Ford Sigma engine

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Ford Sigma engine
Overview
Manufacturer Ford Motor Company
Also called Zetec
Duratec
Duratec Ti-VCT
Production 1995-
Combustion chamber
Configuration DOHC straight 4
Displacement 1.25 L
1.4 L
1.5 L
1.6 L
1.7 L
Cylinder block alloy aluminium
Cylinder head alloy aluminium
Combustion
Supercharger none
Turbocharger none
Fuel system EFI
Fuel type gasoline
Dimensions
Dry weight

1.6 L Zetec - 81 kg

1.6 L Duratec - 90 kg
Chronology
Predecessor Ford CVH engine
Ford Kent engine
Successor Ford EcoBoost engine

Introduced in 1995, the Ford Sigma is a small straight-4 automobile engine sold by Ford Motor Company. First evolution of engines were sold as the "Zetec-SE" (although frequently badged as Zetec-S, not to be confused with the trim level). After the upgrade Ford renamed Sigma to Duratec.[1] Last upgrade of engine is named Duratec Ti-VCT. The engine was introduced in the mid-1990s and production continues through the present. Like the SHO V6 and SHO V8, the Sigma was designed with help from Yamaha. Conceived for Ford's smaller models, it was intended to replace the older HCS (a derivative of the even older Kent unit) and smaller capacity CVH units.

The Zetec-SE has no common parts or design with the larger Zetec-E engines apart from the name. This gives rise to some confusion since it suggests that they are members of the same family, but are in fact, completely different. Zetec-E units are mounted transversely with the inlet manifold at the rear, whereas the Zetec-SE units are mounted with the inlet manifold at the front.

Introduction and Innovations[edit]

When the Zetec-SE first arrived in 1995 it included many firsts, such as a plastic inlet manifold, a "ladder" style main bearing and crankcase assembly, and big-end bearing caps which are forged in one piece and subsequently split. It also incorporates powder metal connecting rods, which were quite exotic and notable at the time. The engine first appeared in the Mk4 Ford Fiesta and the virtually identical Mazda 121 in 1.25L (1242cc) capacity, with 1.4 L (1388cc), 1.6 L (1596cc) and 1.7 L (1679cc) derivatives coming later.

Difference between Zetec-SE/Zetec-S/Duratec/Duratec Ti-VCT[edit]

Sigma engined is introduced under Zetec-SE name, after the upgrade it was renamed to Duratec. Latest upgrade of Sigma is called Duratec Ti-VCT.

Zetec-S/SE[edit]

Code Years Displacement (bore x stroke)/Type Power@rpm torque@rpm Compression (:1)
1.25 Zetec-S/SE 1995- 1,242 cc (1.242 L; 75.8 cu in) (71.9 mm (2.83 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)@5200 110 N·m (81 lb·ft)@4000 10
1.4 Zetec-S/SE 1998- 1,388 cc (1.388 L; 84.7 cu in) (76 mm (3.0 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)@5000 124 N·m (91 lb·ft)@3500 11
1.4 Zetec-S/SE 1995- 1,388 cc (1.388 L; 84.7 cu in) (76 mm (3.0 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp)@5500 123 N·m (91 lb·ft)@4000 10.3
1.6 Zetec-S/SE 1998- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in)x81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)@6000 145 N·m (107 lb·ft)@4000 11

Zetec-S[edit]

1.7 Zetec-S VCT 1997- 1,679 cc (1.679 L; 102.5 cu in) (80 mm (3.1 in)x83.5 mm (3.29 in)) I4 126 PS (93 kW; 124 hp)@6300 157 N·m (116 lb·ft)@4500 10.3
1.7 Zetec-S VCT 1999- 1,679 cc (1.679 L; 102.5 cu in) (80 mm (3.1 in)x83.5 mm (3.29 in)) I4 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp)@7000 162 N·m (119 lb·ft)@4500 10.3

The 1,679 cc (1.679 L; 102.5 cu in) engines uses a heavily modified 1.6 L engine block and features Variable Cam Timing on the inlet camshaft. This displacement has only been used in Ford Puma. 155 PS engine has only been used for the Ford Racing Puma with only 500 units built.

Zetec RoCam[edit]

In 2000, Ford of Brazil developed a cheaper version of the Zetec-SE engine, to compete with the classic Volkswagen EA827 engine series known locally as AP (from "Alta Performance", "High Performance", in English) engine in Brazil. It is 8v SOHC instead of 16v DOHC and its block is made of iron instead of aluminum. Also, its camshaft is driven by a chain instead of a belt. As a result this engine exhibits rougher behaviour, producing more vibration and noise.

On the other hand, it has a superb torque output thanks to the addition of the RoCam (Rollifinger Camshaft) feature. It's also a much smaller engine than the SE version, which allowed it to be installed on the Ford Ka, replacing the Endura-E engine which by that time was considered underpowered and outdated.

The engine also featured a new patented process for the aluminum head production, which resulted in a better alloy than those produced in Spain and UK, and at a lower production cost.

In 2002 a supercharged 1.0 litre (94 hp; 95 PS) version was released for the Ford Fiesta, to compete with the 1.0 Turbo 16v (111 hp; 112 PS) version of the VW Gol.

