Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
|Other short titles|
|Long title||An Act to amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to make it unlawful for an issuer of securities registered pursuant to section 12 of such Act or an issuer required to file reports pursuant to section 15(d) of such Act to make certain payments to foreign officials and other foreign persons, to require such issuers to maintain accurate records, and for other purposes.|
|Nicknames||Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977|
|Enacted by||the 95th United States Congress|
|Effective||December 19, 1977|
|Statutes at Large||91 Stat. 1494|
|Titles amended||15 U.S.C.: Commerce and Trade|
|U.S.C. sections amended||15 U.S.C. ch. 2B § 78a et seq.|
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) (15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1, et seq.) is a United States federal law that prohibits U.S. citizens and entities from bribing foreign government officials to benefit their business interests.
The FCPA is applicable worldwide and extends specifically to publicly traded companies and their personnel, including officers, directors, employees, shareholders, and agents. Following amendments made in 1998, the Act also applies to foreign firms and persons who, either directly or through intermediaries, help facilitate or carry out corrupt payments in U.S. territory.
Pursuant to its anti-bribery purpose, the FCPA amends the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to require all companies with securities listed in the U.S. to meet certain accounting provisions, such as ensuring accurate and transparent financial records and maintaining internal accounting controls.
Since its passage, the FCPA has been subject to controversy and criticism, namely whether its enforcement discourages U.S. companies from investing abroad. The Act was subsequently amended in 1988 to raise the standard of proof for a finding of bribery.
Provisions and scope
The core aim of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) is to prohibit companies and their individual officers from influencing foreign officials with any personal payments or rewards. The FCPA applies to any person who has a certain degree of connection to the United States and engages in corrupt practices abroad, as well as to U.S. businesses, foreign corporations trading securities in the U.S., American nationals, citizens, and residents acting in furtherance of a foreign corrupt practice, whether or not they are physically present in the U.S. This is considered the nationality principle of the Act. Any individuals involved in these activities may face prison time.[page needed]
In the case of foreign natural and legal persons, the Act covers their deeds if they are in the U.S. at the time of the corrupt conduct. This is considered the protective principle of the Act. Moreover, the FCPA governs not only direct payments to foreign officials, candidates, and parties, but payments made to any other recipient in furtherance of influencing a foreign official, candidate, or party. These payments are not restricted to monetary forms and may include anything of value. This is considered the territoriality principle of the act.
The FCPA is subject to ongoing scholarly and congressional debate regarding its effects on international commerce. Scholars have found that its enforcement discourages U.S. firms from investing in foreign markets. This coincides with the well established observation that companies engaging in mergers and acquisitions in emerging markets face a uniquely increased level of regulatory and corruption risk.
Persons subject to the FCPA
- The term "issuer" is used to describe any U.S. or foreign corporation that has a class of securities registered, or that is required to file reports under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1)
- Domestic concerns
- Refers to any individual who is a citizen, national, or resident of the U.S. and any business entity organized under the laws of the U.S. or one of its states, or having its principal place of business in the U.S. (15 U.S.C. § 78dd-2)
- Any legal person
- Covers both enterprises and individuals (15 U.S.C. § 78dd-3)
Investigations by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in the mid-1970s revealed that over 400 U.S. companies admitted making questionable or illegal payments in excess of $300 million to foreign government officials, politicians, and political parties. The abuses ran the gamut from bribery of high foreign officials to secure some type of favorable action by a foreign government, to so-called facilitating payments that were made to ensure that government functionaries discharged certain ministerial or clerical duties. If the official has no choice but to bribe, and bribery is legal in the country, bribing is seen as necessary for "greasing the wheels", i.e. facilitating the conduct of business. Among the major examples of such practices were the Lockheed bribery scandals, in which officials of aerospace company Lockheed paid foreign officials in several countries to favor their company's products,:10 and the Bananagate scandal, in which Chiquita Brands bribed the President of Honduras for more favorable government policies.
