Fore-and-aft rig

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Micronesian wa with crab claw sail
The earliest European fore-and-aft rigs appeared in the form of spritsails in Greco-Roman navigation,[1] as this carving of a 3rd century AD Roman merchant ship

A fore-and-aft rig is a sailing vessel rigged mainly with sails set along the line of the keel, rather than perpendicular to it as on a square rigged vessel.[2]


Fore-and-aft rigged sails include staysails, Bermuda rigged sails, gaff rigged sails, gaff sails, gunter rig, lateen sails, lug sails, tanja sails, the spanker sail on a square rig and crab claw sails.

Fore-and-aft rigs include:

Barques and barquentines are partially square rigged and partially fore-and-aft rigged.

A rig which combines both on a foremast is known as a hermaphroditic rig.



One of the ships in Borobudur depicting a double-outrigger vessel with fore-and-aft tanja sails on tripod masts (c. 8th century AD)

The fore-and-aft rig were first developed independently by the Austronesian peoples some time around 1500 BC with the invention of the crab claw sail. It evolved from a more primitive "V"-shaped "square" sail with two spars that come together at the hull. Crab claw sails spread from Maritime Southeast Asia to Micronesia, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar via the Austronesian migrations.[3] Austronesians in Southeast Asia also later developed other types of fore-and-aft sails. Namely the tanja sail (also known as the canted square sail, canted rectangular sail, or the balance lug sail),[3] and the junk rig.[4][5][6]

Their use later spread into the Indian Ocean since the first millennium, among vessels from the Middle East, South Asia, and China.[7][8]


The square rig had predominated in Europe since the dawn of sea travel, but in the generally gentle climate of southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea during the last few centuries before the Renaissance the fore-and-aft began to replace it. By 1475, its use increased, and within a hundred years the fore-and-aft rig was in common use on rivers and in estuaries in Britain, northern France, and the Low Countries, though the square rig remained standard for the harsher conditions of the open North Sea as well as for trans-Atlantic sailing.[9]:p.49 The triangular lateen sail was more maneuverable and speedier, while the square rig was labor-intense but seaworthy.


  1. ^ Casson, Lionel (1995): "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World", Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-5130-8, pp. 243–245
  2. ^ Knight, Austin Melvin (1910). Modern seamanship. New York: D. Van Nostrand. pp. 507–532.
  3. ^ a b Campbell, I.C. (1995). "The Lateen Sail in World History". Journal of World History. 6 (1): 1–23.
  4. ^ Shaffer, Lynda Norene (1996). Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500. M.E. Sharpe.
  5. ^ Johnstone, Paul (1980). The Seacraft of Prehistory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 93–4. ISBN 978-0674795952.
  6. ^ Hourani, George Fadlo (1951). Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  7. ^ Hobson, John M. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press,2004, p. 58, ISBN 978-0-521-54724-6, ISBN 0-521-54724-5 "
  8. ^ Agius, Dionisius A. (2008). Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean. BRILL. pp. 141, 160, 211–212, 382. ISBN 9004158634.
  9. ^ Chatterton, Edward Keble (1912). Fore and aft. London: J. B. Lippincott. p. 203. OCLC 651733391. fore and aft rig schooner.

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