Ford Probe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ford Probe
2nd Ford Probe GT.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Ford
Production 1988–1997
Model years 1989–1997
Assembly Flat Rock, Michigan, U.S. (AAI)
Body and chassis
Class Sport compact
Layout FF layout
Related Mazda MX-6
Mazda 626
Ford Telstar
Chronology
Predecessor Ford Capri (Europe)
Ford EXP (North America)
Successor Ford Cougar (Europe)
Ford ZX2 (North America)

The Ford Probe is a liftback coupé produced by Ford, introduced in 1988 and produced until 1997. The Probe was the result of Ford's collaboration with its longtime Japanese partner, Mazda, and both generations of Probe were derived from the front-wheel drive Mazda G platform that underpinned the Mazda Capella.

The Probe succeeded the Ford EXP, and the instrument cluster of the first-generation Probe and pop-up headlight mechanisms were borrowed from the FC RX-7

Based on the Mazda MX-6 as a sport compact coupe, the Probe was intended to fill the market niche formerly occupied by the Capri in Europe, and it was originally intended to be the fourth generation Ford Mustang in the North American market as a direct competitor with the Acura Integra, Nissan 200SX, and the Toyota Celica. During that time, Ford's marketing team had deemed that a front-wheel drive platform (borrowed Mazda GD and GE platforms) would have lower costs for production, and also because the platform had been gaining popularity with consumers.

Mustang fans objected to the front-wheel drive configuration, Japanese engineering, and lack of a V8, so Ford began work on a new design for the Mustang instead. On March 17, 1997, Ford announced the discontinuation of the Probe.[1]

Background[edit]

Starting in the late 1970s, Ford and Ghia started exploring a series of futuristic designs with the "Probe" series of concept vehicles.[2] The Probe I, first shown in 1979, was a wedge-shaped design that incorporated a number of drag-reducing features like covered rear wheels and pop-up headlights. This was followed the next year by a much more conventional looking Probe II, whose hatchback styling was also reminiscent of the pony cars. The 1981 Probe III was an advanced demonstrator with covered wheels, but its bodywork evolved into the more conventional Ford Sierra (or Merkur XR4Ti) and styling notes that were used on the Ford Taurus.[3] The 1982 Probe IV was a more radical concept car with a low Cd (drag coefficient), and evolved into the equally radical 1984 Probe V.[4]

After the 1979 energy crisis, the economic slump initiated by high fuel prices prompted Ford to give the Ford Mustang a major redesign. The new design would be based on a totally new platform introduced to Ford by Japanese automaker Mazda, who had been partnering with Ford since 1971, and whom Ford had owned a 25% stake in since 1979. Toshi Saito, a North American-based designer working for Ford, took the lead in envisioning styling directions for the front-wheel drive Mustang, and a design by Saito was chosen and finalized in late 1983. The project was then transferred to Mazda in Hiroshima, Japan and in internal Ford parlance, was referred to by the codename "SN-16".[5] It was intended to gradually phase out the RWD Fox platform Mustang under the name "Mustang Classic" and have it eventually supplanted by the SN-16 as the "Mustang."

By 1985, Mazda acquired the former Ford Flat Rock Assembly Plant in Flat Rock, Michigan and intended to commence production of the two Mazda-badged GD platform cars for North America, the 626 along with the MX-6, and the SN-16, contracted by Ford, in 1987.

Christopher Sawyer, writing for AutoWeek magazine, in their issue for April 13, 1987, was the first to publicly reveal the existence of the SN-16 Mustang in a sensational report that featured an artist rendering on the issue's cover of a vehicle nearly identical to what would be released as the 1989 Ford Probe GT stating "Exclusive: The '89 Mustang," along with detailed technical reports about its Mazda origins and switch to front-wheel drive. The public outcry was immediate, with many Mustang fans and pony car purists detesting the SN-16's Japanese engineering, front-wheel drive platform and lack of a V8 engine, which were anathema to traditional Mustang buyers and enthusiasts. Ford Motor Company executives, along with many car magazines received strongly-worded letters of criticism decrying the decision.