In 2003 the Zetec RoCam engine was introduced in Europe, but labeled as Duratec 8v, for the SportKa, StreetKa and Fiesta. Later a 1.3 litre version was also released as an option for the standard model, but the European versions of the engine are produced in the South Africa plant.

In October/2004 a newer bi-fuel version was introduced labeled "1.6L Flex", capable of running on both petrol and ethanol, even mixed at any proportion. This version also featured a high compression ratio (11.8:1) and "Compound High Turbulence" chambers, as used on the CHT engine.

Currently, this engine powers nearly all Brazilian Ford models – except those with 2.0 litre engines – in many different variants:

Applications[edit]

1.6 L (1596 or 1597 cc/97 cu in) applications:

  • –present Latin America Ford SportsKa 1.6, 95 PS (94 hp; 70 kW) and 100 lb·ft (140 N·m)
  • –present Latin America Ford StreetKa 1.6, 95 PS (94 hp; 70 kW) and 100 lb·ft (140 N·m)

Duratec[edit]

Ford upgraded Sigma and renamed it to Duratec.

Code Years Displacement (bore x stroke)/Type Power Torque Compression
1.25 Duratec 2008- 1,242 cc (1.242 L; 75.8 cu in) (71.9 mm (2.83 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) @ 109 N·m (80 lb·ft) @ 11.0:1
1.25 Duratec 2008- 1,242 cc (1.242 L; 75.8 cu in) (71.9 mm (2.83 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) @ 114 N·m (84 lb·ft) @ 11.0:1
1.4 Duratec 2002- 1,388 cc (1.388 L; 84.7 cu in) (76 mm (3.0 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) @ 5700 124 N·m (91 lb·ft) @ 3500 11.0:1
1.4 Duratec 2008- 1,388 cc (1.388 L; 84.7 cu in) (76 mm (3.0 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 96 PS (71 kW; 95 hp) @ 125 N·m (92 lb·ft) @ 11.0:1
1.6 Duratec 2004- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in)x81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp) @ 6000 150 N·m (110 lb·ft) @ 4000 11.0:1

Duratec Ti-VCT[edit]

The 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) Ti-VCT (Twin independent Variable Camshaft Timing) version includes variable valve timing, and generates more power and torque than non-VVT counterparts. Latest versions comply with the Euro5 emission level.

Code Years Displacement (bore x stroke)/Type Power Torque Compression
1.5 Duratec Ti-VCT 2013- 1,499 cc (1.499 L; 91.5 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in) x 76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 112 PS (82 kW; 110 hp) @ 6300 140 N·m (100 lb·ft) @ 4300 11.0:1
1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT 2004- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in) x 81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) @ 6000 155 N·m (114 lb·ft) @ 4150 11.0:1
1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT 2007- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in) x 81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 110 PS (81 kW; 110 hp) @ 6000 152 N·m (112 lb·ft) @ 4050 11.0:1
1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT 2007- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in) x 81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 125 PS (92 kW; 123 hp) @ 6300 160 N·m (120 lb·ft) @ 4100 11.0:1
1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT 2008- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in) x 81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 120 PS (88 kW; 120 hp) @ 6300 160 N·m (120 lb·ft) @ 4100 11.0:1
1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT 2010- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in) x 81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp) @ 6000 150 N·m (110 lb·ft) @ 4000-4500 11.0:1
1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT 2011- 1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in) x 81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 134 PS (99 kW; 132 hp) @ 6700 160 N·m (120 lb·ft) @ 4250 11.0:1

Crate engine versions[edit]

Crate engine versions of Zetec-SE engines are sold by Ford Power Products under the name ZSG Range.

Code Years Displacement (bore x stroke)/Type Power@rpm torque@rpm Compression (:1)
ZSG 414 ?- 1,388 cc (1.388 L; 84.7 cu in) (76 mm (3.0 in)x76.5 mm (3.01 in)) I4 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)@5700 124 N·m (91 lb·ft)@3500 11
ZSG 416 ?- 1,595 cc (1.595 L; 97.3 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in)x81.4 mm (3.20 in)) I4 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)@6000 146 N·m (108 lb·ft)@4000 11

Applications[edit]

Engine type ratings vehicles
1,242 cc (1.242 L; 75.8 cu in) I4 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp), 109 N·m (80 lb·ft)
75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)@6000, 110 N·m (81 lb·ft)@4000
80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp), 114 N·m (84 lb·ft)
1,388 cc (1.388 L; 84.7 cu in) I4 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp), 124 N·m (91 lb·ft)
80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp)@5700, 124 N·m (91 lb·ft)@3500
90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp), 125 N·m (92 lb·ft)
96 PS (71 kW; 95 hp), 125 N·m (92 lb·ft)
1,499 cc (1.499 L; 91.5 cu in) I4 Ti-VCT 112 PS (82 kW; 110 hp), 140 N·m (100 lb·ft)
1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) I4 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)@6000, 145 N·m (107 lb·ft)@4000
100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)@6000, 150 N·m (110 lb·ft)@4000
1,596 cc (1.596 L; 97.4 cu in) I4 Ti-VCT 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)@6000, 155 N·m (114 lb·ft)@4150
120 PS (88 kW; 120 hp)@6000, 152 N·m (112 lb·ft)@4050
105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp)@6000, 150 N·m (110 lb·ft)@4000-4500
110 PS (81 kW; 110 hp)@6300, 160 N·m (120 lb·ft)@4100
125 PS (92 kW; 123 hp)@6000, 159 N·m (117 lb·ft)@4000
1,679 cc (1.679 L; 102.5 cu in) I4 VCT 126 PS (93 kW; 124 hp)@6300, 157 N·m (116 lb·ft)@4500
155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp)@7000, 162 N·m (119 lb·ft)@4500
  • 1999-2000 Ford Racing Puma 1.7

