Foreign relations of Austria
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politics and government of
The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the four-power occupation and recognized Austria as an independent and sovereign state. In October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional law in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory." Since then, Austria shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality.
In recent years, however, Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and, since 1995, contemplating participation in the EU's evolving security structure. Also in 1995, it joined the Partnership for Peace, and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Discussion of possible Austrian NATO membership intensified during 1996. ÖVP and FPÖ aim at moving closer to NATO or a European defense arrangement. The SPÖ, in turn, believes continued neutrality is the cornerstone of Austria's foreign policy, and a majority of the population generally supports this stance.
In February 2000, Austria's foreign relations cooled down when the ÖVP formed a coalition with the FPÖ after the 1999 election. European governments imposed diplomatic sanctions, and the United States called home its ambassador. The diplomatic sanctions were lifted in September 2000, after a three-member panel assessed human rights and political life in Austria. In November 2000, the United States and Austria normalized their relations.
Austrian leaders emphasize the unique role the country plays as East-West hub and as a moderator between industrialized and developing countries. Austria is active in the United Nations and experienced in UN peacekeeping efforts. It attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organizations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
Vienna hosts the Secretariat of the OSCE and the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the United Nations Drug Control Programme. Other international organizations based in Vienna include the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Recently, Vienna added the preparatory commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization and the Wassenaar Arrangement (a technology-transfer control agency) to the list of international organizations it hosts.
Austria traditionally has been active in "bridge-building to the east," increasing contacts at all levels with Eastern Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union. Austrians maintain a constant exchange of business representatives, political leaders, students, cultural groups, and tourists with the countries of central and eastern Europe. Austrian companies are active in investing and trading with the countries of central and eastern Europe. In addition, the Austrian Government and various Austrian organizations provide assistance and training to support the changes underway in the region.
Austria maintains significant bilateral relations with several countries.
- List of diplomatic missions in Austria
- List of diplomatic missions of Austria
- Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs (Austria)
- Visa requirements for Austrian citizens
- Watson, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (2000-02-05). "Austria’s Far Right Is Sworn Into Office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Daley, Suzanne (2000-09-13). "Europe Lifts Sanctions on Austria, but Vows Vigilance". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- "U.S., Austria Normalize Ties as Reaction to Rightists Eases". Los Angeles Times. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Australian embassy in Vienna
- Austrian embassy in Canberra
- "Bilateral Relations between Austria and Australia". Austrian Embassy Canberra. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- "Austria-born". Department of Immigration and Citizenship (Australia). Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- Belarussian embassy in Vienna)
- Belarussian embassy in Vienna (in Belarussian and German only)
- Austrian embassy in Brussels (in Dutch, French and German)
- Belgian embassy in Vienna
- Bulgarian embassy in Vienna
- "Bulgariens Präsident von pünktlichem EU-Beitritt 2007 überzeugt" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- Austrian embassy in Ottawa
- Canadian embassy in Vienna
- Austrian embassy in Santiago de Chile (in German and Spanish only)
- "Bilaterale Beziehungen" (in German). Austrian Embassy in Bogota. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
- Austrian embassy in Bogota (in German and Spanish only)
- Colombian embassy in Vienna
- Croatian embassy in Vienna (in Croatian and German only)
- Danish embassy in Vienna (in Danish and German only)
- Austrian embassy in Cairo (in German only)
- Egyptian embassy in Vienna
- Egypt State Information Service Joint press conference between President Mubarak and Austrian President March 14, 2006
- Estonian embassy in Vienna
- Finnish embassy in Vienna (in Finnish, German and Swedish only)
- Austrian embassy in Paris (French and German only)
- French embassy in Vienna (in French and German only)
- "Embassy of Georgia to Austria". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-06-11. "Diplomatic relations between Georgia and Republic of Austria were established in 1992. Georgia opened its Embassy in Vienna in 1996. The relations between the two countries are close and friendly. Georgia appreciates Support of Austrian Government in different fields of bilateral relations. In addition the commercial and cultural ties are also very important, but do not reflect its full potential and has a big prospective to develop."
- Austrian embassy in Budapest (in German and Hungarian only)
- Hungarian embassy in Vienna (in German and Hungarian only)
- Icelandic embassy in Vienna
- "Seanad Éireann - Volume 116 - 09 July 1987". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. pp. . Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- "McAleese State visit to Austria". Radio Telefís Éireann. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Austrian embassy in Tel Aviv
- Israeli embassy in Vienna (in German only)
- Austrian embassy in Rome (in German and Italian only
- Italian embassy in Vienna (in German and Italian only
- Austrian embassy in Tokyo
- Japanese embassy in Vienna
- "Plassnik: "Letter on Kosovo’s recognition signed"" (Press release). Austrian Foreign Ministry. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- Lithuanian embassy in Vienna (in German and Lithuanian only)
- Direction of the Austrian embassy in Valletta
- Directions of the Maltese representation in Austria
- "Lateinamerika und die Karibik" (in German). Austrian Foreign Ministry. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- "Mexico wants artifact back". International Herald Tribune. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- "Viertägiger Staatsbesuch in Mexiko" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
- "Relations with Austria". Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- Austrian embassy in The Hague (in Dutch and German only)
- Dutch embassy in Vienna (in Dutch and German only)
- Austrian embassy in Beijing (in German and Chinese only)
- Austrian general consulate in Shanghai (in German and Chinese only)
- Austrian general consulate in Hong Kong
- Chinese embassy in Vienna (in German and Chinese only)
- Austrian embassy in Warsaw (in German and Polish only)
- Polish embassy in Vienna (in German and Polish only)
- Romanian embassy in Vienna (in German and Romanian only)
- Austrian embassy in Seoul (in German and Korean only)
- South Korean embassy in Vienna
- "Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer zu Staatsbesuch in Südkorea eingetroffen" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
- Austrian embassy in Kiev (in German and Ukrainian only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Vienna
- Austrian embassy in London
- British embassy in Vienna
- International − Austrian magazine on foreign policy
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes).