Foreign born

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Foreign-born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but many are naturalized citizens of the country in which they live, and others are citizens by descent, typically through a parent.

The term foreign born encompasses both immigrants and expatriates but is not synonymous with either. Foreign born may, like immigrants, have committed to living in a country permanently or, like expatriates, live abroad for a significant period with the plan to return to their birth-country eventually.

The status of foreign born — particularly their access to citizenship — differs globally. The large groups of foreign-born guest workers in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, for example, have no right to citizenship no matter the length of their residence. In Canada and the United States, by contrast, foreign born are often citizens or in the process of becoming citizens. Certain countries have intermediary rules: in Germany and Japan it is often difficult but not impossible for the foreign born to become citizens.

Trends by country[edit]

The percentage of foreign born in a country is the product mostly of immigration rates, but is also affected by emigration rates and birth and death rates in the destination country. For example, the United Kingdom and Ireland are destination countries for migrants from Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia, but are themselves source countries for immigration to other English-speaking countries. The countries with the highest rates of immigration are wealthy countries with relatively open nationality or migration laws, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Persian Gulf states.

The largest foreign-born population in the world is in the United States, which was home to 39 million foreign-born residents in 2012, or 12.6% of the population.[1] The highest percentage of foreign-born residents occurs in small, wealthy countries with large numbers of temporary foreign workers, such as the United Arab Emirates and Qatar; the population of each is, depending on the economy at the time, around 80%.[2] In 2010, the Migration Policy Institute reported that the largest percentages were Qatar (86.5%) and UAE (70%).[3]

Cities with largest foreign born populations[edit]

Rank City Country Estimate Source Foreign-Born Population Percentage
1 London  United Kingdom ONS 2016 3,309,000[4] 37.8%
2 New York City  United States 2016 ACS 3,200,219[5] 37.5%
3 Los Angeles  United States 2016 ACS 1,499,418 37.7%
4 Toronto  Canada Canada 2016 Census 1,266,005[6] 47.0%
5 Houston  United States 2016 ACS 698,395 30.3%
6 Chicago  United States 2016 ACS 559,623 20.7%
7 Montréal  Canada Canada 2016 Census 570,940 34.3%
8 San Jose  United States 2016 ACS 402,776 39.3%
9 Calgary  Canada Canada 2016 Census 383,065 31.3%
10 San Diego  United States 2016 ACS 373,842 26.7%
11 Paris  France 2014 UrbiStat 325,100[7] 14.6%
12 Dallas  United States 2016 ACS 324,972 24.7%
13 Milan  Italy Istat 2011 324,378[8] 10.7%
14 San Francisco  United States 2016 ACS 296,849 34.9%
15 Miami  United States 2016 ACS 264,656 58.3%
16 Vancouver  Canada Canada 2016 Census 262,765 42.5%
17 Ottawa  Canada Canada 2016 Census 216,505 23.6%
18 Boston  United States 2016 ACS 194,264 28.9%
19 Birmingham  United Kingdom ONS 2016 140,000 22.8%
20 Manchester  United Kingdom ONS 2016 140,000 26.4%

Metropolitan and Urban regions with largest foreign born populations[edit]

  1. Data for the cities listed below is from numerous sources.
Rank[9] City Country Foreign-Born Population Sources of Immigrants
1 New York metropolitan area  United States 5,656,000[10]  China
 Dominican Republic
 Mexico
 India
 South Korea
 Jamaica
 Ecuador
 Colombia
 Guyana
 Italy
 Haiti
2 Los Angeles metropolitan area  United States 4,421,000[10]  Mexico
 Philippines
 El Salvador
 China
 Vietnam
 South Korea
 Guatemala
 Iran
 India
3 London and Home Counties  United Kingdom 4,051,502[4]  India
 Poland
 Bangladesh
 Romania
 Pakistan
 Italy
 Nigeria
 Ireland
 Sri Lanka
 France
4 Toronto metropolitan area  Canada 2,842,445[11]  China
 Philippines
 India
 Sri Lanka
 Italy
 United Kingdom
 European Union
 South Korea
5 Hong Kong (SAR)  Hong Kong 2,793,450  China
 Indonesia
 Philippines
 Macau
 Thailand
6 San Francisco Bay Area  United States 2,634,270[12][13]  Mexico
 China
 Philippines
 Vietnam
 India
 El Salvador
 South Korea
 Iran
7 Paris metropolitan area  France 2,429,223[14]  Algeria
 Portugal
 Morocco
 Tunisia
 Guadeloupe
 Martinique
 Turkey
 China
 Italy
 Mali
8 Sydney Greater Capital City Statistical Area  Australia 2,071,872[15]  China
 United Kingdom
 India
 New Zealand
 Vietnam
 Philippines
 South Korea
 Lebanon
 Sri Lanka
9 Miami metropolitan area  United States 1,949,629  Cuba

