Foreign relations of Barbados
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
At the political level, these matters are officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which answers to the Prime Minister. The Minister of Foreign Affairs, since November 2008 is: Senator The Hon. Maxine McClean.
Between independence in 1966 and the 1990s, Barbados has used a pro business and investment policy to expand its influence in the world. Through the usage of its network of international bilateral relations, the country has been able to maintain an independent foreign policy. Barbados' recent policy has been to focus and strengthen ties with nations that country feels will enhance its diplomacy or foreign trade. Barbados has sought to engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Association of Caribbean States (ACS), the group of ACP countries, the Organization of American States, and several other agencies which it is engaged. In 2008 Barbados and the other members of CARICOM signed an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union and its European Commission. The deal covers CARICOM's membership in the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM). CARIFORUM in turn is a part of the Group of African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) States. The agreement outlines Barbados' future development and trade ties with the European Union, and serves as a blueprint for future relations between both trading blocs under the Cotonou Agreement and the Lomé Convention.
At times Barbados has found itself as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in the English-speaking Caribbean.
As a small nation, the primary thrust of Barbados' diplomatic activity has been within international organisations. Currently Barbados has established official diplomatic relations with 105 countries around the globe.
- 1 History
- 2 International
- 3 Bilateral Relations
- 4 Multilateral relations
- 5 Diplomatic missions
- 6 Participation in international organizations
- 7 International Fora with Barbados offices
- 8 Issues
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In 1965, Barbados, Antigua and Barbuda, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago established the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA). Following independence from the United Kingdom in 1966, Barbados went on to become a founding member of many other international organizations.
On July 4, 1973, the founding nations of Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Jamaica signed the original Treaty of Chaguaramas in Trinidad thus establishing the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM). The agreement to establish CARICOM wound up succeeded the CARIFTA organisation. By the following year many of the remaining English-speaking Caribbean states followed suit and also joined CARICOM by May 1974, bring it slowly to the 15 members it has today.
Barbados also is a member of the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), established in 1970, with headquarters in Wildey, Saint Michael (Bridgetown). The eastern Caribbean's Regional Security System (RSS), which associates Barbados with six nations of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is also based in Barbados. In July 1994, Barbados joined the newly established Association of Caribbean States (ACS).
In 2002 the United Nations opened a building in the Marine Gardens area of Hastings found in the Parish of Christ Church the facility simply called the United Nations House acts as a regional operations headquarters for several programmes of the United Nations in Barbados and for many of the other islands in the Eastern Caribbean region.
Barbados has relations with 105 countries around the world, though principal relations are with the following countries.
Principal relations by region. Americas: Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Uruguay, Venezuela
Eurasia: Austria, Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, South Korea, The United Kingdom
Middle East: Israel, Iran and Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1981-Nov-01|
|Australia||1974-Jan-07||See Australia–Barbados relations
The Australian High Commissioner to Barbados is accredited from Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is represented in Australia through its High Commission in Ottawa, Ontario, (Canada). Barbados maintains an honorary consul in Australia. Barbados and Australia established diplomatic relations on 7 January 1974. Both Barbados and Australia are current members of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, and comprised as former parts of the British Empire.
|Brazil||1971-Nov-26||See Barbados–Brazil relations|
|Canada||1966-Nov-30||See Barbados–Canada relations
In 1907, the Government of Canada opened a Trade Commissioner Service to the Caribbean region located in Bridgetown, Barbados. Following Barbadian independence from the United Kingdom in November 1966, the Canadian High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1967. There is a Barbadian High Commission in Ottawa and a Barbadian Consulate in Toronto.
|Chile||1967-Oct-03||See Barbados–Chile relations
Barbados is accredited in Chile through its embassy in Caracas, (Venezuela). Chile is accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain, (Trinidad and Tobago) and maintains an honorary consulate in Bridgetown. Barbados and Chile formally established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1967. Chile was the first Latin American country which Barbados formally established formal diplomatic relations.
