Foreign-born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but many are naturalized citizens of the country in which they live, and others are citizens by descent, typically through a parent.
The term foreign born encompasses both immigrants and expatriates but is not synonymous with either. Foreign born may, like immigrants, have committed to living in a country permanently or, like expatriates, live abroad for a significant period with the plan to return to their birth-country eventually.
The status of foreign born — particularly their access to citizenship — differs globally. The large groups of foreign-born guest workers in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, for example, have no right to citizenship no matter the length of their residence. In Canada and the United States, by contrast, foreign born are often citizens or in the process of becoming citizens. Certain countries have intermediary rules: in Germany and Japan it is often difficult but not impossible for the foreign born to become citizens.
Trends by country
The percentage of foreign born in a country is the product mostly of immigration rates, but is also affected by emigration rates and birth and death rates in the destination country. For example, the United Kingdom and Ireland are destination countries for migrants from Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia, but are themselves source countries for immigration to other English-speaking countries. The countries with the highest rates of immigration are wealthy countries with relatively open nationality or migration laws, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Persian Gulf states.
The largest foreign-born population in the world is in the United States, which was home to 39 million foreign-born residents in 2012, or 12.6% of the population. The highest percentage of foreign-born residents occurs in small, wealthy countries with large numbers of temporary foreign workers, such as the United Arab Emirates and Qatar; the population of each is, depending on the economy at the time, around 80%. In 2010, the Migration Policy Institute reported that the largest percentages were Qatar (86.5%) and UAE (70%).
Cities with largest foreign born populations
|Rank||City||Country||Estimate Source||Foreign-Born Population||Percentage|
|1||London||United Kingdom||ONS 2016||3,309,000||37.8%|
|2||New York City||United States||2016 ACS||3,200,219||37.5%|
|3||Los Angeles||United States||2016 ACS||1,499,418||37.7%|
|4||Toronto||Canada||Canada 2016 Census||1,266,005||47.0%|
|5||Houston||United States||2016 ACS||698,395||30.3%|
|6||Chicago||United States||2016 ACS||559,623||20.7%|
|7||Montréal||Canada||Canada 2016 Census||570,940||34.3%|
|8||San Jose||United States||2016 ACS||402,776||39.3%|
|9||Calgary||Canada||Canada 2016 Census||383,065||31.3%|
|10||San Diego||United States||2016 ACS||373,842||26.7%|
|12||Dallas||United States||2016 ACS||324,972||24.7%|
|14||San Francisco||United States||2016 ACS||296,849||34.9%|
|15||Miami||United States||2016 ACS||264,656||58.3%|
|16||Vancouver||Canada||Canada 2016 Census||262,765||42.5%|
|17||Ottawa||Canada||Canada 2016 Census||216,505||23.6%|
|18||Boston||United States||2016 ACS||194,264||28.9%|
|19||Birmingham||United Kingdom||ONS 2016||140,000||22.8%|
|20||Manchester||United Kingdom||ONS 2016||140,000||26.4%|
Metropolitan and Urban regions with largest foreign born populations
- Data for the cities listed below is from numerous sources.
- Alien (law)
- Finishing School
- Foreign-born Japanese
- Immigrant generations
- United States Census Bureau. Current Population Survey - March 2012 Detailed Tables, Table 1.1. Accessed September 6, 2014.
- "UAE flatly rejects citizenship for foreign workers".
- "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org.
- "Population of the United Kingdom by Country of Birth and Nationality".
- "Place of Birth by Year of Entry by Citizenship Status for the Foreign-Born Population - Universe: Foreign-born population 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York City". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census".
- "Province of PARIS". Urbistat. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Data Hub". migrationpolicy.org.
- Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova (April 14, 2016). "U.S. Immigrant Population by Metropolitan Area". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Toronto (Census metropolitan area), Ontario and Ontario (Province)".
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- "U.S. Immigrant Population by State and County". migrationpolicy.org. 2014-02-04. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- INSEE. "Répartition de la population de la France par région de naissance et région de résidence en 2008". Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Sydney". Retrieved 2017-06-09.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2016 Census QuickStats - Greater Melbourne". Retrieved 2017-06-09.