Current use[edit]

The Ford Sigma engine is produced at Bridgend Ford in Wales.

Today Sigma engine is used by Focus, Fiesta, C-Max and Mondeo. A 110 bhp (82 kW) version is used by Morgan for their 4/4 Roadster since 2009, albeit coupled to a Mazda transmission driving the rear wheels.[2]

1.25/1.4/1.6 L Sigma

These engines in the First generation Focus produced 75 and 100 bhp (75 kW; 101 PS) respectively, but for MkII Focus the 1.4 variant was slightly modified and produced 80 bhp (60 kW; 81 PS). Both engines have belt driven camshafts and Electronic Fuel Injection systems. They weigh 90 kilograms.[1] [2] The 1.6 Ti-VCT is introduced in 2004, it which features Variable Cam Timing; this 115 bhp (86 kW; 117 PS) version is used in MkII Focus. A new 105/125 bhp EU5 version is used in the MkIII Focus, also a 1.6 L 120 hp (89 kW) version is used in Ford Fiesta Zetec-S. The Sigma is usually coupled to the Ford IB5 five-speed manual transmission.


Brazil

Today Sigma is present in Brazilian versions of Fiesta, Focus and Ecosport (1.6L TI-VCT version) and a 1.5 version is used by Ka. This engine is able to the flex technology.

Power with ethanol:

1.5L Sigma (non TI-VCT) - IB5+ manual transmission.

Fiesta (2014-2016) - 112PS Ka (2014-Present) - 110PS

1.6 Sigma (non TI-VCT) - IB5+ manual transmission (both) and PowerShift (Fiesta Only).

Fiesta (2008-2014) - 116PS Ecosport (2012-Present) - 116PS

1.6 Sigma TI-VCT - IB5+ manual transmission and PowerShift.

Focus (2013-Present) - 135PS Fiesta (2008-2014) - 128PS Ecosport (2012-Present) - 131PS

Caterham usage[edit]

Some Caterham Cars use Ford Sigma engines [3], such as the Caterham Seven 360, which as of 2016 uses a tuned Sigma engine which produces 180 hp (134 kW) at 7300 rpm.
Ford Sigma 1.6-litre overview Technical features:

  • High level of running refinement and low emission levels
  • Aluminium alloy cylinder block and head
  • Cross flow cylinder head
  • Structural aluminium oil-pan for increased engine stiffness
  • Twin overhead camshafts each with five bearings
  • Sequential multi-port fuel injection system
  • Long life, glass fibre reinforced camshaft drive belt with automatic tensioner
  • State-of-the-art Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing (on Ti-VCT variant)
Code Displacement (bore x stroke)/Type Power@rpm torque@rpm Compression (:1)
Ford Sigma 1.6 125 hp 1,595 cc (1.595 L; 97.3 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in)?x81.4 mm (3.20 in)?) I4 125 PS (92 kW; 123 hp)@6100 162 N·m (119 lb·ft)@5350 11.0:1
Ford Sigma 1.6 150 hp 1,595 cc (1.595 L; 97.3 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in)?x81.4 mm (3.20 in)?) I4 150 PS (110 kW; 150 hp)@6900 162 N·m (119 lb·ft)@5600 11.0:1
Caterham Sigma 1.6 Ti-VCT EU4 1,595 cc (1.595 L; 97.3 cu in) (79 mm (3.1 in)?x81.4 mm (3.20 in)?) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)@6000 155 N·m (114 lb·ft)@4150 11.0:1

SCCA Spec Racer[edit]

The third generation of the SCCA Spec Racer was introduced in 2015,[3] and uses the 1.6 L Sigma engine. The engine is sold by SCCA Enterprises as a sealed unit.

Replacement[edit]

In 2012 Ford replaced the Sigma engine with a brand new 3-cylinder 1.0 litre EcoBoost engine for some markets and models. The new engine provides more power and torque with less fuel consumption and less CO2 emissions.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fuel, performance and emissions Ford Fiesta, Ford.co.uk, 21 April 2009.
  2. ^ "4/4: Specifications". The Morgan Motor Company. Retrieved 2013-06-05. 
  3. ^ "Spec Racer Ford". SCCA Enterprises. Retrieved 2016-11-12. 
  4. ^ Ecoboost replaces Duratec, themotorreport.com.au, 05. February 2012.

External links[edit]