Neil Ressler, the then-chief of small car engineering at Ford, spoke about the internal cultural differences at Ford Motor Company which led to a strong disagreement between two factions that had radically different notions about what the Mustang should be:

By 1987, Alex Trotman, the newly-appointed vice president in charge of Ford's North American operations, with strong urging from Ford Marketing vice president Bob Rewey, a dedicated performance enthusiast, decided that in the light of consumer outrage, the SN-16 would not make a suitable Mustang. At this point, somewhat ironically, Mustang sales, which were lackluster, grew substantially after the article's publication, out of fear that it would be the last opportunity to purchase a traditional RWD V8 Mustang. While Trotman approved the development of a RWD successor, there were many difficulties, notably that the engineering budget for the Mustang was spent on the SN-16 and Ford was still recovering from a financial crisis of the early 1980's that brought the company close to bankruptcy until the Taurus arrived.

John Coletti, was Ford's small-car engineering manager and a vociferous opponent of the SN-16 Mustang who stated:

[6]

Ken Dabrowski, Ford's small-car line manager, tapped Coletti to lead a skunkworks team that would develop a RWD Mustang successor with the understanding there would not be a full budget to create an entirely new car. Coletti's team heavily revised the 1979 Fox platform for the new car, which eventually became the fourth-generation Ford Mustang released for the 1994 model year.

However, production for the SN-16 was about to commence, meaning Ford had to put it on sale or lose its development budget along with further potential financial headaches if Ford would break its production contract with Mazda. It was decided that the SN-16 would be released as the Ford Probe in 1988, taking the name from Ford's line of futuristic concept vehicles, and be sold alongside the Mustang, which would continue production in its then-current form with minor refreshing. Instead of being aimed as a successor to the Mustang or as a rival to its traditional competitors, the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird,[7] Ford would aim the Probe against popular imported sports coupes of the era such as the Toyota Celica and Honda Prelude.

Both generations of the Probe were sold in Japan as Fords, at Ford/Mazda sales channels called Autorama. Japanese models were not in compliance with Japanese Government regulations concerning exterior dimensions and engine displacement, resulting in Japanese buyers being held liable for additional taxes as a result.

The Probe was a sales success in its first model year, owing to its futuristic styling and enjoyable driving experience. In fact, demand exceeded supply in 1988, enough that buyers were paying list price or higher for a Probe, and Jim Mateja, the automotive columnist for the Chicago Tribune, urged potential Probe buyers who couldn't find a Probe to consider its sibling, the Mazda MX-6.[8] Sales of the first-generation Probe were successful enough that Ford partnered with Mazda again, with further Ford engineering from the beginning of the project, to create a second-generation Probe for the 1993 model year developed alongside a second-generation Mazda MX-6. A proposed third-generation Probe, which would have been based on the Ford Mondeo instead of being Mazda-derived, was eventually released as the 1999 Mercury Cougar in the North American market to strengthen the Mercury brand. However, it is important to note that Ford in North America considered the Escort-based ZX2 the official successor to the Probe and not the Cougar. After disappointing sales of the Cougar and the waning popularity of front-wheel drive sport coupes in the late 1990's in favor of sport utility vehicles, Ford left the market segment with the 2002 discontinuation of the Cougar, and the 2003 discontinuation of the ZX2.

1989–1992 Probe[edit]

First generation
Ford Probe front 20071119.jpg
Overview
Production 1988–1992
Model years 1989–1992
Designer Toshi Saito (1983)[9][10]
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback
Platform Mazda GD platform
Powertrain
Engine 2.2 L 110 hp (82 kW) Mazda F2 I4
2.2 L Turbo 145 hp (108 kW) Mazda F2T I4
3.0 L 140 hp (104 kW) Vulcan V6
Transmission 4-speed Mazda G4A-EL automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 99 in (2,515 mm)
Length 177 in (4,496 mm)
Width 67.9 in (1,725 mm)
1989–1991 GT: 68.5 in (1,740 mm)
1991–93 GT: 68.3 in (1,735 mm)
Height 51.8 in (1,316 mm)
1991–93 LX: 51.9 in (1,318 mm)
1991–93 GT: 52.0 in (1,321 mm)

The first generation Ford Probe was based on the Mazda GD platform, and was powered by a 2.2 L SOHC 4-cylinder Mazda F2 engine. It debuted in 1988 for the 1989 model year and was produced until 1992 in the United States. The Probe was available in several trim levels that differ depending on the market in which the vehicle was sold. In the United States, the Probe was available in GL, LX, and GT trim levels:[11]

