Foreign relations of Croatia

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The Republic of Croatia is a sovereign country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean that declared its independence from SFR Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991. Croatia is a member of the European Union (EU), United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), Union for the Mediterranean and a number of many other international organizations. Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 181 countries. President and the Government, through the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, co-operate in the formulation and implementation of foreign policy.

The main objectives of Croatian foreign policy during the 1990s were gaining international recognition and joining the United Nations. After these objectives have been achieved by year 2000, two main goals became NATO and EU membership. Croatia fulfilled both of these goals, first in 2009, second in 2013. Current Croatian goals in foreign policy are: positioning within the EU institutions and in the region, cooperation with NATO partners and strengthening multilateral and bilateral cooperation worldwide.[1]

History[edit]

Foreign relation of Croatia
  diplomatic relations established
  diplomatic recognition only

Croatian foreign policy has focused on greater Euro-Atlantic integration, mainly entering the European Union and NATO. In order to gain access to European and trans-Atlantic institutions, it has had to undo many negative effects of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the war that ensued, and improve and maintain good relations with its neighbors.

Key issues over the last decade have been the implementation of the Dayton Accords and the Erdut Agreement, nondiscriminatory facilitation of the return of refugees and displaced persons from the 1991–95 war including property restitution for ethnic Serbs, resolution of border disputes with Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, and general democratization.

Croatia has had an uneven record in these areas between 1996 and 1999 during the right-wing HDZ government, inhibiting its relations with the European Union and the United States. Improvement in these areas severely hindered the advance of Croatia's prospects for further Euro-Atlantic integration. Progress in the areas of Dayton, Erdut, and refugee returns were evident in 1998, but progress was slow and required intensive international engagement.

Croatia's unsatisfactory performance implementing broader democratic reforms in 1998 raised questions about the ruling party's commitment to basic democratic principles and norms. Areas of concern included restrictions on freedom of speech, one-party control of public TV and radio, repression of independent media, unfair electoral regulations, a judiciary that is not fully independent, and lack of human and civil rights protection.

A centre-left coalition government was elected in early 2000. The SDP-led government slowly relinquished control over public media companies and did not interfere with freedom of speech and independent media, though it did not complete the process of making Croatian Radiotelevision independent. Judiciary reforms remained a pending issue as well.

Major Croatian advances in foreign relations during this period have included:

The EU application was the last major international undertaking of the Račan government, which submitted a 7,000-page report in reply to the questionnaire by the European Commission.

Foreign relations were severely affected by the government's hesitance and stalling of the extradition of Croatian general Janko Bobetko to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and inability to take general Ante Gotovina into custody for questioning by the Court.

Refugee returns accelerated since 1999, reached a peak in 2000, but then slightly decreased in 2001 and 2002. The OSCE mission in Croatia has continued to monitor the return of refugees and is still recording civil rights violations. Croatian Serbs continue to have problems with restitution of property and acceptance to the reconstruction assistance programmes. Combined with lacking economic opportunities in the rural areas of former Krajina, the return process is highly troubled.

Accession to the European Union[edit]

At the time of Croatia's application to the European Union, three EU members states were yet to ratify the Stabilization and Association Agreement: United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Italy. The new Sanader government elected in 2003 elections repeated the assurances that Croatia will fulfill the missing political obligations, and expedited the extradition of several ICTY inductees. The European Commission replied to the answers of the questionnaire sent to Croatia on 20 April 2004 with a positive opinion. The country was finally accepted as EU candidate in July 2004. Italy and United Kingdom ratified the Stabilization and Association Agreement shortly thereafter, while the ten EU member states that were admitted to membership that year ratified it all together at a 2004 European Summit. In December 2004, the EU leaders announced that accession negotiations with Croatia would start on 17 March 2005 provided that Croatian government cooperates fully with the ICTY. The main issue, the flight of general Gotovina, however, remained unsolved and despite the agreement on an accession negotiation framework, the negotiations did not begin in March 2005. On 4 October 2005 Croatia finally received green light for accession negotiations after the Chief Prosecutor of the ICTY Carla Del Ponte officially stated that Croatia is fully cooperating with the Tribunal. This has been the main condition demanded by EU foreign ministers for accession negotiations. The ICTY called upon other southern European states to follow Croatia's good example. Thanks to the consistent position of Austria during the meeting of EU foreign ministers, a long period of instability and the questioning of the determination of the Croatian government to extradite alleged war criminals has ended successfully. Croatian Prime minister Ivo Sanader declared that full cooperation with the Hague Tribunal will continue. The accession process was also complicated by the insistence of Slovenia, an EU member state, that the two countries' border issues be dealt with prior to Croatia's accession to the EU.

