Foreign relations of Austria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the four-power occupation and recognized Austria as an independent and sovereign state. In October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional law in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory." Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality.

In recent years, however, Austria has begun to reassess its definition of neutrality, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and, since 1995, contemplating participation in the EU's evolving security structure. Also in 1995, it joined the Partnership for Peace, and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Discussion of possible Austrian NATO membership intensified during 1996. ÖVP and Team Stronach aim at moving closer to NATO or a European defense arrangement. SPÖ and FPÖ, in turn, believe continued neutrality is the cornerstone of Austria's foreign policy, and a majority of the population generally supports this stance.

In February 2000, Austria's foreign relations cooled down when the ÖVP formed a coalition with the FPÖ after the 1999 election. European governments imposed diplomatic sanctions, and the United States called home its ambassador.[1] The diplomatic sanctions were lifted in September 2000, after a three-member panel assessed human rights and political life in Austria.[2] In November 2000, the United States and Austria normalized their relations.[3]

Austrian leaders emphasize the unique role the country plays as an East-West hub and as a moderator between industrialized and developing countries. Austria is active in the United Nations and experienced in UN peacekeeping efforts. It attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organizations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Vienna hosts the Secretariat of the OSCE and the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the United Nations Drug Control Programme. Other international organizations based in Vienna include the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Organization for International Economic Relations (OiER) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Recently, Vienna added the preparatory commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization and the Wassenaar Arrangement (a technology-transfer control agency) to the list of international organizations it hosts. Furthermore, the Permanent Secretariat of an international territorial treaty for the sustainable development of the Alps called the Alpine Convention is located in Tyrol's capital Innsbruck.

Austria traditionally has been active in "bridge-building to the east," increasing contacts at all levels with Eastern Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union. Austrians maintain a constant exchange of business representatives, investment, trade, political leaders, students, cultural groups, and tourists with the countries of central and eastern Europe. In addition, the Austrian Government and various Austrian organizations provide assistance and training to support the changes underway in the region.

Bilateral relationships[edit]

Austria maintains significant bilateral relations with several countries.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1912

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an embassy in Tirana.
 Argentina 1870-10-27
 Armenia 1992-01-24
  • Austria has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • Armenia has and embassy in Vienna.
 Australia 1948
 Belarus 1992-02
 Belgium 1833
 Belize 1989

Both countries established diplomatic relations on September 14, 1989.[12]

 Bulgaria 1878
 Canada 1929 See Austria–Canada relations
 Chile 1846 See Austria–Chile relations
 China 1971-05-28
 Colombia 1920 see Austria–Colombia relations
 Croatia 1992-01-15 See Austria–Croatia relations
 Cyprus 1960
 Czech Republic 1920-01-20 See Austria – Czech Republic relations

Austria has an embassy in Prague and two honorary consulates (in Brno and České Budějovice). The Czech Republic has an embassy in Vienna and five honorary consulates (in Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Linz, and Salzburg). Both countries are full members of the European Union. They share 362 km of common border, which can be crossed anywhere without border control due to the Schengen Agreement.

 Denmark 1925-12-19 See Austria-Denmark relations
 Egypt 1929
 Estonia 1921-06-26
 Finland 1918-07-19
 France 1535 See Austria–France relations
 Georgia 1992 See Austria–Georgia relations

Georgia opened its embassy in Vienna in 1996.[34]

 Germany See Austria–Germany relations

Due to German being the common language of these two neighboring European countries, relations between them are close.

 Hungary 1921 See Austria–Hungary relations
 Iceland 1928
 India 1949[38] See Austria–India relations
 Iran
  • Austria has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Vienna.
  • On July 3, 2018, Austria announced it was revoking the diplomatic immunity of an Iranian diplomat in Vienna, due to his alleged role in a French bomb plot.[42]
 Ireland 1951
 Israel 1949 See Austria–Israel relations

See also History of the Jews in Austria.

 Italy See Austria–Italy relations
 Japan 1869-10 See Austria–Japan relations
 Kosovo 2008
  • Austria recognized Kosovo on 28 February 2008.[52]
  • Austria has an embassy in Pristina since 20 March 2008.
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Vienna since February 2009.
 Latvia 1921-02-17
 Lithuania 1991
 Malaysia 1962-08-06 See Austria–Malaysia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[54]
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Vienna.[55]
  • Malaysia is one of Austria's most important trading partners in Southeast Asia.[56]
 Malta
 Mexico 1842 See Austria–Mexico relations

During the French intervention in Mexico between 1864 and 1867, with French backing Maximilian I of Mexico, member of Austria's Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico.