|China||1977-May-30||See Barbados – People's Republic of China relations|
Barbados was one of the first nations in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) bloc to form relations with the Republic of Cuba in 1972.
|France||1968-May-03||See Barbados–France relations
Both countries have established diplomatic relations on May 3, 1968. Barbados is represented in France through its embassy in Brussels (Belgium). France is represented in Barbados through its embassy in Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago) and an honorary consulate in Bridgetown.
|Germany||1967-Mar-14||See Barbados–Germany relations
Barbados is represented in Germany through its embassy in Brussels, (Belgium) and Germany is represented in to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain, (Trinidad and Tobago). Barbados and Germany formally established diplomatic relations on 14 March 1967.
|Guyana||1966-Nov-30||See Barbados–Guyana relations
The relations between Guyana and Barbados had its genesis to a time when both Guyana (then British Guiana) and Barbados were both British colonies. Shortly after Great Britain secured British Guiana from the Dutch, waves of migrants were encouraged to move and settle in Guyana. Barbados was one such location where large numbers of migrants came from. Through time Barbados and Guyana have both supported each other. With the move towards independence in the region Guyana was seen as the breadbasket of the wider Caribbean which led to yet more waves of Barbadians seeking to move to Guyana for better opportunities.
More recently the Guyanese Government has extended an offer to Barbadians. The Guyanese government has offered to put in place an economically favourable regime towards any Barbadians that wish to relocate to Guyana and contribute towards that nation's goals in agricultural investment. The announcement was made in the final days of the Owen Arthur administration by MP member Mia Motley.
In the early 1990s the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, Patrick Manning pitched an initiative for Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago to enter into some form of political union or political association. This initiative was short lived and didn't proceed following the Democratic Labour Party's defeat during the 1994 elections.
|Haiti||1972-Aug-05||In the early 1990s as a member of CARICOM, Barbados had supported efforts by the United States to implement UN Security Council Resolution 940, designed to facilitate the departure of Haiti's de facto authorities from power. The country agreed to contribute personnel to the multinational force, which restored the democratically elected government of Haiti in October 1994.|
India and Barbados established diplomatic relations on 30 November 1966 (the date of Barbados' national independence). On that date, the government of India gifted Barbados the throne in Barbados' national House of Assembly. India is represented in Barbados through its embassy in Suriname and an Indian consulate in Holetown, St. James. Today around 3,000 persons from India call Barbados home. Two-thirds are from the India's Surat district of Gujarat known as Suratis. Most of the Suratis are involved in trading. The rest are mainly Sindhis.
|Japan||1967-Aug-29||See Barbados–Japan relations
Japan is accredited to Barbados from its Embassy in Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago) and an honorary consulate in Bridgetown. Barbados is represented in Japan through a non-resident ambassador in Bridgetown.
|Nigeria||1970-Apr-24||See Barbados–Nigeria relations
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||1983-Sep-19|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1979-Oct-27|
|South Korea||See Barbados–South Korea relations|
|Suriname||1978-Mar-08||See Barbados–Suriname relations
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 March 1978. Barbados is accredited to Suriname from Bridgetown. Suriname is represented in Barbados through its embassy in Port of Spain, (Trinidad and Tobago).
|Trinidad and Tobago||1966-Nov-30||See Barbados – Trinidad and Tobago relations
On April 11, 2006, the 5-Member UNCLOS Annex VII Arbitral Tribunal, presided over by H.E. Judge Stephen M. Schwebel, rendered after two years of international judicial proceedings, the landmark Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago Award, which resolved the maritime boundary delimitation (in the East, Central and West sectors) to satisfaction of both Parties and committed Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago to resolve their fisheries dispute by means of concluding a new Fisheries Agreement.
|United Kingdom||1966-Nov-30||See Barbados – United Kingdom relations
The two countries are related through common history, the Commonwealth of Nations and their sharing of the same Head of State, Queen Elizabeth II as their Monarch. The British High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1967. There is a Barbadian High Commission in London.
|United States||1966-Nov-30||See Barbados – United States relations
In May 1997, Prime Minister Owen Arthur hosted United States President Bill Clinton and 14 other Caribbean leaders during the first-ever U.S.-regional summit in Bridgetown, Barbados. The summit strengthened the basis for regional cooperation on justice and counternarcotics issues, finance and development, and trade.
Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments treaties
- Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) – Signed 29 May 2009
- Canada – Signed: 29 May 1996
- People's Republic of China – Signed: 20 July 1998
- Cuba – Signed: 19 February 1996
- Germany – Signed: 2 December 1994
- Ghana – Signed: 22 April 2008
- Italy – Signed: 25 October 1995
- Mauritius – Signed: 28 September 2004
- Sweden – Signed: 29 March 1995
- Switzerland – March 1995
- United Kingdom – April 1993
- Venezuela – July 1994
Double Taxation Agreements
- Austria – Signed: 27 February 2006
- Botswana – Signed: 23 February 2009
- People's Republic of China – Signed: 15 May 2000
- CARICOM – Signed: 6 July 1994
- Cuba – Signed: 17 June 1999
- Finland – Signed: 15 June 1989
- Ghana – Signed: 24 April 2008
- Malta – Signed: 5 December 2001
- Mauritius – Signed: 28 September 2004
- Mexico – Signed: 7 April 2008
- Netherlands; Signed: 28 November 2006
- Seychelles; Signed: 19 October 2007
- Sweden – Signed: 1 July 1991
- Switzerland – Extended to Barbados from UK, 1954
- United States of America– Signed: 18 December 1991
- Venezuela– Signed: 11 December 1998
On December 7, 1966 the Security Council of the United nations met to debate the membership of Barbados to the General Assembly of the United Nations. During the 1487th plenary meeting of December 9, 1966 it was decided that Barbados would be granted membership. Thusly Barbados became the 122nd full member of the United Nations General Assembly on December 12, 1966.
The late Prime Minister Errol Walton Barrow gave a speech during the first General Assembly attended by Barbados: Telling the assembly that his country will be an exponent, "not of the diplomacy of power, but of the diplomacy of peace and prosperity. We have no quarrels to pursue and we particularly insist that we do not regard any member state as our natural opponent," he said. "We will be friends of all, satellites of none."
International Criminal Court
Barbados has diplomatic missions headed by resident ambassadors or high commissioners in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Venezuela, and at the European Union (Brussels) and the UN. It also has resident consuls general in Toronto, Miami, and New York City. Australia, Brazil, Cuba, Canada, Colombia, People's Republic of China, Guatemala, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Venezuela have ambassadors or high commissioners resident in Barbados.
Participation in international organizations
ACP • ACCP • ACS • AOSIS • BIS • C • Carib-Export • CARICOM • CARIFORUM • CARTAC • CCJ • CDB • CDERA • CITEL • CTO • CXC • CFATF • CRNM • CROSQ • CSME • ECLAC • FAO • G33 • G77 • IADB • IDB • IAEA • IBRD • ICAO • ICCt • ICFTU • ICJ • ICRM • IDA • IFAD • IFC • IFRCS • ILO • IMF • IMO • Intelsat • Interpol • IOC • IOM • IMPACS • ISO • ITU • LAES • MACHC • MIGA • NAM • OAS • OPANAL • OPCW • PAHO • Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas • RSS • SIDS • UN • UNCTAD • UNESCO • UNHCR • UNIDO • UPU • WCO • WFTU • WHO • WIPO • WMO • WTO
International Fora with Barbados offices
- Caribbean Agricultural Research Development Institute (CARDI)
- Caribbean Centre for Development Administration (CARICAD)
- Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
- Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA)
- Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC)
- Caribbean Export Development Agency (CEDA)
- Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM)
- Caribbean Single Market & Economy - Office (CSME)
- Caribbean Tourism Organisation (CTO)
- CARICOM Regional Organisation For Standards and Quality (CROSQ)
- Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations-Sub-Regional Office for the Caribbean(FAO/SLAC)
- Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
- Inter-American Institute for Cooperation On Agriculture (IICA)
- International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
- London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA)
- Organisation of American States (OAS)
- Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO)
- Regional Security Systems (RSS)
- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
- United Nations Development Fund For Women (UNIFEM)
- In 2008, Barbados submitted an updated claim to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (UNCLCS) to extend its territorial waters and continental shelf (Exclusive Economic Zone) margins.
- Barbados started the process of settlement of maritime boundary with Guyana.
- Former Prime Minister Owen Arthur had announced that Barbados would begin to settle its maritime boundaries with France(Martinique).
Disputes - international:
- Venezuela, The Barbados Government charged that 1990 Maritime Delimitation Treaty agreement between Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela extended into its maritime area.
- One of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for the US and Europe
- Government of Barbados
- List of diplomatic missions in Barbados
- List of diplomatic missions of Barbados
- Politics of Barbados
- Visa requirements for Barbadian citizens
- "Barbados stands to benefit significantly from its services under the EPA between Europe and Caricom". Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2009-05-15.[dead link]
- Barbados May Reap Rewards of Treaty Network, Worldwide Tax Dail, 30 April 2009
- SECRETARY-GENERAL HIGHLIGHTS REGIONAL CHALLENGES, POTENTIAL FOR COOPERATION IN REMARKS AT INAUGURATION OF BARBADOS UNITED NATIONS HOUSE - 3 January 2002
- Argentina embassy in Port of Spain, also accredited to Barbados (in Spanish only)
- LIST OF COUNTRIES WITH WHICH BARBADOS HAS DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS - As of August 2006
- Barbados’ Prime Minister to Pay an Official Visit to the Republic of Chile, Barbados Government Information Service, 3 November 2005
- "China and Barbados", Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, September 26, 2008
- List of states which Barbados has diplomatic relations
- About the House of Assembly, Barbados
- List of diplomatic missions accredited to Barbados
- Indian embassy Suriname
- Barbados India Relations, (Note: to view this file, convert the extension of php to pdf.
- List of Honorary Consulates in Barbados
- "Closer ties with Nigeria". The Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Retrieved 2009-04-08.[dead link]
- LIST OF COUNTRIES WITH WHICH BARBADOS HAS ESTABLISHED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS foreign.gov.bb Retrieved on 4-22-09
- "Nigeria wants direct flights to Barbados". The Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Retrieved 2009-04-08.[dead link]
- "Nigerian cooperation". The Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Retrieved 2009-04-08.[dead link]
- Invest Barbados - Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs)
- null, null (2009-08-11). "Barbados and BLEU sign investment treaty". CaribbeanNetNews. Retrieved 2009-08-11.[dead link]
- Invest Barbados - Double Taxation Agreements (DTAs)
- Barbados signs a double taxation agreement with Mexico as Trinidad & Jamaica vie to wear offshore crown, Broad Street Journal
- Google Cache:Barbados Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- :Ministry of Economic Affairs & Development -- Bi-lateral Investment Treaties and Double Taxation Agreements
- 2175 (XX). Admission of Barbados to membership in the United Nations,
- 2175 (XXI) ADMISSION OF BARBADOS TO MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNITED NATIONS, RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS TWENTY-FIRST SESSION
- UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Barbadian Submission
- INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY CONSULTANTS
- Barbados and France Discuss Delimitation of their Maritime Boundaries - 7 June 2006
- null, null (2004-02-19). "Trinidad-Barbados dispute over 1990 Maritime Treaty". CaribbeanNetNews. Archived from the original on 3 August 2004. Retrieved 2004-02-19.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade
- Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Barbados
- The European Commission's Delegation to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean
- Economic aspects of sustainable development in Barbados
-  - Paper on the EPA (involving) Barbados and the EU's territories
- Barbados Hoping To Expand Relations - Barbados P.M. outlines foreign relations plans.