  • The GL was the base model with the 110 hp (82 kW)/130 lb⋅ft (176 N⋅m) F2 2.2 L engine and few options. Most Probes sold in the United States were equipped with air conditioning.
  • The LX added options for power locks, power windows, electrically adjusted exterior mirrors, a storage tray underneath the front passenger seat, as well as an optional flip-up moon roof. Starting in 1990, the LX was available with the 3.0 L "Vulcan" V6 engine, that was also used in the Ford Taurus, Ford Ranger, Ford Tempo, and Ford Aerostar. The LX package offered optional equipment, such as a single-disc CD player, and a digital instrument cluster coupled with a fuel economy computer installed in a hidden compartment on top of the center dashboard air conditioning vents.
  • The GT included all the equipment of the LX, but featured the F2T 2.2 L turbocharged, intercooled engine that produced 145 hp (108 kW) and 190 lb⋅ft (258 N⋅m) of torque. It came with an IHI RHB5-VJ11 turbocharger and an intercooler to the intake tract, as well as a knock sensor and electronic boost controller to the engine-control system. The boost pressure was 7.3 psi (0.50 bar) in the vicinity of 2,500 rpm. The GT version also came with 4-wheel disc brakes with ABS, a 3-way adjustable suspension utilizing variable damping shocks, and a speed-sensitive variable-assist power steering (VAP). The Probe GT's suspension system was based on a Mazda design, but its tuning was different and included nitrogen-gas pressurized front and rear struts, with stabilizer bars.

The 1991 Probe was given a 4-star crash rating in collision tests conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.[12]

Engine specifications[edit]

Engine Configuration Compression ratio Engine-control system Power (SAE net)
Mazda F2[13] 2.2 L (133 cu in) SOHC 12-valve inline-4 8.6:1 Mazda with port-fuel injection 110 hp (82 kW; 112 PS) @4700 RPM
Mazda F2T[13] 2.2 L (133 cu in) turbocharged SOHC 12-valve inline-4 7.8:1 145 hp (108 kW; 147 PS) @4300 RPM
Ford Vulcan[13] 3.0 L (182 cu in) OHV 12-valve V6 9:3:1 Ford EEC-IV 140 hp (104 kW; 142 PS) @4800 RPM (1990)

145 hp (108 kW; 147 PS) @4800 RPM (1991-1992)

1993–1997 Probe[edit]

Second generation
1994-1996 Ford Probe liftback 02.jpg
Overview
Production 1993–1997
Designer Mimi Vandermolen (1989)[14]
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback
Platform Mazda GE platform
Powertrain
Engine 2.0 L 118 hp (88 kW) I4
2.5 L 164 hp (122 kW) V6
Transmission

5-speed manual

4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1993–94: 102.9 in (2,614 mm)
1994–97: 102.8 in (2,611 mm)
Length 1993–94: 178.9 in (4,544 mm)
1994–97 Base: 178.7 in (4,539 mm)
1994–97 GT: 179.5 in (4,559 mm)
Width 69.8 in (1,773 mm)
Height 51.6 in (1,311 mm)
1993–94 GT: 51.8 in (1,316 mm)
Curb weight 2,894 lb (1,313 kg)

The Ford and Mazda design teams merged once again to give the Ford Probe a complete redesign for the 1993 model year. As before, the Probe was to share its under-structure with Mazda's MX-6 and 626. Mazda engineered the engine, transmission, and chassis, while Ford engineered the body and interior. Technically, the second generation Probe is 60% Mazda and 40% Ford. Despite the car being extended 2 inches and widened 4 inches, it was 125 pounds lighter than the first generation Probe. The second generation Probe was introduced in August 1992 as a 1993 model. As first planned during 1992, it finally went on sale in Europe in the spring of 1994, filling the gap left there by Ford in that market sector since the demise of the Capri seven years earlier. The Capri had regularly been one of Britain's 10 best selling cars throughout the 1970s, but its popularity declined in the early 1980s as Ford launched high performance versions of the Fiesta, Escort and Sierra hatchbacks. Such was the falling demand for this type of car that by 1986, when the end of Capri production was announced, Ford decided against launching a direct replacement.

The second-generation Probe was designed by a team led by Mimi Vandermolen, who led the interior design of the 1986 Ford Taurus. In 1987, Vandermolen became the first female designer to be the design executive of small cars for an automobile manufacturer, and Vandermolen designed the Probe to improve the driving experience for women, stating "If I can solve all the problems inherent in operating a vehicle for a woman, that'll make it that much easier for a man to use."[15]

However, the late 1980s and early 1990s saw the sales of affordable sports cars recover, first with a rising demand for Japanese built models like the Honda Prelude, Nissan Silvia, Mitsubishi Eclipse, and Toyota Celica, and then with the Volkswagen Corrado and the Vauxhall/Opel Calibra from Ford's direct competitor General Motors. By 1992, Ford had decided that there was now justifiable demand in Europe for a new affordable sports coupe to be launched.