 Haiti
 Colombia
 Jamaica
 Nicaragua
 Venezuela
 Mexico
 Peru
 Honduras
 Dominican Republic

10 Melbourne Greater Capital City Statistical Area  Australia 1,801,139 [16]  India
 China
 United Kingdom
 Vietnam
 New Zealand
 Italy
 Sri Lanka
 Greece
11 Chicago metropolitan area  United States 1,625,649  Mexico
 India
 Poland
 Philippines
 China
 South Korea
 Italy
 Guatemala
 Ukraine
12 Brussels Urban Area  Belgium 1,441,600  Italy
 France
 Morocco
 Turkey
 Romania
13 Berlin Urban Area  Germany 1,231,500  Turkey
 Russia
 Poland
 Syria
 Italy
 Bulgaria
 Romania
 Serbia
 France
 Vietnam
 United Kingdom
14 Singapore (city only)  Singapore 1,305,011  Malaysia
 China
 India
 Indonesia
 Philippines
 Bangladesh
 Taiwan
 Myanmar
 South Korea
15 Moscow (city only)  Russia 1,128,035  Ukraine
 Uzbekistan
 Tajikistan
 Azerbaijan

 Moldova
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Armenia
 Belarus

16 Houston metropolitan area  United States 1,113,875  Mexico
 El Salvador
 Vietnam
 India
 China
 Honduras
 Philippines
 Guatemala
 Colombia
17 Metropolitan Dubai  United Arab Emirates 1,056,000  India
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh
 Philippines
 Iran
 Sri Lanka
18 Riyadh (city only)  Saudi Arabia 1,054,000
19 Vancouver Urban Area  Canada 1,019,170  Hong Kong
 China
 India
 South Korea
 Taiwan
 Philippines
 Vietnam
 Japan
20 Washington metropolitan area  United States 1,017,432  El Salvador
 China
 Ethiopia
 Mexico
 India
 South Korea
 Philippines
 Vietnam
 Peru
 Bolivia
21 Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex  United States 1,016,221  Mexico

 India
 Vietnam
 El Salvador
 China
 South Korea
 Honduras
 Philippines

22 Frankfurt Urban Area  Germany 998,400  Turkey
 Italy
 Croatia
 Poland
 Romania
 Bulgaria
 Serbia
 Greece
 Russia
 Macedonia
23 Tokyo Urban Area  Japan 978,172  China
 South Korea
 Philippines
 Vietnam
 Brazil
   Nepal
 Taiwan
 Peru
 Thailand
24 Barcelona Urban Area  Spain 862,200  Italy
 Pakistan
 China
 Ecuador
 Bolivia
 Morocco
 France
25 Montreal Urban Area  Canada 740,400  Algeria
 Morocco
 Romania
 France
 Haiti
 Lebanon
26 Auckland Urban Area  New Zealand 662,298  United Kingdom
 China
 India
 Fiji
 Samoa
 Philippines
 South Korea
 Sri Lanka
27 Muscat Urban Area  Oman 576,000  India
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh
 Sri Lanka
28 Milan Urban Area  Italy 475,000
29 Greater Manchester  United Kingdom 302,000  Pakistan
 China
 Ireland
 Bangladesh
 Poland
 Nigeria
 India
 Somalia
 Jamaica
 Iraq
30 Lyon Urban Area  France 241,000  Algeria
 Morocco
 European Union
 Tunisia
 Romania
31 Geneva   Switzerland 77,602  Italy
 France
 Spain
 Germany
32 Luxembourg City  Luxembourg 70,783  France
 Portugal
 Italy
 Belgium
 Germany

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Census Bureau. Current Population Survey - March 2012 Detailed Tables, Table 1.1. Accessed September 6, 2014.
  2. ^ "UAE flatly rejects citizenship for foreign workers".
  3. ^ "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org.
  4. ^ a b "Population of the United Kingdom by Country of Birth and Nationality".
  5. ^ "Place of Birth by Year of Entry by Citizenship Status for the Foreign-Born Population - Universe: Foreign-born population 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York City". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  6. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census".
  7. ^ "Province of PARIS". Urbistat. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org.
  10. ^ a b Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova (April 14, 2016). "U.S. Immigrant Population by Metropolitan Area". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  11. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Toronto (Census metropolitan area), Ontario and Ontario (Province)".
  12. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
  13. ^ "U.S. Immigrant Population by State and County". migrationpolicy.org. 2014-02-04. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
  14. ^ INSEE. "Répartition de la population de la France par région de naissance et région de résidence en 2008". Retrieved 2012-01-29.
  15. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Sydney". Retrieved 2017-06-09.
  16. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Melbourne". Retrieved 2017-06-09.

External links[edit]