to 205 hp (153 kW) halfway through the 1985 model year, and ending with 200 hp (149 kW) for 1986. It provided handling and braking abilities that could outdo a Mustang GT. Four-wheel disc brakes, 16-inch specific wheels, and an SVO-specific bi-plane rear spoiler were a few of the differences between the SVO and the rest of the Mustang line. The unique front end featured an offset hood intake duct for the turbo intercooler and a grill-less nose with sunken single rectangular sealed beam headlamps, flush inboard parking lamps and wraparound outer turn signal lamps. The front end was intended to use flush aerodynamic composite headlamps with replaceable bulbs but they were not legally approved in time for production. The aero headlamps finally appeared on the 1985½ SVO and were a precursor to the aero headlamps that would appear later on the 1987 Mustang. However, the steep price, which was thousands more than a comparably equipped V8 GT, the SVO proved unpopular with potential customers and less than 10,000 were sold over three years.
For 1985, the front end was restyled with a grille-less nose with a horizontal air intake slot. The Mustang GT received new E5AE cylinder heads, a revised Holley four-barrel carburetor, a new and more aggressive roller camshaft (only in models with the manual transmission), less restrictive exhaust manifolds, and a pseudo dual exhaust which brought more power to a conservatively rated 210 hp (157 kW) engine. This would be the last carbureted V8 in the Mustang. The 1985 model year saw the departure of the L and Turbo GT, leaving the LX, GT, and SVO. For 1986, Ford released the first multiport fuel-injected 302 cu in (4.9 L) V8, rated at 200 hp (150 kW). With high swirl E6SE heads, the early production High Output EFI engine intake possessed higher compression and dual exhausts.
In 1986, the Mustang GT saw drivetrain upgrades, that included going from the old 10" clutch, to the new 10.5" clutch system that would be a standard for the remainder the 5.0 would be in the Mustang. The 7.5" rear-end was also eliminated in V8 models in favor of the stronger 8.8" rear-end, with the 7.5" only being used with the 2.3L Mustang, including the SVO. Central fuel injection was used on the non-turbo 2.3 in automatic versions, but was quickly ditched the following year in favor of more efficient sequential fuel injection. 1986 was the year of the federally mandated center high mounted brake light which was mounted on a standard rear spoiler for hatchbacks, inside the bottom of the rear window of the notchback and on the rear edge the standard luggage rack on convertibles.
The Mustang became Ford's main challenger in the early years of Group A touring car racing in Europe and Australia. The Mustang, using the 4.9L V8 engine, only saw a limited life as a contender in the various European championships, being replaced by 1985 by the turbocharged Ford Sierra XR4Ti. Australian Ford icon Dick Johnson was forced to purchase two Mustangs built by the German Zakspeed team in mid-1984 for use through 1985 and 1986 as Ford Australia had no interest in homologating either the Australian built Ford XE Falcon or its replacement, the XF Falcon, for racing.
Although the cars handled well and had good brakes, the 340 bhp (254 kW; 345 PS) Mustang proved to be reliable, if not fast enough against its main Group A competition which included the V12 Jaguar XJS, the 6 cyl BMW 635 CSi, the V8 Rover Vitesse and Holden Commodore SS Group A, and the turbocharged Volvo 240T and Nissan Skyline DR30 RS. Johnson did manage a race win in the Group A support race for the 1985 Australian Grand Prix, as well as several placings in the 1985 and 1986 Australian Touring Car Championships.
The Mustang's competitive life in Group A came to an end at the end of 1986 and was replaced in 1987 by the European designed turbocharged Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and later that cars evolution model, the Ford Sierra RS500, though a small number of private teams still ran the Mustang in Group A racing for a number of years without success.
In Mexico, the Ford Mustang received a hybrid appearance from 1981 until 1984, using some Mercury Capri body parts. All of these early model year Mustangs received the Capri taillights, while the 1982 and 1983 have the Capri front end as well. The 83-86 Capri bubble glass hatch was also used.
By the mid-1980s, Mustang sales were slumping. Sales were over 100,000 units a year, but were minimal compared to previous numbers. Ford believed that the Mustang had lost its place in the market. They subsequently announced that they would replace the rear-wheel drive Mustang with a Mazda-derived front-wheel-drive version. Mustang fans quickly responded and sent Ford hundreds of thousands of letters, asking them to save the rear-wheel drive Mustang. Ford responded by continuing production of the rear-wheel drive Mustang, and proceeded to rename the front-wheel-drive version as the Probe, which ended up being a replacement for the Escort-based Ford EXP.
