Foreign born

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Foreign-born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but many are naturalized citizens of the country in which they live, and others are citizens by descent, typically through a parent.

The term foreign born encompasses both immigrants and expatriates but is not synonymous with either. Foreign born may, like immigrants, have committed to living in a country permanently or, like expatriates, live abroad for a significant period with the plan to return to their birth-country eventually.

The status of foreign born — particularly their access to citizenship — differs globally. The large groups of foreign-born guest workers in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, for example, have no right to citizenship no matter the length of their residence. In Canada and the United States, by contrast, foreign born are often citizens or in the process of becoming citizens. Certain countries have intermediary rules: in Germany and Japan it is often difficult but not impossible for the foreign born to become citizens.

Trends by country[edit]

The percentage of foreign born in a country is the product mostly of immigration rates, but is also affected by emigration rates and birth and death rates in the destination country. For example, the United Kingdom and Ireland are destination countries for migrants from Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia, but are themselves source countries for immigration to other English-speaking countries. The countries with the highest rates of immigration are wealthy countries with relatively open nationality or migration laws, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Persian Gulf states.

The largest foreign-born population in the world is in the United States, which was home to 39 million foreign-born residents in 2012, or 12.6% of the population.[1] The highest percentage of foreign-born residents occurs in small, wealthy countries with large numbers of temporary foreign workers, such as the United Arab Emirates and Qatar; the population of each is, depending on the economy at the time, around 80%.[2] In 2010, the Migration Policy Institute reported that the largest percentages were Qatar (86.5%) and UAE (70%).[3]

Cities with largest foreign born populations[edit]

Rank City Country Estimate Source Foreign-Born Population Percentage
1 London  United Kingdom ONS 2016 3,309,000[4] 37.8%
2 New York City  United States 2016 ACS 3,200,219[5] 37.5%
3 Los Angeles  United States 2016 ACS 1,499,418 37.7%
4 Toronto  Canada Canada 2016 Census 1,266,005[6] 47.0%
5 Houston  United States 2016 ACS 698,395 30.3%
6 Chicago  United States 2016 ACS 559,623 20.7%
7 Montréal  Canada Canada 2016 Census 570,940 34.3%
8 San Jose  United States 2016 ACS 402,776 39.3%
9 Calgary  Canada Canada 2016 Census 383,065 31.3%
10 San Diego  United States 2016 ACS 373,842 26.7%
11 Paris  France 2014 UrbiStat 325,100[7] 14.6%
12 Dallas  United States 2016 ACS 324,972 24.7%
13 Milan  Italy Istat 2011 324,378[8] 10.7%
14 San Francisco  United States 2016 ACS 296,849 34.9%
15 Miami  United States 2016 ACS 264,656 58.3%
16 Vancouver  Canada Canada 2016 Census 262,765 42.5%
17 Ottawa  Canada Canada 2016 Census 216,505 23.6%
18 Boston  United States 2016 ACS 194,264 28.9%
19 Birmingham  United Kingdom ONS 2016 140,000 22.8%
20 Manchester  United Kingdom ONS 2016 140,000 26.4%

Metropolitan regions with largest foreign born populations[edit]

Rank[9] City Country Foreign-Born Pop
1 New York metropolitan area  United States 5,656,000[10]
2 Los Angeles metropolitan area  United States 4,421,000[10]
3 London and Home Counties  United Kingdom 4,051,502[4]
4 Toronto metropolitan area  Canada 2,842,445[11]
5 Hong Kong (SAR)  Hong Kong 2,793,450
6 San Francisco Bay Area  United States 2,634,270[12][13]
7 Paris metropolitan area  France 2,429,223[14]
8 Sydney Greater Capital City Statistical Area  Australia 2,071,872[15]
9 Miami metropolitan area  United States 1,949,629
10 Melbourne Greater Capital City Statistical Area  Australia 1,801,139 [16]
11 Chicago metropolitan area  United States 1,625,649
12 Singapore (city only)  Singapore 1,305,011
13 Moscow (city only)  Russia 1,128,035
14 Houston metropolitan area  United States 1,113,875
15 Metropolitan Dubai  United Arab Emirates 1,056,000
16 Riyadh (city only)  Saudi Arabia 1,054,000
17 Washington metropolitan area  United States 1,017,432
18 Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex  United States 1,016,221