In response to these high-profile revelations, Congress enacted the FCPA to bring a halt to the bribery of foreign officials and to restore public confidence in the integrity of the American business system. The Act was signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on December 19, 1977. The first criminal enforcement action under the Act was against Finbar Kenny. Kenny had advanced Sir Albert Henry, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands, $337,000 from postage stamp revenue for Henry's re-election campaign. In 1979, Kenny became the first American to plead guilty of violating the FCPA, and was fined $50,000.
The Act was first amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, where Title V is known as the 'Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Amendments of 1988'. It introduced a "knowing" standard in order to find violations of the Act, encompassing "conscious disregard" and "willful blindness." Other amendments were for "bona fide", "reasonable" and lawful gifts under the laws of the foreign country.
The second amendment was the International Anti-Bribery Act of 1998 which was designed to implement the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention—i.e., to include certain foreign persons and extending the scope beyond U.S. borders.
The FCPA dominated international anti-corruption enforcement from its introduction until around 2010 when other countries began introducing broader and more robust legislation, notably the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010. The International Organization for Standardization introduced an international anti-bribery management system standard in 2016. In recent years, cooperation in enforcement action between countries has increased.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) are jointly responsible for enforcing the FCPA, since it amends both an SEC Act and the criminal code. SEC enforcement applies to companies it regulates while the DOJ enforces the Act against all other domestic companies. This split was criticized even before the act was passed.:10–11 In 2010 the SEC created a specialized unit for FCPA enforcement. In 2012, the SEC and the DOJ issued their first joint guide to the FCPA.
In April 2017, Attorney General Jeff Sessions traveled to an ethics lawyers conference to assure them that he would continue prosecutions under the FCPA, regardless of new SEC Chairman Jay Clayton's expressed skepticism and of President Donald Trump's comments that it is a "horrible law" and "the world is laughing at us". When informed by Secretary of State Rex Tillerson that changing the law would require an Act of Congress, Trump complained that it was "just so unfair that American companies aren’t allowed to pay bribes to get business overseas", and instructed aides to draft an Executive Order that would repeal the law. Trump's economic adviser Larry Kudlow confirmed in January 2020, that the Trump and his administration were still pushing for changing the law. An investigation by two Washington Post journalists uncovered ways in which Donald Trump had been trying to circumvent the law to allow for bribery to occur. It has been speculated that Trump has committed bribery in multiple situations in his business career and possibly as president in violation of the FCPA.
The anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA make it unlawful for a U.S. person, and certain foreign issuers of securities, to make a payment to a foreign official for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business for or with, or directing business to, any person. Since the 1998 Amendment of FCPA they also apply to foreign firms and persons who take any act in furtherance of such a corrupt payment while in the U.S. the meaning of foreign official is broad. For example, an owner of a bank who is also the minister of finance would count as a foreign official according to the U.S. government. Doctors at government-owned or managed hospitals are also considered to be foreign officials under the FCPA, as is anyone working for a government-owned or managed institution or enterprise. Employees of international organizations such as the United Nations are also considered to be foreign officials under the FCPA. A 2014 federal appellate court decision has provided guidance on how the term "foreign official" is defined under FCPA.
Because the Act concerns the intent of the bribery rather than the amount, there is no requirement of materiality. Offering anything of value as a bribe, whether cash or non-cash items, is prohibited.
The FCPA also requires companies whose securities are listed in the U.S. to meet its accounting provisions. These accounting provisions operate in tandem with the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA, and require respective corporations to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. An increasing number of corporations are taking additional steps to protect their reputation and reduce their exposure by employing the services of due diligence companies tasked with vetting third party intermediaries and identifying easily overlooked government officials embedded in otherwise privately held foreign firms. This strategy is one element of an effective FCPA Compliance Program, as it shows a sincere attempt to avoid business situations where high risk (prior history or proximity to unethical behavior) individuals are concerned.
Regarding payments to foreign officials, the act draws a distinction between bribery and facilitation or "grease payments", which may be permissible under the FCPA, but may still violate local laws. The primary distinction is that grease payments or facilitation payments are made to an official to expedite his performance of the routine duties he is already bound to perform. The exception focuses on the purpose of the payment rather than on its value. Payments to foreign officials may be legal under the FCPA if the payments are permitted under the written laws of the host country. Certain payments or reimbursements relating to product promotion may also be permitted under the FCPA.
A U.S. company acquiring a foreign firm could face successor liability for FCPA violations committed by the foreign firm prior to being acquired. Generally, acquiring companies may be liable as a successor for pre-existing FCPA violations committed by an acquired company where those violations were subject to the FCPA's jurisdiction when committed. This position was further confirmed by the DOJ in a 2014 opinion stating that pre-acquisition conduct by a foreign target company without a jurisdictional nexus to the U.S. would not be subject to FCPA enforcement.
Anti-bribery/anti-corruption (ABAC) solutions
Businesses increasingly focus on their core competencies, and as a result engage more third parties to provide critical business functions. Companies do not have direct control over their third-party providers, which expose them to regulatory and reputational risk of FCPA violations by those third parties. Under the FCPA, businesses are accountable for activities involving both their internal and external relationships. Companies that operate internationally, or that engage third parties in countries with a high Corruption Perceptions Index, are especially at risk. Many companies have now adopted "anti-bribery/anti-corruption" (ABAC) solutions to combat this risk and help protect themselves from fines and reputational damage.
ABAC compliance solutions are a subset of third party management. These systems can automatically manage third party information and monitor their ongoing activities in compliance with FCPA regulation.
Stronger DOJ and SEC enforcement has increased the prominence of the FCPA from 2010 onwards. The SEC website shows a complete list of enforcement cases since 1978. Notable select cases of the application of FCPA since 2008 are with ALCOA, Biomet, Bizjet, Hewlett Packard Company, KBR, Marubeni Corporation, News Corporation, Siemens, Smith & Nephew and Walmart de Mexico as follows:
In 2012, Japanese firm Marubeni Corporation paid a criminal penalty of US$54.6 million for FCPA violations when acting as an agent of the TKSJ joint venture, which comprised Technip, Snamprogetti Netherlands B.V., Kellogg Brown & Root Inc., and JGC Corporation. Between 1995 and 2004, the joint venture won four contracts in Nigeria worth more than US$6 billion, as a direct result of having paid US$51 million to Marubeni to be used to bribe Nigerian government officials.
In 2012 Smith & Nephew paid US$22.2 million to the DOJ and SEC, and Bizjet International Sales and Support Inc. paid US$11.8 million to the DOJ for bribery of foreign government officials. Both companies entered into a deferred prosecution agreement.
In January 2014, ALCOA paid $175 million in disgorgement of revenues and a fine of $209 million to settle charges that its Australian bauxite mining subsidiary retained an agent that made bribes to government officials in Bahrain and to officers of Aluminum Bahrain B.S.C. to secure long-term contracts to supply the company with bauxite ore.
In March 2014, Marubeni Corporation agreed with the DOJ to pay a US$88 million fine after pleading guilty to taking part in a scheme to pay bribes to high ranking Indonesian officials in order to secure a lucrative power project.
On February 24, 2015, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company "Goodyear" agreed to pay more than $16 million to settle FCPA charges that two of its African subsidiaries allegedly paid $3.2 million in bribes that generated $14,122,535 in illicit profits. The SEC FCPA charges involved Goodyear subsidiaries in Kenya and Angola for allegedly paying bribes to government and private-sector workers in exchange for sales in each country. According to the SEC because "Goodyear did not prevent or detect these improper payments because it failed to implement adequate FCPA compliance controls at its subsidiaries" and, for the Kenyan subsidiary, "because it failed to conduct adequate due diligence" prior to its acquisition. It was not alleged that Goodyear had any involvement with or knowledge of its subsidiaries' improper conduct.
