Foreign born

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Foreign-born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but many are naturalized citizens of the country in which they live, and others are citizens by descent, typically through a parent.

The term foreign born encompasses both immigrants and expatriates but is not synonymous with either. Foreign born may, like immigrants, have committed to living in a country permanently or, like expatriates, live abroad for a significant period with the plan to return to their birth-country eventually.

The status of foreign born — particularly their access to citizenship — differs globally. The large groups of foreign-born guest workers in the Gulf Cooperation Council states, for example, have no right to citizenship no matter the length of their residence. In the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and the United States, by contrast, foreign born are often citizens or in the process of becoming citizens. Certain countries have intermediary rules: in Germany and Japan it is often difficult but not impossible for the foreign born to become citizens.

Definition[edit]

The adjective foreign-born has two potential meanings:

  • "born in a country other than that in which one resides."[1]
  • "foreign by birth."[2]

The United Nations uses the first definition to estimate the international migrant stock, whenever this information is available. In countries lacking data on place of birth, the UN uses the country of citizenship instead.[3]

On the other hand, the United States Census Bureau defines foreign-born as "anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth", which includes persons who have become U.S. citizens through naturalization but excludes persons born abroad to a U.S. citizen parent or parents.

According to the UN: "Equating international migrants with foreign citizens when estimating the migrant stock has important shortcomings. In countries where citizenship is conferred on the basis of jus sanguinis, people who were born in the country of residence may be included in the number of international migrants even though they may have never lived abroad. Conversely, persons who were born abroad and who naturalized in their country of residence are excluded from the stock of international migrants when using citizenship as the criterion to define international migrants."[3]

Trends by country[edit]

Share of migrants in all countries. Data from 2015.

The percentage of foreign born in a country is the product mostly of immigration rates, but is also affected by emigration rates and birth and death rates in the destination country. For example, the United Kingdom and Ireland are destination countries for migrants from Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia, but are themselves source countries for immigration to other English-speaking countries. The countries with the highest rates of immigration are wealthy countries with relatively open nationality or migration laws, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Persian Gulf states.

The largest foreign-born population in the world is in the United States, which was home to 39 million foreign-born residents in 2012, or 12.6% of the population.[4] The highest percentage of foreign-born residents occurs in small, wealthy countries with large numbers of temporary foreign workers, such as the United Arab Emirates and Qatar; the population of each is, depending on the economy at the time, around 80%.[5] In 2010, the Migration Policy Institute reported that the largest percentages were Qatar (86.5%) and UAE (70%).[6]

Cities with largest foreign born populations[edit]

Rank City Country Estimate Source Foreign-Born Population Percentage
1 London United Kingdom ONS 2018 3,236,000[7] 36.4%
2 New York City United States 2016 ACS 3,200,219[8] 37.5%
4 Sydney Australia 2016 Census 1,961,977[9] 45.4%
5 Melbourne Australia 2016 Census 1,784,794[10] 41.3%
6 Los Angeles United States 2016 ACS 1,499,418 37.7%
3 Toronto Canada Canada 2016 Census 2,870,000[11] 49.0%
7 Madrid Spain 2019 Spain Census 726,669 22.2%
7 Houston United States 2016 ACS 698,395 30.3%
8 Brisbane Australia 2016 Census 682,132[12] 33.2%
9 Chicago United States 2016 ACS 559,623 20.7%
10 Montréal Canada Canada 2016 Census 570,940 34.3%
11 San Jose United States 2016 ACS 402,776 39.3%
12 Calgary Canada Canada 2016 Census 383,065 31.3%
13 San Diego United States 2016 ACS 373,842 26.7%
14 Paris France 2014 UrbiStat 325,100[13] 14.6%
15 Bogotá Colombia 2019 352,431 5%
16 Dallas United States 2016 ACS 324,972 24.7%
17 Milan Italy Istat 2011 324,378[14] 10.7%
18 Phoenix United States 2016 ACS 308,744 19.6%
19 San Francisco United States 2016 ACS 296,849 34.9%
20 Amsterdam Netherlands Statistics Netherlands 2019 277,431 32.1%
21 Miami United States 2016 ACS 264,656 58.3%
22 Vancouver Canada Canada 2016 Census 262,765 42.5%
23 Stockholm Sweden Statistics Sweden 2019 248,708 25.5%
24 Ottawa Canada Canada 2016 Census 216,505 23.6%
25 Santiago Chile 2017 Census 212,037 10.2%
26 Boston United States 2016 ACS 194,264 28.9%
27 Rotterdam Netherlands Statistics Netherlands 2019 184,218 28.6%
28 The Hague Netherlands Statistics Netherlands 2019 176,183 32.8%
29 Oslo Norway Statistics Norway 2019 171,868 25.2%
30 Gothenburg Sweden Statistics Sweden 2019 159,342 27.5%
31 Birmingham United Kingdom ONS 2016 140,000 22.8%
32 Manchester United Kingdom ONS 2016 140,000 26.4%
33 Copenhagen Denmark Statistics Denmark 2019 125,864 19.9%
34 Malmö Sweden Statistics Sweden 2019 118,323 34.4%