Cities by the percentage of foreign born population[edit]

Rank> City Country Percent Largest Source of Immigrants
1 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 82  India
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh
 Philippines
 Sri Lanka
2 Brussels  Belgium 68 [17] [18]  Italy
 France
 Morocco
 Turkey
 Romania
3 Luxembourg City  Luxembourg 66 [19]  France
 Portugal
 Italy
 Belgium
 Germany
4 Brent  United Kingdom 56 [20]  India
5 Kensington & Chelsea  United Kingdom 55 [21]  France
6 Santa Ana, CA  United States 53  Mexico
 China
 Philippines
 El Salvador
7 Daly City, CA  United States 52  Philippines
 China
 Mexico
 El Salvador
 Myanmar
 Nicaragua
8 Toronto  Canada 52* [22]  China
 Philippines
 India
 Sri Lanka
 Italy
 United Kingdom
 European Union
 South Korea
8 Miami  United States 51 [23]  Cuba
 Haiti
 Colombia
 Nicaragua
 Honduras
9 Newham  United Kingdom 51 [24]  Pakistan
10 Westminster  United Kingdom 50 [25]  France
11 Queens, NY  United States 48  China
 Colombia
 India
 Bangladesh  South Korea
 Ecuador
 Sri Lanka
12 Muscat  Oman 45  India
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh
 Sri Lanka
13 Singapore  Singapore 43  Malaysia
 China
 India
 Indonesia
14 Sydney  Australia 43  China
 United Kingdom
 India
 New Zealand
 Vietnam
 Philippines
 Lebanon
 Sri Lanka[26]
15 Vancouver  Canada 40  Hong Kong
 China
 India
 United Kingdom  South Korea
 Taiwan
 Philippines
 Vietnam
16 Melbourne  Australia 40  India
 China
 United Kingdom
 Vietnam
 New Zealand
 Italy
 Sri Lanka
 Greece[27]
17 Geneva   Switzerland 39  Portugal[28]  Italy
 France
 Spain
 Germany
18 Auckland  New Zealand 39  United Kingdom
 China
 India
 Fiji
 Samoa
 Philippines
 Sri Lanka
19 Lyon  France 14  Algeria
 Morocco
 European Union
 Tunisia
 Romania

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Census Bureau. Current Population Survey - March 2012 Detailed Tables, Table 1.1. Accessed September 6, 2014.
  2. ^ "UAE flatly rejects citizenship for foreign workers". 
  3. ^ "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org. 
  4. ^ a b "Population of the United Kingdom by Country of Birth and Nationality". 
  5. ^ "Place of Birth by Year of Entry by Citizenship Status for the Foreign-Born Population - Universe: Foreign-born population 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York City". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2017. 
  6. ^ {{cite web|url=https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E}
  7. ^ "Province of PARIS". Urbistat. Retrieved June 14, 2018. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org. 
  10. ^ a b Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova (April 14, 2016). "U.S. Immigrant Population by Metropolitan Area". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Toronto (Census metropolitan area), Ontario and Ontario (Province)". 
  12. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 
  13. ^ "U.S. Immigrant Population by State and County". migrationpolicy.org. 2014-02-04. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 
  14. ^ INSEE. "Répartition de la population de la France par région de naissance et région de résidence en 2008". Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  15. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Sydney". Retrieved 2017-06-09. 
  16. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Melbourne". Retrieved 2017-06-09. 
  17. ^ 3.2 Vreemde Afkomst in 2008 3.2.1.
  18. ^ World Migration Report 2015, Brussels is the second most cosmopolitan city in the world after Dubai
  19. ^ "Luxemburger Wort". Wort.lu. 
  20. ^ What are migration levels like in your area?
  21. ^ What are migration levels like in your area?
  22. ^ "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011". statcan.gc.ca. 
  23. ^ "Miami-Dade County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". census.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. 
  24. ^ What are migration levels like in your area?
  25. ^ What are migration levels like in your area?
  26. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Sydney". Retrieved 2017-06-09. 
  27. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Melbourne". Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  28. ^ Mémento statistique du canton de Genève 2010, p. 1

External links[edit]