In 2010 the DOJ and the SEC were investigating whether Hewlett Packard Company executives paid about $10.9 million in bribery money between 2004 and 2006 to the Prosecutor General of Russia "to win a €35 million contract to supply computer equipment throughout Russia." On September 11, 2014, HP Russia pleaded guilty before U.S. District Judge D. Lowell Jensen of the Northern District of California to conspiracy and substantive violations of the anti-bribery and accounting provisions of the FCPA. The court sentenced HP Russia to pay a $58,772,250 fine.
In July 2011, the DOJ opened an inquiry into the News International phone hacking scandal that brought down News of the World, the recently closed UK tabloid newspaper. In cooperation with the Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom), the DOJ was to examine whether News Corporation violated the FCPA by bribing British police officers. Nine police officers were convicted including a senior officer in the Met counter-terrorism command, Det Ch Insp April Casburn, former Met anti-terrorism officer Timothy Edwards, former police officer Simon Quinn, former Met officer Paul Flattley and Scott Chapman, an ex-prison officer.
An April 2012 article in the New York Times reported that a former executive of Walmart de México y Centroamérica alleged in September 2005 that Walmart de Mexico had paid bribes to officials throughout Mexico in order to obtain construction permits, that Walmart investigators found credible evidence that Mexican and American laws had been broken, and that Walmart executives in the U.S. "hushed up" the allegations. According to an article in Bloomberg, Wal-Mart's "probe of possible bribery in Mexico may prompt executive departures and steep U.S. government fines if it reveals senior managers knew about the payments and didn't take strong enough action, corporate governance experts said." Eduardo Bohorquez, the director of Transparencia Mexicana, a "watchdog" group in Mexico, urged the Mexican government to investigate the allegations. Wal-Mart and the US Chamber of Commerce had participated in a campaign to amend FCPA; according to proponents, the changes would clarify the law, while according to opponents, the changes would weaken the law.
Other cases are with Avon Products, Invision Technologies, BAE Systems, Baker Hughes, Daimler AG, Monsanto, Halliburton, Titan Corporation, Triton Energy Limited, Lucent Technologies.
As a general principle of the Foreign Corrupt Practises Act (FCPA), in the United States, firms and businesses in the US are prohibited from making any payments to foreign officials for routine governmental action. However, any payment that does not effect the decision of the foreign official is not considered a bribe. For example, a businessman in the States may make a payment to a government official to expedite a deal or transaction. Such a payment is considered a grease payment (and not a bribe), which is lawful under FCPA.
In this regard, it becomes necessary to understand when an amount paid turns from a grease payment to a bribe, which is illegal under law. This is a grey area under the law which is still to be clarified. There are numerous factors that could play a role in demarcation between the two, which include: the amount of payment, the frequency of the payment, the status/level of the foreign official to whom the payment has been made, the outcome of the case regarding which the payment was made, etc.
- Convention against Corruption (disambiguation)
- Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act in Canada
- OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, an international agreement
- Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, another international agreement
- Politically exposed person, a term used in several jurisdictions
- Bribery Act 2010 in the United Kingdom
- "Foreign Corrupt Practices Act". www.justice.gov. June 9, 2015. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- "SEC.gov | Spotlight on Foreign Corrupt Practices Act". www.sec.gov. Archived from the original on March 2, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- Funk, T. Markus (September 10, 2010). "Getting What They Pay For: The Far-Reaching Impact Of the Dodd-Frank Act's 'Whistleblower Bounty' Incentives on FCPA Enforcement" (PDF). White Collar Crime Report. Bureau of National Affairs. 5 (19): 1–3. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Seitzinger, Michael V. (March 15, 2016). "Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement, In Brief" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 21, 2020.