As of 2005, Mexico was Austria's second most important trade partner in Latin America.[59] The same year, the President of Austria Heinz Fischer visited Mexico and Brazil, the first ever state visit of an Austrian President to countries in Latin America.[59][60][61]

 Moldova 1992-03-25 See Austria–Moldova relations
  • Austria is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Chişinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Vienna and an honorary consulate in Innsbruck.[64]
  • Austria announced to later open a resident embassy in Chişinău.
 Montenegro 2006-07-12
 Netherlands
 North Korea 1974[67]
  • Austria is accredited to North Korea through its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • North Korea has an embassy in Vienna.
 Pakistan 1956 See Austria–Pakistan relations

Relations between the two countries are generally friendly. The diplomatic ties between Pakistan and Austria were established in 1956 when Pakistan formally recognized Austria.[68]

 Philippines 1946-10-17 See Austria–Philippines relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Manila
  • The Philippines has an embassy in Vienna.
  • As of 2014, there are about 35,000 Filipinos in Austria, most of them involved in the health and service sector.[72]
 Poland 1921 See Austria–Poland relations
 Romania 1878-09-22
 Russia See Austria–Russia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Vienna.
 Saudi Arabia 1957-09-10 See Austria – Saudi Arabia relations
  • Both countries had diplomatic contact since July 7, 1880, with the opening of an Austrian consulate in Jeddah (then under Ottoman occupation).
  • Austria has an embassy in Riyadh
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Vienna.
 Serbia 1874 See Austria–Serbia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1874.

 Slovakia See Austria–Slovakia relations

[76]

 Solomon Islands October 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations in October 2005.[77]

 South Korea 1892 As Chosun Dynasty/1963-05-22[78] See Austria–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Austria in German (Republik Österreich) and the Republic of Korea in Korean (대한민국) Started on 1892. In April 2007 the President of Austria Heinz Fischer paid a state visit to South Korea. It was the first ever state visit of an Austrian President to South Korea.[79]

 Spain See Austria–Spain relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Vienna.
  Switzerland See Austria–Switzerland relations

Due to German being the common language of these two neighboring European countries relations between them are close.

 Turkey See Austria–Turkey relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Vienna.
 Ukraine 1992 See Austria–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom 1799 See Austria – United Kingdom relations
 United States 1921 See Austria–United States relations