Ford had been hoping to sell around 20,000 Probes each year in Britain as the car market recovered from the effects of the recession from 1992, but in the three years it was sold there, a total of just over 15,000 were sold - around a quarter of the projected figure for that length of time. Imports ceased during 1997, and its Cougar successor - launched a year later - was even less successful, being imported to Europe for just two years.

By February 2016, just 718 examples of the Probe were still in use in Britain.[16]

The base model started at just over US $13,000 and came standard with the 2.0L Mazda FS-DE 16-valve 4-cylinder engine, performance instrument cluster with tachometer and full gauge compliment, and an electronic AM/FM stereo. The sportier GT model started at $15,504[17] and came standard with the 2.5L Mazda K engine KL-DE 24-valve V6, low profile P225/50VR16 91V Goodyear VR50 Gatorback tires, 4-wheel disc brakes, unique front and rear fascias, fog lights, 5-spoke aluminum wheels, leather-wrapped steering wheel, and driver-seat power lumbar/seat back side bolster adjustment. Both engines featured dual overhead cam designs with the choice of a 5-speed manual transmission or a 4-speed automatic transmission.[18]

Two automatic transmissions were available in the Probe. At first both engines shared the same automatic transmission, the Ford F-4EAT transmission, but from 1994 onwards this changed. The V6 engine continued to use the 4EAT, but the 2.0 L I4 engine used a different automatic transmission, the Ford CD4E transmission. It was sourced by Ford, and manufactured at Ford's Batavia Transmission plant in Batavia, Ohio.[19]

A new SE (Sport Edition) trim level was available for 1995 and 1996. It included the GT front fascia (without fog lamps), unique 15-inch (380 mm) aluminum wheels, P205/55R15 BSW and Sport Edition "SE" nomenclature.[20]

In a coast to coast road test by Automobile Magazine in search of the best cars in the world, the Probe GT scored third place, behind an $80,000 Mercedes-Benz and an $80,000 BMW. In the article, the Probe listed at about $15,000.[citation needed]

Special editions[edit]

For 1993 and 1994, Ford offered a "SE" appearance package on the base model Probe. The package offered 3 spoke swirl-style alloy wheels, the GT model's ground effects, and the GT model's front bumper. Unlike the base, you were able to opt for power windows and mirrors on the SE package. Appearance wise, the only noticeable differences from the GT model were the wheels, "SE" nomenclature, rear bumper w/o air slot and lack of fog lights. "SE" was an appearance package and not an actual model or trim level. "SE" became a trim level in 1995 and was the middle grade model in the Probe lineup ahead of the base but behind the GT.

In 1994, Ford released a limited edition of the Probe, marketed as the Probe "Feature Car", but officially called the "GT Plus" package. This special package is better known to the general public and enthusiast community as the Probe "Wild Orchid Edition". Included on this limited appearance package was Wild Orchid exterior paint, "PROBE" badge on floor mats outlined in Wild Orchid, black cloth bucket seats with unique Wild Orchid inserts, and the "PROBE" badge on the rear outlined in Wild Orchid. This package was offered in 1994 only, and was exclusive to GT models. After dropping the Probe Feature Car after only a year of production, Ford carried over the Wild Orchid exterior color for the 1995 model year which was available on all Probe models.

In 1997, a "GTS" package was offered on the Probe GT. It was essentially nothing more than an appearance package, as performance was identical to the GT, but differences with the exterior were distinct. Dual racing stripes available in either white or black started at the top edge of the front bumper and continued on to the back lip of the hatch, terminating just below the center light reflector on the rear bumper. A chrome plated version of the GT's directional "swirlie" wheels and a spoiler were also included in the package, as well as having a "blank" center reflector which lacked "GT" lettering as the regular GT models have. The "GTS" was an appearance package and not an actual model or trim level. Very few Probes were produced with the GTS package and are considered today to be extremely rare.

Models/trim levels[edit]

  • Base • 1993–1995 ; 1997
  • SE • 1995–1996
  • GT • 1993–1997

In most other markets outside North America, trim levels were labeled as simply 16v (I4) and 24v (V6).