- LeRoy Miller, Roger (2011). Business Law Today: The Essentials. United States: South-Western Cengage Learning. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-133-19135-3.
- Graham, Bradley, Stroup, Caleb (2016). "Does Anti-bribery Enforcement Deter Foreign Investment?" (PDF). Applied Economics Letters. 23: 63–67. doi:10.1080/13504851.2015.1049333. S2CID 218640318. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 11, 2016.
- Luthans, Fred; Doh, Jonathan (2012). International Management Culture, Strategy, and Behavior (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-786244-2.
- Posadas, Alejandro. "Combating Corruption Under International Law" (PDF). School of Law, Duke University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- Brooks, Robin; Stacey, Oliver; Jarman, Daniel. "Tackling Corruption and Regulatory Risk in M&A Transactions". Transaction Advisors. ISSN 2329-9134. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (September 28, 1977). "H.R. Rep. 95-640 REPORT together with MINORITY VIEWS To accompany H.R.3815" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Rich, Ben R. and Janos, Leo. Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of My Years at Lockheed. New York: Little Brown & Co., 1994, ISBN 0-7515-1503-5.
- "United States of America v. Kenny International Corp., et al". Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Clearinghouse. Stanford Law School. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- McBride, Stewart (March 4, 1982). "The case of the airmailed voter and other tales of the Cook Is". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Michael V. Seitzinger (February 7, 2012). "Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement" (PDF). CRS Report to U.S. Congress. Congressional Research Service. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- "Differences between the UK Bribery Act and the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act". Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Breslin, Brigid; Doron Ezickson; John Kocoras (2010). "The Bribery Act 2010: raising the bar above the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act". Company Lawyer. Sweet & Maxwell. 31 (11): 362. ISSN 0144-1027.
- "New global framework for anti-bribery and corruption compliance programs Freshfields knowledge". knowledge.freshfields.com. Archived from the original on May 8, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- "Anti-bribery and corruption: global enforcement and legislative developments 2017" (PDF). Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer. January 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- "SEC Names New Specialized Unit Chiefs and Head of New Office of Market Intelligence" (Press release). SEC. January 13, 2010. Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice and the Enforcement Division of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (November 14, 2012). "A Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act" (PDF). p. 130. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- Charlie Savage (April 25, 2017). "Sessions Vows to Enforce an Anti-Bribery Law Trump Ridiculed". The New York Times. p. A14. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
- "Attorney General Jeff Sessions Delivers Remarks at the Ethics and Compliance Initiative's Conference". C-SPAN.org. April 24, 2017. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
- Smialek, Jeanna (January 15, 2020). "Trump Tried to Kill Anti-Bribery Rule He Deemed 'Unfair,' New Book Alleges". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Axelrod, Tal (January 17, 2020). "Kudlow says Trump 'looking at' reforming law on bribing foreign officials". TheHill. Archived from the original on April 6, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Smialek, Jeanna (January 15, 2020). "Trump Tried to Kill Anti-Bribery Rule He Deemed 'Unfair,' New Book Alleges". Archived from the original on January 24, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
- Merle, Renae. "Trump called global anti-bribery law 'horrible.' His administration is pursuing fewer new investigations". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 2, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "Trump considering changing law that bans US companies from bribing foreign officials for business". The Independent. January 18, 2020. Archived from the original on January 19, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- December 16, Jacqueline Thomsen |; AM, 2019 at 09:50. "Judiciary Committee Alleges Trump Violated Federal Bribery, Wire Fraud Statutes". National Law Journal. Archived from the original on January 6, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Illing, Sean (December 17, 2019). "House Dems accuse Trump of bribery. We asked 7 legal experts if he's guilty". Vox. Archived from the original on March 12, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "Judiciary