Croatia finished accession negotiations on 30 June 2011,[2] and on 9 December 2011, signed the Treaty of Accession. A referendum on EU accession was held in Croatia on 22 January 2012, with 66% of participants voting in favour of joining the Union.[3][4][5][6] The ratification process was concluded on 21 June 2013, and entry into force and accession of Croatia to the EU took place on 1 July 2013.[7]

Current events[edit]

The main objective of the Croatian foreign policy is positioning within the EU institutions and in the region, cooperation with NATO partners and strengthening multilateral and bilateral cooperation.

Government officials in charge of foreign policy include the Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, currently Marija Pejčinović Burić, and the President of the Republic, currently Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović.

Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 174 countries.[8] As of 2009, Croatia maintains a network of 51 embassies, 24 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic of Croatia in addition to offices of international organizations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, World Health Organization, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF.[9]

International organizations[edit]

Republic of Croatia participates in the following international organizations: CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU, FAO, G11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (observer), NATO, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMOGIP, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

There exists a Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations.

Foreign support[edit]

Croatia receives support from donor programs of:

Between 1991 and 2003, the EBRD had directly invested a total of 1,212,039,000 EUR into projects in Croatia.

In 1998, U.S. support to Croatia came through the Southeastern European Economic Development Program (SEED), whose funding in Croatia totaled $23.25 million. More than half of that money was used to fund programs encouraging sustainable returns of refugees and displaced persons. About one-third of the assistance was used for democratization efforts, and another 5% funded financial sector restructuring.

In 2003 USAID considered Croatia to be on a "glide path for graduation" along with Bulgaria. Its 2002/2003/2004 funding includes around $10 million for economic development, up to $5 million for the development of democratic institutions, about $5 million for the return of population affected by war and between 2 and 3 million dollars for the "mitigation of adverse social conditions and trends". A rising amount of funding is given to cross-cutting programs in anti-corruption, slightly under one million dollars.

The European Commission has proposed to assist Croatia's efforts to join the European Union with 245 million euros from PHARE, ISPA and SAPARD aid programs over the course of 2005 and 2006.

International disputes[edit]

Relations with neighbouring states have normalized somewhat since the breakup of Yugoslavia. Work has begun — bilaterally and within the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe since 1999 — on political and economic cooperation in the region.

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Consulate-General in Banja Luka

Discussions continue between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina on various sections of the border, the longest border with another country for each of these countries.

Sections of the Una river and villages at the base of Mount Plješevica are in Croatia, while some are in Bosnia, which causes an excessive number of border crossings on a single route and impedes any serious development in the region. The Zagreb-Bihać-Split railway line is still closed for major traffic due to this issue.

The border on the Una river between Hrvatska Kostajnica on the northern, Croatian side of the river, and Bosanska Kostajnica on the southern, Bosnian side, is also being discussed. A river island between the two towns is under Croatian control, but is also claimed by Bosnia. A shared border crossing point has been built and has been functioning since 2003, and is used without hindrance by either party.

The Herzegovinian municipality of Neum in the south makes the southernmost part of Croatia an exclave and the two countries are negotiating special transit rules through Neum to compensate for that. Recently Croatia has opted to build a bridge to the Pelješac peninsula to connect the Croatian mainland with the exclave but Bosnia and Herzegovina has protested that the bridge will close its access to international waters (although Croatian territory and territorial waters surround Bosnian-Herzegovinian territory and waters completely) and has suggested that the bridge must be higher than 55 meters for free passage of all types of ships. Negotiations are still being held.

Italy[edit]

The relations between Croatia and Italy have been largely cordial and friendly, although occasional incidents do arise on issues such as the Istrian exodus or the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone.

Montenegro[edit]

Croatia and Montenegro have a largely latent border dispute over the Prevlaka peninsula.

Serbia[edit]

The Danube border between Croatia and Serbia is in dispute, particularly in Baranja, the Island of Vukovar and the Island of Šarengrad.

Slovenia[edit]

Croatia and Slovenia have several land and maritime boundary disputes, mainly in the Gulf of Piran, regarding Slovenian access to international waters, a small number of pockets of land on the right-hand side of the river Dragonja, and around the Sveta Gera peak.

Slovenia was disputing Croatia's claim to establish the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone, an economic section of the Adriatic.

Other issues that have yet to be fully resolved include:

Diplomatic relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 15 October 1992
 Angola 16 November 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Angola through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).[12]
  • Angola is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).[13]
 Benin 26 March 2001
  • Croatia is represented in Benin through its embassy in Paris (France).[14]
  • Benin is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[15]
 Botswana 9 September 2005

Diplomatic relations between Botswana and Croatia were established on 9 September 2005.[16][17]

 Burkina Faso 18 May 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Burkina Faso through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Burkina Faso is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[18]
 Cape Verde 13 August 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Cape Verde through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Cape Verde is not represented in Croatia.
 Chad 17 September 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Chad through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Chad is not represented in Croatia.
 Comoros 29 June 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Comoros through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Comoros is not represented in Croatia.
 Côte d'Ivoire 17 October 1995
 Djibouti 25 May 2017

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 May 2017[19][20].

 Egypt 1992-10-01 See Croatia–Egypt relations
 Eritrea 4 June 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Eritrea through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Eritrea is not represented in Croatia.
 Ethiopia 17 October 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Ethiopia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Ethiopia is not represented in Croatia.
 Gabon 22 October 2001
  • Croatia is represented in Gabon through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Gabon is not represented in Croatia.
 Gambia 16 October 1998
  • Croatia is represented in Gambia through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Gambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in London (UK).
 Ghana 17 February 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Ghana through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Ghana is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Guinea-Bissau 19 October 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Guinea-Bissau through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Guinea-Bissau is not represented in Croatia.
 Kenya 22 May 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Kenya through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).[21]
  • Kenya has a consulate in Zagreb, accredited to its embassy in Rome (Italy).[22]
 Lesotho 6 November 1998
  • Croatia is represented in Lesotho through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Lesotho is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Libya 2000-03-30 See Croatia–Libya relations
 Madagascar 27 September 2006

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 September 2006.[23][24]

 Malawi 13 October 1998

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 November 1998.[23][25]

 Mali 20 September 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Mali through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mali is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Mauritania 11 November 2004
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritania through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mauritania is not represented in Croatia.
 Mauritius 3 September 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritius through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mauritius is not represented in Croatia.
 Morocco 1992-06-26
 Mozambique 23 August 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Mozambique through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mozambique is not represented in Croatia.
 Namibia 22 June 1998

Diplomatic relations between Croatia and Namibia were established on 22 June 1998.[16][17]

 Nigeria 7 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Nigeria through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Nigeria is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
 São Tomé and Príncipe 23 May 1993
  • Croatia is represented in São Tomé and Príncipe through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • São Tomé and Príncipe is not represented in Croatia.
 Senegal 1 October 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Senegal through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Senegal is not represented in Croatia.
 Seychelles 30 September 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Seychelles through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Seychelles is not represented in Croatia.
 South Africa 1992-11-19
 Sudan 17 July 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Sudan through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Sudan is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Tanzania 2 July 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Tanzania through its embassy in Pretoria, (South Africa).[29]
  • Tanzania is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome, (Italy).[30]
 Togo 20 December 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Tongo through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Togo is not represented in Croatia.
 Tunisia 1993-01-30
 Uganda 10 March 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Uganda through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Uganda is not represented in Croatia.
 Zambia 20 September 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Zambia through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Zambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).