Appearance packages[edit]

  • SE • 1993–1994
  • GT Plus (Wild Orchid Edition) • 1994
  • GTS • 1997

Engine specifications[edit]

Engine Configuration Power (SAE net) Torque (SAE net) 0-60 mph 1/4 mile Top speed
Mazda FS-DE 2.0 L (121 cu in) DOHC 16-valve inline-4 118 hp (88 kW; 120 PS) @5500 RPM 127 ft⋅lbf (172 N⋅m) @ 4500 RPM 10.6s[21] 16.8s[17] 113 mph (electronically limited)
Mazda KL-DE 2.5 L (152 cu in) DOHC 24-valve 60° V6 164 hp (122 kW; 166 PS) @5600 RPM 156 ft⋅lbf (212 N⋅m) @ 4000 RPM 7.0s[22] 15.5s @ 89 mph (142 km/h) [17] 132 mph (manual transmission)

127.5 mph (automatic transmission

Year to year changes[edit]

1994

  • The 1994 Ford Probe becomes one of the first production cars to have dual airbags as standard equipment
  • The dashboard gets a major overhaul. It now used completely different materials, and the right side is redesigned to house a passenger airbag
  • Ford introduces the Probe in the European market
  • Foglights are slightly redesigned and now made by a different company
  • The stripe on the dashboard is gone, but remains on the interior panels
  • The stripe color on Probe GT's door panels are changed from red to the color of the car's interior
  • New Ford CD4E automatic transaxle for base and SE models
  • Air conditioning units are switched from R-12 to R-134A
  • "V6 DOHC 24 VALVE" emblem on engine intake manifold is no longer indented into the manifold and is now raised
  • As a cost cutting move, the ability to keep Probe's pop up headlights visible (without the lights being on) is removed
  • Fog light button on GT's is slightly redesigned

1995

  • Lear Seating Corporation receives Ford's "Most Valued Supplier" award for the manufacturing of the seats in the Probe[citation needed]
  • Redesigned tail lights; the base/SE models are outlined in black, the GT's are outlined in red
  • SE becomes a trim level/model
  • SE model no longer has the GT's ground effects/side skirts
  • Distributors are redesigned for better reliability
  • New alloy wheels for SE and GT (3 spoke 15" directional for SE, 5 spoke 16" directional "swirlies" for GT)
  • Two interior colors are dropped, Red and blue
  • Interior panels no longer have a stripe on them
  • Door panels are redesigned and are now a one piece design. GT models get a cloth or leather insert on the door panels.
  • Cloth seats are redesigned and are given a unique "spider web" pattern
  • GT models get the option of tan/saddle leather interior
  • Cup holders are slightly redesigned
  • GT models receive red center reflector with 'GT' logo between tail lights. License plate indent moved down onto bumper.
  • GT decal on rear bumper replaced with metal '24v' badge
  • Rear bumper is redesigned
  • Exterior mirrors are redesigned
  • Heated exterior mirrors option is dropped
  • Graphic equalizer is dropped

1996

  • "PROBE" badge stamped on rear windows is gone
  • Door ding guards no longer are extended onto the fenders
  • Base model dropped; SE is now the standard model
  • Probe GT gets the 1995 base/SE's black outlined tail lights
  • Illuminated exterior door locks are dropped
  • Tan/saddle color interiors are now available in cloth
  • Spoilers are redesigned
  • Floor lighting is dropped
  • "GT" center reflector above bumper on GT models is now outlined in black
  • Probe GT gets more refined suspension to improve ride. Ride height is now higher and handling is different as a result.
  • Cloth seats are redesigned again and get new fabric
  • Probe GT now has spoilers standard
  • Front seats are redesigned again
  • Rear seats are redesigned
  • Probe GT steering wheel's leather is no longer perforated
  • New seat belts with automatic locking retractors
  • Rear ashtray and map pocket on the passenger door of GT models are dropped
  • Rear windshield wiper dropped as an option
  • OBD-II compliant

1997

  • SE model is dropped ; base model returns and has the GT's front bumper
  • Cloth/leather inserts on GT door panels are removed
  • Base models get wheel covers from the Mazda 626, with 15" 3 spoke directional alloys from 95 and 96 Probe SE optional
  • Or optional 16" 5 spoke directional rims "swirlies"
  • Rear windshield wiper returns as an option
  • ABS is no longer standard on GT models and is now an option
  • GT logos behind the front wheel wells have new letter styling
  • Probe GT no longer has "24v" badge beside the "PROBE" badge
  • Side door intrusion beams redesigned to meet 1997 Federal Side Impact Standards
  • GTS appearance package added to the GT's option list
  • Last year for the Probe, with the last Probe being manufactured on June 20, 1997