Metropolitan and Urban regions with largest foreign born populations[edit]

  1. Data for the cities listed below is from numerous sources.
Rank[15] City Country Foreign-Born Population Sources of Immigrants
1 New York metropolitan area United States 5,656,000[16] Dominican Republic
China
Jamaica
Guyana
Mexico
Brazil
Haiti
Trinidad and Tobago
Colombia
Russia
India
Pakistan
Nigeria
2 Los Angeles metropolitan area United States 4,421,000[16] Mexico
Philippines
El Salvador
China
Vietnam
South Korea
Guatemala
Ethiopia
Armenia
Iran
3 London and Home Counties United Kingdom 4,051,502[7] India
Poland
Bangladesh
France
Pakistan
Turkey
Nigeria
Ireland
Sri Lanka
Jamaica
4 Greater Toronto Canada 2,870,000[17] India
China
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Italy
United Kingdom
European Union
Pakistan
Iran
Jamaica
Bangladesh
Trinidad and Tobago
United States
5 Hong Kong (SAR) China 2,793,450 China
Indonesia
Philippines
Macau
Thailand
United Kingdom
India
Pakistan
Japan
United States
Canada
6 San Francisco Bay Area United States 2,634,270[18][19] Mexico
China
Philippines
Vietnam
India
El Salvador
South Korea
Taiwan
Iran
Russia
7 Paris metropolitan area France 2,429,223[20] Algeria
Portugal
Morocco
Tunisia
Guadeloupe
Martinique
Turkey
China
Italy
Mali
8 Sydney Greater Capital City Statistical Area Australia 2,071,872[21] China
United Kingdom
India
New Zealand
Vietnam
Philippines
South Korea
Lebanon
Sri Lanka
9 Miami metropolitan area United States 1,949,629 Cuba

Haiti
Colombia
Jamaica
Nicaragua
Venezuela
Dominican Republic
Honduras
Brazil
Panama
Peru

10 Melbourne Greater Capital City Statistical Area Australia 1,801,139[22] India
China
United Kingdom
Vietnam
New Zealand
Italy
Sri Lanka
Greece
11 Chicago metropolitan area United States 1,625,649 Mexico
India
Poland
Philippines
China
Ukraine
Italy
Guatemala
Lithuania
12 Brussels Urban Area Belgium 1,441,600 Italy
France
Morocco
Turkey
Romania
13 Berlin Urban Area Germany 1,231,500 Turkey
Russia
Poland
Syria
Italy
Bulgaria
Romania
Serbia
France
Vietnam
United Kingdom
14 Singapore (city only) Singapore 1,305,011 Malaysia
China
India
Indonesia
Philippines
Bangladesh
Taiwan
Myanmar
South Korea
15 Moscow (city only) Russia 1,128,035 Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Tajikistan
Azerbaijan

Moldova
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Armenia
Belarus

16 Houston metropolitan area United States 1,113,875 Mexico
El Salvador
Vietnam
India
Nigeria
China
Honduras
Philippines
Guatemala
Colombia
17 Metropolitan Dubai United Arab Emirates 1,056,000 India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Philippines
Iran
Sri Lanka
United Kingdom
18 Riyadh (city only) Saudi Arabia 1,054,000 Arab League
Pakistan
India
African Union
Bangladesh
Iran
19 Vancouver metropolitan area Canada 1,019,170 Hong Kong
China
India
South Korea
Taiwan
Philippines
Vietnam
Japan
Iran
Pakistan
Poland
United Kingdom
Italy
United States
20 Washington metropolitan area United States 1,017,432 El Salvador
China
Ethiopia
Mexico
South Korea
Nigeria
Philippines
Vietnam
Ghana
Bolivia
21 Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex United States 1,016,221 Mexico

