Ford Thunderbird (ninth generation)
|Designer||Jack Telnack (1980)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupe|
|Platform||Ford Fox platform|
Continental Mark VII
2.3 L Lima I4 (turbo)|
3.8 L Essex V6
5.0 L Windsor V8
3-speed C3 automatic|
4-speed A4LD automatic
4-speed C5 automatic
4-speed AOD automatic
Borg-Warner 5-speed T-5 manual
|Wheelbase||104.2 in (2,647 mm) |
|Width||71.1 in (1,806 mm)|
|Predecessor||Ford Thunderbird (eighth generation)|
|Successor||Ford Thunderbird (tenth generation)|
The ninth generation of the Ford Thunderbird is a personal luxury coupe that was manufactured by Ford for the 1983 to the 1988 model years. In response to poor sales of the 1980-1982 Thunderbird, Ford made extensive changes to the design and marketing of the model range. While remaining a personal luxury coupe (to minimize overlap with the Ford Mustang), the Thunderbird transitioned towards a higher emphasis on performance and handling over comfort features. This generation of the Thunderbird marks the introduction of highly aerodynamic body design to Ford vehicles in North America (reducing its drag coefficient to 0.35); the Thunderbird was followed by similarly designed model lines, including the Ford Mustang SVO, Ford Tempo, Ford Aerostar, and Ford Taurus.
While the Ford Fox platform underpinnings were retained from the previous generation (sharing its V6 and V8 engines), the ninth-generation debuted the first (and only) four-cylinder Thunderbird, with the introduction of the high-performance Thunderbird Turbo Coupe (sharing a variant of the Mustang SVO engine).
Alongside the Ford Thunderbird, the Mercury Cougar returned as its Mercury counterpart (solely as a two-door coupe). For 1984, the Thunderbird and Cougar were joined by the Continental (later Lincoln) Mark VII (which was produced until 1992). As with its predecessor, the ninth-generation Ford Thunderbird was produced in Atlanta Assembly and Lorain Assembly (in Hapeville, Georgia, and Lorain, Ohio, respectively).
Following the introduction of the 1980 Thunderbird, sales of the nameplate sharply decreased in comparison to its 1977–1979 predecessor, despite it being a more fuel-efficient vehicle. As the 1970s turned into the 1980s, personal luxury cars gradually became more sporting in image, with vehicles as the BMW 6-Series and Mercedes-Benz SL increasing in popularity. In 1980, Ford President Donald Petersen asked Ford Vice President of Design Jack Telnack of the 1980 Thunderbird: "is this what you would want in your driveway?". The negative response by Telnack prompted the company to request the Thunderbird be restyled completely.
A Lincoln proposal was designed in the Lincoln-Mercury Studio which Mr. Peterson liked. Dave Royer was assigned the task of putting a design similar to that on the Thunderbird package. He and Master Modeler Sam Borg put the clay model together in a very short period of time. Caldwell approved it and Royer then developed it further in the wind tunnel. Many members of design management thought it was a mistake. One high level design management person referred to it as a "Burnt Tennis Shoe."
To give the car a more contemporary image, the body was completely redesigned from the ground up. Aside from the egg-crate grille and the Thunderbird emblem (which were both significantly updated), no styling cues were carried over. As a necessity to control development costs, the 1983 Thunderbird was forced to retain its Fox-platform chassis, including some of the interior being carried over slightly modified from the previous generation. In the style of the Ford Probe concept cars and the 1982 Ford Sierra, the Thunderbird was designed for aerodynamic efficiency alongside its looks, with many of its body panels having rounded edges and its doors wrapping into the roof. In extreme contrast to its predecessors of the late 1970s, the 1983 Thunderbird was designed to minimize the use of chrome trim; some trim levels limited it exclusively to the wheels.