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Watson, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (2000-02-05). "Austria's Far Right Is Sworn Into Office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  2. ^ Daley, Suzanne (2000-09-13). "Europe Lifts Sanctions on Austria, but Vows Vigilance". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  3. ^ "U.S., Austria Normalize Ties as Reaction to Rightists Eases". Los Angeles Times. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  4. ^ "Australian Permanent Mission". Austria.embassy.gov.au.
  5. ^ "Außenministerium Österreich -> Botschaft -> Canberra". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Bilateral Relations between Austria and Australia". Austrian Embassy Canberra. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  7. ^ "Austria-born" (PDF). Department of Immigration and Citizenship (Australia). Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-09. Retrieved 2015-02-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2009-06-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Außenministerium Österreich -> Botschaft -> Brüssel". Archive.is. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  11. ^ "Belgian embassy in Vienna". Diplomatie.be. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  12. ^ "DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS – BELIZE" (PDF). Mfa.gov.bz. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  13. ^ "Bulgarian embassy in Vienna". Mfa.bg. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Bulgariens Präsident von pünktlichem EU-Beitritt 2007 überzeugt" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  15. ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> Ottawa". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  16. ^ Canadian embassy in Vienna Archived 2009-02-21 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Außenministerium Österreich -> Botschaft -> Santiago de Chile". Aussenministerium.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  18. ^ Österreich, Außenministerium der Republik. "Wartungsseite – BMeiA, Außenministerium Österreich". Bmeia.gv.at.
  19. ^ Österreich, Außenministerium der Republik. "Aktuelles – Österreichische Botschaft Brasilia". Bmeia.gv.at.
  20. ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> Hong Kong". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Botschaft der Volksrepublik China in der Republik Österreich". Chinaembassy.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Bilaterale Beziehungen" (in German). Austrian Embassy in Bogota. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
  23. ^ "Außenministerium Österreich -> Botschaft -> Bogotá". Archive.is. 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  24. ^ "embcol.or.at". Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  25. ^ "Austrija - MVEP • Hrvatski". At.mfa.br. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  26. ^ Danish embassy in Vienna (in Danish and German only) Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Austrian embassy in Cairo (in German only) Archived 2009-08-03 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "Welcome to the Egyptian Embassy in Vienna Website". Egyptembassyvienna.at.
  29. ^ Egypt State Information Service Joint press conference between President Mubarak and Austrian President Archived 2008-11-20 at the Wayback Machine March 14, 2006
  30. ^ "Estonian Embassy in Vienna". Estemb.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  31. ^ "Suomen suurlähetystö, Wien". Finnland.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  32. ^ Österreich, Außenministerium der Republik. "Scheidung – BMEIA, Außenministerium Österreich". Bmeia.gv.at.
  33. ^ "La France en Autriche". Ambafrance-at.org. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  34. ^ "Embassy of Georgia to Austria". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2009-06-11. Diplomatic relations between Georgia and Republic of Austria were established in 1992. Georgia opened its Embassy in Vienna in 1996. The relations between the two countries are close and friendly. Georgia appreciates Support of Austrian Government in different fields of bilateral relations. In addition the commercial and cultural ties are also very important, but do not reflect its full potential and has a big prospective to develop.
  35. ^ "Österreichische Botschaft Budapest – Österreichische Botschaft Budapest". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  36. ^ "Kezdőlap - Magyarország Nagykövetsége Bécs". Becs.mfa.gov.hu. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  37. ^ "English > Austurríki > The Icelandic Foreign Services". Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  38. ^ "Indo-Austria Relations" (PDF). Ficcicom. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  39. ^ "Austrian Representatives in India - Austria in India". Advantageaustria.org. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  40. ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> New Delhi". Bmeia.gv.at.
  41. ^ "Welcome to Embassy of India to Austria and Montenegro". Indianembassy.at.
  42. ^ "Austria To Lift Iranian Diplomat's Immunity Over Alleged Bomb Plot". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. July 3, 2018. Austria is stripping the immunity of an Iranian diplomat suspected of involvement in an alleged plot to bomb a meeting of exiled Iranian opposition groups in France.
  43. ^ "Seanad Éireann - Volume 116 - 09 July 1987". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. pp. [2166]. Archived from the original on 2 December 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
  44. ^ "McAleese State visit to Austria". Radio Telefís Éireann. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
  45. ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> Tel Aviv". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  46. ^ "Israelische Botschaft in Österreich". Vienna.mfa.gov.il. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  47. ^ "Italy big ally - Austria's Kickl (3) - English". Ansa.it. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  48. ^ "Österreichische Botschaft Rom – Österreichische Botschaft Rom". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  49. ^ "Ambasciata d'Italia - Vienna". Ambvienna.esteri.it.
  50. ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> Tokyo". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  51. ^ Japanese embassy in Vienna Archived 2008-10-16 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "Plassnik: "Letter on Kosovo's recognition signed"" (Press release). Austrian Foreign Ministry. 2008-02-28. Archived from the original on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  53. ^ "LR ambasada Austrijos Respublikoje". At.mfa.lt. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  54. ^ "Austrian Embassy Kuala Lumpur". The Austrian Foreign Ministry. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  55. ^ "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Vienna". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  56. ^ Reinhart Zimmermann (2008). "Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien (Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia)" (PDF) (in German). Society for South-East Asian Studies. p. 80. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-24. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  57. ^ "Sorry. The page you are looking for does not exist" (PDF). mfa.gov.mt. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  58. ^ [1][dead link]
  59. ^ a b "Lateinamerika und die Karibik" (in German). Austrian Foreign Ministry. Archived from the original on 2012-12-15. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
  60. ^ "Mexico wants artifact back". International Herald Tribune. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
  61. ^ "Viertägiger Staatsbesuch in Mexiko" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  62. ^ "Botschaft Mexiko – BMEIA, Aussenministerium Österreich". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  63. ^ "Bienvenidos a la portada". Embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  64. ^ "Relations with Austria". Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  65. ^ "Außenministerium Österreich -> Botschaft -> Den Haag". Archive.is. 21 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  66. ^ "Nederlandse Ambassade in Wenen, Oostenrijk". Mfa.nl. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  67. ^ "북한 오스트리아 수교 : 네이버 통합검색". Search.naver.com. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  68. ^ "EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN IN AUSTRIA". Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  69. ^ "Embassy of Pakistan in Austria". Pakistan.visahq.com. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  70. ^ "Foreign Embassies and Consulates in Austria". Embassiesabroad.com. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  71. ^ "Foreign Embassies and Consulates in Pakistan". Embassiesabroad.com. Archived from the original on 2009-09-26. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  72. ^ "Celebration: National Day of the Republic of Austria". Mb.com.ph. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  73. ^ "Österreichische Botschaft Warschau – Österreichische Botschaft Warschau". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  74. ^ "Ambasada Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w Wiedniu". Wieden.msz.gov.pl. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  75. ^ "AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Republica Austria". Viena.mae.ro. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  76. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Statistik.at. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  77. ^ "SOLOMONS, AUSTRIA SIGN DIPLOMATIC TIES - Pacific Islands Report". Pireport.org. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  78. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Europe". Mofa.go.kr (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  79. ^ "Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer zu Staatsbesuch in Südkorea eingetroffen" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  80. ^ https://www.bmeia.gv.at/oeb-seoul/
  81. ^ http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/at-ko/index.do
  82. ^ "Außenministerium Österreich -> Botschaft -> Kiew". Archive.is. 1 August 2012. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  83. ^ "Посольство України в Республіці Австрія". Mfa.gov.ua. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  84. ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> London". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  85. ^ "UK and Austria". Ukinaustria.fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 February 2015.

Further reading[edit]

  • Horn, David Bayne. Great Britain and Europe in the eighteenth century (1967) covers 1603-1702; pp 111-43.

External links[edit]