India
Vietnam
El Salvador
China
South Korea
Honduras
Philippines

22 Frankfurt Urban Area Germany 998,400 Turkey
Italy
Croatia
Poland
Romania
Bulgaria
Serbia
Greece
Russia
North Macedonia
23 Tokyo Urban Area Japan 978,172 China
South Korea
Philippines
Vietnam
United States
Brazil
Nepal
Taiwan
Peru
Thailand
24 Barcelona Urban Area Spain 862,200 Italy
Pakistan
China
Ecuador
Bolivia
Morocco
France
25 Atlanta metropolitan area United States 792,208 Mexico
India
Jamaica
South Korea
China
Vietnam
Nigeria
Guatemala
El Salvador
Colombia
26 Montreal Urban Area Canada 740,400 Algeria
Morocco
Romania
France
Haiti
Lebanon
27 Brisbane Greater Capital City Statistical Area Australia 731,198 New Zealand
England
China
India
South Africa
Philippines
Vietnam
South Korea
Taiwan
Scotland
Malaysia
28 Auckland Urban Area New Zealand 662,298 United Kingdom
China
India
Fiji
Samoa
Philippines
South Korea
Sri Lanka
29 Stockholm County Sweden 616,558[23] Finland
Iraq
Poland
Syria
Iran
Turkey
Eritrea
Germany
Somalia
Afghanistan
Thailand
30 Muscat Urban Area Oman 576,000 India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Sri Lanka
31 Milan Urban Area Italy 475,000 Egypt
Philippines
China
Romania
Sri Lanka
32 Greater Calgary Canada 400,000 India
Pakistan
Philippines
United States
Nigeria
China
Lebanon
Vietnam
United Kingdom
South Korea
Iran
Hong Kong
Ethiopia
Germany
European Union
33 Mississauga Canada 381,730 Pakistan
India
Jamaica
Poland
Portugal
Italy
Egypt
China
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Vietnam
Hong Kong
Iraq
Guyana
Trinidad and Tobago
United Kingdom
34 Greater Manchester United Kingdom 302,000 Pakistan
China
Ireland
Bangladesh
Poland
Nigeria
India
Somalia
Jamaica
Iraq
35 Greater Edmonton Canada 274,355 China
Pakistan
India
Somalia
Hong Kong
Philippines
Lebanon
36 Lyon Urban Area France 241,000 Algeria
Morocco
European Union
Tunisia
Romania
37 Helsinki Finland 213,290[24] Russia
Estonia
Somalia
Iraq
Sweden
China
Yugoslavia
Vietnam
India
Turkey
39 Hamilton Canada 130,565 Italy
Pakistan
India
Iraq
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Yugoslavia
China
39 Geneva Switzerland 77,602 Italy
France
Spain
Germany
40 Luxembourg City Luxembourg 70,783 France
Portugal
Italy
Belgium
Germany

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ foreign-born, Dictionary.com
  2. ^ Foreign-born, Merriam-Webster
  3. ^ a b INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT STOCK 2019 DOCUMENTATION
  4. ^ United States Census Bureau. Current Population Survey - March 2012 Detailed Tables, Table 1.1. Accessed September 6, 2014.
  5. ^ "UAE flatly rejects citizenship for foreign workers".
  6. ^ "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org.
  7. ^ a b "Population of the United Kingdom by Country of Birth and Nationality".
  8. ^ "Place of Birth by Year of Entry by Citizenship Status for the Foreign-Born Population - Universe: Foreign-born population 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York City". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  9. ^ "2016 Census QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  10. ^ "2016 Census QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  11. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census".
  12. ^ "2016 Census QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  13. ^ "Province of PARIS". Urbistat. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org.
  16. ^ a b Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova (April 14, 2016). "U.S. Immigrant Population by Metropolitan Area". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  17. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Toronto (Census metropolitan area), Ontario and Ontario (Province)".
  18. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
  19. ^ "U.S. Immigrant Population by State and County". migrationpolicy.org. 2014-02-04. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
  20. ^ INSEE. "Répartition de la population de la France par région de naissance et région de résidence en 2008". Retrieved 2012-01-29.
  21. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Sydney". Retrieved 2017-06-09.
  22. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Melbourne". Retrieved 2017-06-09.
  23. ^ https://www.scb.se/hitta-statistik/statistik-efter-amne/befolkning/befolkningens-sammansattning/befolkningsstatistik/pong/tabell-och-diagram/helarsstatistik--kommun-lan-och-riket/utrikes-fodda-efter-lan-kommun-och-fodelseland-31-december/
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-02-12. Retrieved 2018-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]