Americas[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 20 September 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[31]
  • Antigua and Barbuda is represented in Croatia through its through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
 Argentina 13 April 1992 See Argentina–Croatia relations
 Bahamas 31 January 2017
  • Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Croatia and the Commonwealth of Bahamas was signed on 31 January 2017.[34]
 Belize 23 January 1996
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 January 1996.[23][35]
 Bolivia 26 November 1992
 Brazil 23 December 1992
 Canada 14 April 1993
 Chile 15 April 1992 See Chile–Croatia relations
 Colombia 25 April 1995
  • Colombia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Croatia is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Croatia is defined as an ally by Colombia on the war on drugs and as an example to follow after a post-conflict situation[37]
 Costa Rica 19 October 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Costa Rica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Costa Rica is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
 Cuba 23 September 1992
 Dominica 2013[38]
  • Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Croatia and the Commonwealth of Dominica was signed on 30 July 2013.[38]
 Ecuador 22 February 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Ecuador through its embassy in Santiago (Chile).
  • Ecuador is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
 El Salvador 24 July 1997
  • Croatia is represented in El Salvador through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • El Salvador is not represented in Croatia.
 Grenada 19 May 2000
  • Croatia is represented in Grenada through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Guatemala 22 December 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Guatemala through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Guatemala is not represented in Croatia.
 Guyana 25 February 2003
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 2003.[39]
  • Croatia is represented in Guyana through its Permanent Mission in New York City.[40]
 Honduras 20 September 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Honduras through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Honduras is not represented in Croatia.
 Jamaica 9 October 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Jamaica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[41]
 Mexico 6 December 1992 See Croatia–Mexico relations
 Nicaragua 29 March 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Nicaragua through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Nicaragua is not represented in Croatia.
 Panama 12 June 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Panama through its embassy in Washington, D.C. (US).
  • Panama is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Piraeus (Greece).[44]
 Paraguay 13 March 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina).
  • Paraguay is not represented in Croatia.
 Peru 12 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Santiago (Chile) and consulate in Lima.
  • Peru is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and consulate in Zagreb.
  • There are around 6,500 people of Croatian descent living in Peru.
 Saint Lucia 10 December 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Lucia through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7 October 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Suriname 17 December 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Suriname through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).[45]
  • Suriname is not represented in Croatia.
 Trinidad and Tobago 14 December 2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 December 2011.[46][47]

 United States of America 11 August 1992 See Croatia–United States relations
 Uruguay 4 May 1993 See Croats in Uruguay
  • Croatia is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and consulate in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay is not represented in Croatia.
  • According to UN estimates there are some 3,300 people of Croat descent living in Uruguay. Other estimates place the figure at around 5,000.
 Venezuela 9 October 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Venezuela through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Venezuela is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).

Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 3 January 1996
 Armenia 8 July 1994 See Armenia–Croatia relations
 Azerbaijan 26 January 1995 See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
 Bahrain 18 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Bahrain through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Bahrain is not represented in Croatia.
 Cambodia 10 September 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Cambodia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Cambodia is not represented in Croatia.
 China (People's Republic) 1992-05-13 See also: China–Croatia relations
 Georgia 1993-02-01
  • Croatia is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and consulate in Tbilisi.[51]
  • Georgia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).[52]
 India 1992-07-09