Committee impeachment report alleges Trump committed 'multiple federal crimes'". POLITICO. Archived from the original on May 17, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Caygle, Heather. "Pelosi says Trump committed 'bribery' in Ukraine scandal". POLITICO. Archived from the original on January 3, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "Opinion | How Michael Cohen's guilty plea could implicate Trump in a Russian bribery scheme". NBC News. Archived from the original on March 8, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Michael V. Seitzinger (October 15, 2014). "Eleventh Circuit Provides Guidance for the Definition of "Foreign Official" under the FCPA" (PDF). Legal Sidebar via Congressional Research Service. Federation of American Scientists. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- 15 U.S.C. § 78m
- Lawler, William; Phillips, Anthony. "Avoiding the Threat of FCPA Successor Liability". Transaction Advisors. ISSN 2329-9134. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- Sprinzen, Nicole; Hildebrand, Jennifer. "DOJ Clarifies Successor Liability for Foreign Acquisitions". Transaction Advisors. ISSN 2329-9134. Archived from the original on February 18, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- Fisher, Alice; Greenburg, Douglas; Sabin, Barry; Seltzer, Nathan; Su, Jonathan; Volkman, Eric; Chandler, Kari; Brown Jones, Erin. "DOJ Guidance Underscores Importance of Anti-corruption Due Diligence in International M&A". Transaction Advisors. ISSN 2329-9134. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- "Outsourcing revolution" (PDF). www.economist.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 18, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
- T. Markus Funk, "Another Landmark Year: 2010 FCPA Enforcement Year-in-Review and Trends for 2011," Bloomberg Law Reports (January 3, 2010) Archived March 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "SEC Enforcement Actions: FCPA Cases". SEC. January 26, 2015. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- Administrator. "Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Reporting Center - Siemens AG pays $450 million to settle FCPA bribery charges". foreign-corrupt-practices-act.org. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Administrator. "Siemens Agrees to Record-Setting $800 Million in FCPA Penalties". wilmerhale.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
- US Department of Justice (January 17, 2012). "Marubeni Corporation Resolves Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Investigation and Agrees to Pay a $54.6 Million Criminal Penalty". Archived from the original on April 13, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- Smith & Nephew (February 6, 2012). "Smith & Nephew reaches settlement with US Government". Smith & Nephew. Archived from the original on March 21, 2012.
- "U.S. says BizJet settles foreign bribery charges". Reuters. Reuters. March 14, 2012. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
- Richard L. Cassin (March 26, 2012). "Biomet Pays $22.8 Million To Settle Bribe Charges". The FCPA Blog. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- "SEC Charges ALCOA with FCPA Violations". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Brown, Howard. "$88 Million Fine Agreed by Marubeni Corporation of Japan with the U.S. Department of Justice to Settle a Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Investigation". Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Pelletier, Paul; Tidman, Aaron; Haviland, Jane (February 25, 2015). "Goodyear's Settlement with the SEC Emphasizes the Importance of FCPA Due Diligence in M&A Transactions and of Having a Robust Anti-Corruption Policy". Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Horn, George (March 1, 2015). "M and A Due Diligence Failures: FCPA and Goodyear". The National Law Review. Barnes & Thornburg LLP. Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Mandelker, Sigal P.; Emert, Rochelle H.; Caraballo-Garrison, Phillip J. (February 27, 2015). "Goodyear Pays for Sins of Subsidiaries in $16 Million Settlement". Proskauer Rose LLP. Archived from the original on March 1, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Stout, David (August 6, 2009). "Ex-Rep. Jefferson Convicted in Bribery Scheme". The New York Times. p. A14. Archived from the original on October 16, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- "Hewlett-Packard Russia Agrees to Plead Guilty to Foreign Bribery" (Press release). United States Department of Justice. April 9, 2014. Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
To secure a contract for the first phase of project, ultimately valued at more than € 35 million, HP Russia executives and other employees structured the deal to create a secret slush fund totaling several million dollars, at least part of which was intended for bribes to Russian government officials.