US production numbers[edit]

[23]

Model year
1993 119,754
1994 85,502
1995 52,696
1996 32,505
1997 19,419
Total 309,876

1999–2002 Cougar[edit]

The last Probe came off the assembly line on June 20, 1997. A 3rd generation Probe built on the same platform as the Ford Contour/Mercury Mystique was to be released in mid-1998 as a 1999 model. About 1/3 of the way through designing the 3rd generation Probe, Ford decided to change the name and bring back the Cougar nameplate and badge it as a Mercury.[24] This was done in an unsuccessful attempt to attract younger buyers into Mercury showrooms. As the Probe was born from what was intended to be the new Mustang, the new Cougar was born from what was to be the new Probe. Strangely enough, the Cougar was never considered by Ford to be a successor to the Probe. The Escort ZX2, released shortly after the discontinuation of the Probe, was considered the Probe's successor. In June 1998, Ford released the new Probe as the 1999 Mercury Cougar.

Awards[edit]

The Probe GT was Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year for 1993. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1989, 1993, and 1994.

The 1993–1997 Probe was one of the Fords through the 1990s that Consumer Reports recommended.[25]

The NASCAR Dash Series version of a 1990 Ford Probe driven by Jeffrey Collier set a new track record at Daytona International Speedway February 13, 1990 with a speed of 166.553 mph. That record still stands as the fastest closed course lap for a non-turbo 4-cylinder powered car.

External links[edit]

  • Ford Probe 24v – Information, documents, pictures, about Ford Probe 24v of 1993

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Probe History". Performanceprobe.com. 1997-03-17. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  2. ^ History of the Ford PROBE, Concept Cars
  3. ^ mojo1961 (2010-05-02). "1981 Ford Probe III". Carstyling.ru. Retrieved 2010-07-21. 
  4. ^ Sergio (2008-06-10). "1985 Ford Probe V (Ghia)". Carstyling.ru. Retrieved 2010-07-21. 
  5. ^ Rosa, Mike. "Design Notes: 1989 Ford Probe". 
  6. ^ Pierce, Benjamin. "How Ford Almost Ruined the Mustang". 
  7. ^ Wernle, Bradford. "How Ford's pony car survived a brush with death". Automotive News. Retrieved 8 March 2018. 
  8. ^ Mateja, Jim. "If You Can`t Find A Ford Probe, Try Its Cousin: Mazda`s Mx-6". Chicago Tribune. 
  9. ^ "History". 
  10. ^ Shoar, Perry. "Curbside Classic: 1990 Ford Probe GT – Under Pressure". 
  11. ^ Geenen, Bernard (1988-03-31). "Ford Probe: La Maztang" [Ford Probe: the MazTang]. Le Moniteur de l'Automobile (in French). Brussels, Belgium: Editions Auto-Magazine. 3 (896): 120. 
  12. ^ "NHTSA". safercar.gov. Retrieved 2008-02-29. [dead link]
  13. ^ a b c "Ford Probe Specs". performanceprobe.com. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  14. ^ Veit, Rebecca. "Mimi Vandermolen, the Ergonomics Genius Behind Ford's "Rounded Edge Revolution"". 
  15. ^ Veit, Rebecca. "Mimi Vandermolen, the Ergonomics Genius Behind Ford's "Rounded Edge Revolution"". 
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ a b c Car and Driver, August 1992, Vol.38 No.2, Pages 32-37
  18. ^ Ford original sales brochure, Litho in Canada 4/92, Pages 20-21
  19. ^ "ATX Info". atxprobes.com. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  20. ^ Ford original sales brochure, Litho in Canada 9/93, Page 14
  21. ^ "Ford Probe (94-98) – Facts and Figures". parkers.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  22. ^ "1993 10 Best Cars". caranddriver.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  23. ^ "Probe production numbers". Probetalk.com. 2001. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  24. ^ "3rd gen Ford Probe released as Mercury Cougar". PerformanceProbe.com. 2011-12-13. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  25. ^ "Probe awards". bmj9975.rewazule.co. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  • Kevin Smith. "Ford Probe GT". Car and Driver (August 1992): 32–37.