See Croatia–India relations

 Indonesia 3 September 1992
 Iran 18 April 1992 See Croatia–Iran relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy and a cultural centre in Zagreb.
  • Croatia and Iran signed 24 agreements of cooperation.
 Iraq 5 January 2005
  • Croatia is represented in Iraq through its embassy in Baghdad.[55]
  • Iraq is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna.[56]
 Israel 4 September 1997 See Croatia–Israel relations
 Japan 1993-03-05
 Jordan 29 June 1994
 Kazakhstan 1992-10-20
 Kuwait 10 August 1994
  • Croatia has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic) and consulate in Zagreb.[62]
 Kyrgyzstan 23 December 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Kyrgyzstan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Laos 4 March 1996
 Lebanon 1994-12-05
 Malaysia 4 May 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Malaysia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Malaysia has embassy in Zagreb.
 Maldives 8 April 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Maldives through its embassy in New Delhi (India).
  • Maldives is not represented in Croatia.
 Mongolia 1993-03-10
 Myanmar 3 September 1999
   Nepal 6 February 1998
  • Croatia is represented in Nepal through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Kathmandu.
  • Nepal is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[70]
 North Korea 1992-11-30
  • Croatia is represented in North Korea through its embassy in Beijing (China).[71]
  • North Korea is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).[72]
  • In January 2016, former Croatian president Stjepan Mesić visited North Korea.[73]
 Pakistan 1994-07-20
 Philippines 25 February 1993
 Qatar 5 December 1992 See Croatia–Saudi Arabia relations
 Saudi Arabia 8 June 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Saudi Arabia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Saudi Arabia is not represented in Croatia but citizens that need any assistance are advised to contact the Saudi Arabia embassy in Sarajevo (BiH).
 Singapore 23 November 1992
 South Korea 1992-11-18 See Croatia–South Korea relations
 Sri Lanka 14 February 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Colombo.[79]
  • Sri Lanka is represented in Sri Lanka through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[80]
 Syria 1997-08-29 See Croatia–Syria relations
 Tajikistan 1 April 1999
 Thailand 1992-09-09
 Timor-Leste 2003-02-05
 Turkey 1992-08-26
 Turkmenistan 2 July 1996
 United Arab Emirates 23 June 1992
  • Croatia is represented in United Arab Emirates through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).[89]
  • United Arab Emirates are represented in Croatia through its embassy in Berlin (Germany).[90]
 Uzbekistan 6 February 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Uzbekistan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Viet Nam 1994-07-01
 Yemen 17 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Yemen through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Yemen is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.

Europe[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 25 August 1992 See Albanian–Croatian relations
 Andorra 28 April 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Madrid (Spain).
  • Andorra is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).
 Austria 15 January 1992 See Austria–Croatia relations
 Belarus 25 September 1992 See Belarus–Croatia relations
 Belgium 10 March 1992
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 21 July 1992 See Bosnia and Herzegovina – Croatia relations
 Bulgaria 13 August 1992 See Bulgaria–Croatia relations
 Cyprus 1993-02-04
 Czech Republic 1993-01-01
 Denmark 1992-02-01 See Croatia–Denmark relations
 Estonia 1992-03-02
  • Croatia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and honorary consulate in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome, Italy and honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 1992-02-19
 France 1992-04-24 See Croatia-France relations
 Germany 1992-01-15

See Croatian–German relations

 Greece 1992-07-20

See Croatia–Greece relations

 Holy See 1992-02-08 See Croatia–Holy See relations
  • Croatia has a resident embassy to the Holy See in Rome.[103]
  • Holy See has a nunciature with a nuncio of ambassadorial rank with additional privileges in Zagreb.
  • According to the 2011 census 86.28% of Croats are Roman Catholic.
 Hungary 1992-01-18 See Croatia–Hungary relations
 Iceland 30 June 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Iceland thought it embassy in Copenhagen (Denmark) and consulate in Reykjavik.[106]
  • Iceland is represented in Croatia thought it embassy in Berlin (Germany) and consulate in Zagreb.[106]
  • Iceland is the first fully sovereign country that recognized Croatia as an independent state. (19 December 1991)
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland See Croatia-Ireland relations
 Italy 1992-01-17 See Croatia-Italy relations
 Kosovo 2008-06-30 See Croatia–Kosovo relations
 Latvia 1992-02-14
 Liechtenstein 1992-02-04
  • Croatia is represented in Liechtenstein through its embassy in Bern (Switzerland).
  • Liechtenstein is not represented in Croatia.
 Lithuania 1992-03-18
 Luxembourg 1992-04-29
  • Croatia is represented in Luxembourg through it embassy in Brussels (Belgium).[114]
  • Luxembourg is represented in Croatia through it embassy in Berlin (Germany).[115]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Malta 1992-06-30
 Moldova 1992-07-28
 Monaco 2007-12-14
  • Croatia is represented in Monaco through it embassy in Paris (France) and honorary consulate in Monaco.[117]
  • Monaco is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and honorary consulate in Zagreb.[118]
 Montenegro 2006-07-07