The 1987 Mustang received a facelift for both the interior and exterior. The exterior design was reminiscent of the earlier SVO and gave the car more of an "Aero" look, in keeping with Ford's overall styling direction. The interior received an all new dash, center console and revised seat and door trim. With the end of the 1986 SVO, the models were now pared down to LX and GT. Taillights on the LX were revised with clear lenses for the turn signals while the GT now wore a specific body-colored triple sectioned louvered treatment. The rear quarter glass windows lost their louvers and now sported a single larger flush piece of glass lettered with "Mustang" at the bottom rear corners. GTs featured new round fog lamps and gained aerodynamic lower bodyside skirting and new turbine style 15-inch (380 mm) wheels. The 5.0 L engine option was added to the LX model line for both hatchback and notchback models to give buyers a choice of the GT's performance without resorting to the expense and busy look of the GT model. The previous year's slotted GT wheels became standard with the 5.0 L engine option and optional with 4-cylinder models. This particular Mustang represents the longest run on any platform and the popularity of the Mustang remained high due to its low cost and high-performance. The 302 cu in (4.9 L), marketed as "5.0", Mustangs became popular with the aftermarket performance industry. The V6 option was discontinued while the 2.3 L four-cylinder gained fuel injection, leaving only the 2.3 L four-cylinder and the 302 cu in (4.9 L) V8.
Also for 1987, V8-powered Mustangs received E7TE heads and forged aluminum pistons with valve reliefs, as opposed to the flat-tops used in the previous year. The E7 cylinder heads were sourced from the truck line after the 1986 swirl-port design demonstrated performance problems. Power ratings increased to 225 hp (168 kW) and 300 ft·lbf (410 N·m) of torque. No major changes were seen for 1988, although the T-top roof option for hatchbacks was discontinued midyear. For 1989, the Mustang's speed density computer system was replaced with a mass air system (1988 Mustangs sold in California also had the MAF system). This change slightly reduced factory horsepower, but it made Mustangs much easier to modify. With the mass air system, changes made to the intake, engine, and exhaust system would be recognized and compensated for by the ECU, resulting in a correct air/fuel ratio and optimum power. A driver's-side airbag became standard starting in 1989 for 1990 models. Ford's only gesture at a 25th Anniversary Mustang was small, a passenger-side dashboard emblem with galloping-horse logo affixed to all models built between 27 March 1989, and the end of model-year 1990.
In 1989, Ford resources began to focus on the next Mustang, due to debut in late 1993. There would be few changes in the model line through its retirement in 1993. Most changes would be visual. For 1990, a limited run of 4,103 emerald green exterior, and white leather interior LX 5.0 convertibles, and a limited run of 5,897 silver exterior, and grey interior GT hatchbacks were produced for a contest held by 7-Up, but the contest was cancelled at the last second. Similarly, for 1992 and 1993, three special-edition LX 5.0 convertibles were released in the spring. These models had with Vibrant Red exteriors with Oxford white leather interiors for 1992, Vibrant Yellow exterior with black or white leather interior, or Vibrant white exterior with white leather interior, for 1993.
The 1991 model year changes to the 2.3 L I4 engines included an increase in horsepower (from 88 to 105) due to a revised cylinder head with two spark plugs per cylinder.
With the end of the run near in 1992, Ford switched to cast hypereutectic pistons for all 302 cu in (4.9 L) engines and also re-rated the GT to 205 hp (153 kW) and 275 ft·lbf (373 N·m) of torque. This estimate was more accurate given the previous power ratings were made before the addition of the mass air flow system, minor revisions in the camshaft profile, and other various small changes made throughout the production run.
Under the newly established Ford SVT division, the 1993 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra was offered with the 302 cu in (4.9 L) V8 that produced 235 hp (175 kW) and 280 ft·lbf (380 N·m) of torque. Featuring more subdued styling than the GT, the Cobra used Ford's new GT-40 high-performance engine equipment, which could send a Mustang through the 1⁄4 mile (0.40 km) in low 14 seconds. A Cobra R model was also produced for 1993 that used the same engine as the regular Cobra. It featured larger brakes, Koni shocks and struts, an engine oil cooler, a power steering cooler, and a factory rear seat delete. Since the Cobra R was race oriented, options such as air conditioning and a stereo system were not offered. Production of the third generation Mustang concluded in September 1993. 1993 was also the first year that a CD player was offered from the factory.
- Leffingwell, Randy (2005). Mustang Forty Years. MBI Publishing. ISBN 9780760321836. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "1981 Ford Mustang "Sport" (VE)" (in Spanish). dkarros.com. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Automobile Club of Italy (1982). World Cars 1982. Herald Books. ISBN 978-0-910714-14-3.
- Hogg, Tony (ed.). "1981 Buyer's Guide". Road & Track's Road Test Annual & Buyer's Guide 1981 (January–February 1981): 97.
- "History". Performance Probe Ford. 2005. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Davis, Earl G.; Perkins-Davis, Diane E. (2004). 101 Projects for your Mustang 1964½-1973. Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-7603-1161-5.
- "1987-1993 Foxbody Mustang Engine Specifications". fiveohinfo.com. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (25 February 2007). "The Ford Mustang 25th Anniversary Celebration". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Farr, Donald (2013). Mustang: Fifty Years: Celebrating America's Only True Pony Car. Motorbooks. p. 127. ISBN 9780760343968. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
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