- Crawford, David; Searcey, Dionne (April 16, 2010). "U.S. Joins H-P Bribery Investigation". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- "Hewlett-Packard Russia Pleads Guilty To And Sentenced For Bribery Of Russian Government Officials". justice.gov. November 19, 2014. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- "News Corp shares hit two-year low on hacking arrest". BBC World News. July 18, 2011. Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- "Operation Elveden corruption probe ends". BBC News. February 26, 2016. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- Barstow, David (April 21, 2012). "Vast Mexican Bribery Case Hushed Up by Wal-Mart After High-Level Struggle". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
- Miguel Bustillo (April 23, 2012). "Wal-Mart Faces Risk in Mexican Bribe Probe". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 14, 2018. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- Welch, David; Weidlich, Thom (April 23, 2012). "Wal-Mart Bribery Probe May Exposes Retailer to U.S. Fines". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
- "Mexican watchdog group says Mexico's federal government should probe alleged Wal-Mart bribes". The Washington Post. Associated Press. April 22, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2012.[dead link]
- Hamburger, Tom; Dennis, Brady; Yang, Jia Lynn (April 24, 2012). "Wal-Mart took part in lobbying campaign to amend anti-bribery law". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "15 U.S. Code § 78dd–1 - Prohibited foreign trade practices by issuers". LII / Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on April 10, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- "The Difference Between FCPA Grease Payments and Foreign Bribes". Meissner Associates. October 1, 2017. Archived from the original on April 11, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- says, On Facilitation Payments « Open Air Blog (February 2, 2011). "When Does a Grease Payment Become a Bribe Under the FCPA?". Compliance Report. Archived from the original on April 11, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
|Library resources about |
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
- US Department of Justice page on the FCPA
- The American Bar Association's Global Anti-Corruption Committee Webpage.
- Incidents of actual or alleged bribery
- Telvick, Marlena (April 7, 2003). "Indictments allege bribes were paid for Kazakstan oil / 2 Americans accused -- but not U.S. firms". sfgate.com. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
- Lucent fires four executives in China over allegations of bribery Stephen Taub April 7, 2004 CFO.com
- "Monsanto Company Charged with Bribing Indonesian Official" U.S. Department of State, 2005-01-10
- Schwartz, Nelson; Bergman, Lowell (November 25, 2007). "Payload: Taking Aim at Corporate Bribery". New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
- "At Siemens, Bribery Was Just a Line Item," by Siri Schubert, New York Times 12/21/2008. joint report by ProPublica, PBS's Frontline, the Investigative Reporting Program at UC Berkeley and The New York Times; related documentary on Frontline April 7, 2009.
- "The Business of Bribes" PBS Frontline and FRONTLINE/World February 2009
- "KBR charged with bribing Nigerian officials for contracts" CNN.com, February 2009
- "Detailed coverage on Wal-Mart FCPA Issues in India" Fraudtoday.net, December 2012
- "Halliburton, U.S. Reach Settlement In Bribery Probe," All Things Considered, NPR, January 26, 2009. Halliburton Corp. has announced it will pay out more than $560 million to the Justice Department and the Securities and Exchange Commission to settle a probe into bribery and bid-rigging in contracts around the world. Investigative journalist Lowell Bergman talks about the settlement.
- David C. Weiss, The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, SEC Disgorgement of Profits, and the Evolving International Bribery Regime: Weighing Proportionality, Retribution, and Deterrence, 30 Michigan Journal of International Law 471 (2009).
- The European Anti-Bribery Blog. The FCPA and anti-bribery news with a European slant
- Chairman of Macau Real Estate Development Company Sentenced to Prison for Role in Scheme to Bribe United Nations Ambassadors to Build A Multi-Billion Dollar Conference Center, May 11, 2018
- United Nations officials are “foreign officials” under the FCPA, Lexology, July 31, 2011
- Former media executive pleads guilty to bribing UN official, FCPA Scorecard Blog, April 10, 2018