See Croatia–Montenegro relations

 Netherlands 1992-04-23
 North Macedonia 1992-03-30
  • Croatia has an embassy in Skopje, and the general consulate in Bitola.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 consulates in Zadar and Rijeka.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and North Macedonia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union and NATO while North Macedonia is among candidates for membership.
 Norway 1992-02-20

See Croatia–Norway relations

 Poland 1992-04-11
 Portugal 1992-02-03
 Romania 1992-08-29
 Russia 1992-05-25 See Croatia–Russia relations
 San Marino 1993-02-11
  • Croatia is represented in San Marino through its embassy in Rome (Italy).[130]
  • San Marino is represented in Croatia through its General embassy in San Marino.[131]
  • According to legend San Marino was founded in year 301 by sculptor Saint Marinus from the Croatian island of Rab.
 Serbia 1996-09-09
then as FR Yugoslavia and including Montenegro
See Croatia–Serbia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Belgrade and a general consulate in Subotica.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 general consulates in Rijeka and Vukovar.
  • Both countries shares 241 km of common border.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Serbia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union while Serbia is candidate for membership.
 Slovakia 1993-01-01
 Slovenia 6 February 1992 See Croatia–Slovenia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and 2 honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split.
  • Both countries shares 670 km of common border.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Slovenia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1992-12-22
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an embassy in Zagreb.
 Spain 9 March 1992 See Croatia–Spain relations
 Sweden 29 January 1992
  Switzerland 1992-01-30
 Ukraine 1992-02-18
 United Kingdom 1992-06-24

See Croatia–United Kingdom relations

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1992-02-13
 Fiji 14 June 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 July 1997.[143][23]

 Nauru 14 December 2000
  • Croatia is represented in Nauru through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).[144]
  • Nauru is not represented in Croatia.
 New Zealand 1992-02-25
 Samoa 8 March 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Samoa through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  • Samoa is not represented in Croatia.
 Vanuatu 18 April 2000
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 2000.[147][23]


No diplomatic relations[edit]

Croatia hasn't established diplomatic relations with these 13 UN member and observer states:

Country
 Burundi
 Bhutan
 Central African Republic
 Djibouti
 Liberia
 Marshall Islands
 Niger
 State of Palestine

(Not recognized by Croatia. Note that Palestine was granted "non-member observer state" status in 2012.)

 Rwanda
 Somalia
 South Sudan
 Swaziland
 Tonga
 Tuvalu

Croatia hasn't established diplomatic relations with these 8 states with limited recognition. The Republic of Croatia recognizes none of the following states:

Country
 Republic of Abkhazia
 Republic of China
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
 Republic of South Ossetia
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
 Transnistria
 Somaliland

According to the former Croatian diplomat Budimir Lončar, Croatia hasn't established diplomatic relations with 13 UN member states because those states are not present in international relations, nor are that much politically active so Croatia wasn't interested in initiating any diplomatic relations. Former Yugoslavian diplomat, sociologist Ivica Maštruko discarded any political reasons, stating that those 13 countries are not internationally active and do not have diplomatic representatives in many international organizations and larger countries, nor they have elaborate diplomatic apparatus so Croatia shows no interest in developing diplomatic relations with them. Nevertheless, Croatia is the process of establishing diplomatic relations with Burundi and Djibouti thanks to the local Catholic missionaries who have been working in these two countries for many years.[148]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]