Following its redesign for the 1983 model year, the Thunderbird was available in base, Heritage, or Turbo Coupe, which was the most expensive performance-oriented model. Both the base and the Heritage came standard with a 3.8 L (232 cu in) Essex V6 that produced 110 horsepower (82 kW) mated to a 3 speed automatic. A 5.0 L (302 cu in) Windsor V8 with 140 horsepower (100 kW) was available with the former two models as well. The Turbo Coupe, the top-of-the-line model was special for several reasons. It used a turbocharged 4-cylinder 2.3 L (140 cu in) engine with Ford's EEC-IV electronic engine control system. Unlike the other models, the Turbo Coupe came with a standard 5-speed manual transmission. Other improvements included a limited-slip differential (called "Traction-Lok"), larger tires and wheels, and a sportier interior complete with analog gauges.
For the 1984 model year, few changes were made. The Turbo Coupe gained a 3-speed automatic transmission as an option. A FILA model was introduced, which featured unique paint, unique interior, and wheel choices, as well as badging to provide the car with a more European feel. The mid-range Heritage model was renamed élan.
For 1985, the Thunderbird celebrated its 30th year in the Ford model lineup; a 30th Anniversary Edition model was offered, that featured unique blue paint and stripes, and came very well loaded with options. It was loosely based on the élan model and most examples were equipped with the 5.0L V8. All Thunderbirds received an updated interior with a redesigned instrument panel. The grille and taillamps were also revised. Turbo Coupe models increased engine output to 155 horsepower (116 kW)
Minor changes were made in 1986, including the addition of a center high mount stop lamp, and the deletion of the FILA edition. In 1986, Ford began work on the "MN12" project which would serve as the basis for an all-new Thunderbird generation. Supposed to compete against the BMW 6-Series, Ford believed that the new Thunderbird would be too big a change for the public and still wanted to capitalize on the success that the existing generation of Thunderbirds had brought.
For the 1987 model year, the exterior of the Thunderbird was updated to further improve its aerodynamic performance. The headlights were changed from sealed-beam units to flush-mounted composite units and the rear quarter glass was also flush-mounted. Thunderbird Turbo Coupes were distinguished by their own front bodywork, which did away with a traditional front grille, featuring functional hood scoops directed to the intercooler. In sharp contrast to the Thunderbirds of a decade before, chrome trim was used only sparingly; on Turbo Coupes, the only chrome trim on the entire car was the Thunderbird emblems and lettering.
The model lineup was further changed; to bring the Thunderbird in line with other Ford models, the élan was dropped, replaced with LX and Sport versions. The LX was equipped with the V6 while the Sport was equipped with the V8. Turbo Coupes gained an intercooler, essentially giving the car the powertrain of the Ford Mustang SVO. Versions with the 5-speed manual were given a power increase to 190 hp, reaching a top speed of 143 mph. Versions with the 4-speed automatic transmission (new for 1987) were detuned to 150 hp in the interest of transmission durability; turbocharger boost was reduced to 9.5 psi (65 kPa or 0.65 bar) instead of 10-15 psi (70 to 100 kPa or 0.7 to 1 bar). Turbo Coupes were equipped with anti-lock 4-wheel disc brakes, Automatic Ride Control, and 16-inch 225/60VR performance tires. The Turbo Coupe also featured a performance-styled front valance with fog lights and special trim with "Turbo Coupe" badges on the doors, as well as "Snowflake" 16 inch alloy wheels.
The Ford Thunderbird Turbo Coupe was named the Motor Trend Car of the Year for 1987.
1988, the final year for the Turbo Coupe, saw only minor changes. The 5-speed manual transmission now allowed the full 15 psi of boost in all forward gears (as opposed to excluding the first two gears). The Turbo Coupe was replaced in 1989 by the Super Coupe which had a 3.8 L supercharged V6 engine—a radical departure from the old turbo-4.
- "The Aero-Bird Thunderbird FAQ". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Tast, Alan H. and David Newhardt. THUNDERBIRD FIFTY YEARS. Motorbooks. October 15, 2004.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ford Thunderbird (ninth generation).|
|Full-size||LTD||LTD Crown Victoria||Crown Victoria||Crown Victoria|
|Country Squire||Five Hundred / Taurus||Taurus|
|Sport compact||EXP||EXP||Probe||Probe||Escort ZX2||ZX2||Fiesta ST|