Foreign relations of Croatia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of arms
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Croatia
Constitution
Foreign relations

The Republic of Croatia is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean that declared its independence from SFR Yugoslavia on June 25, 1991. Croatia is a member of the European Union (EU), United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), Union for the Mediterranean as well as a number of many other international organizations. As of 2015, Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 174 countries.

The main objectives of Croatian foreign policy during the 1990s were gaining international recognition and joining the United Nations. After these objectives have been achieved by year 2000, two main goals became NATO and EU membership. Croatia fulfilled both of these goals, first in 2009, second in 2013. Current Croatian goals in foreign policy are: positioning within the EU institutions and in the region, cooperation with NATO partners and strengthening multilateral and bilateral cooperation.[1]

History[edit]

Foreign relation of Croatia
  diplomatic relations established
  diplomatic recognition only

Croatian foreign policy has focused on greater Euro-Atlantic integration, mainly entering the European Union and NATO. In order to gain access to European and trans-Atlantic institutions, it has had to undo many negative effects of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the war that ensued, and improve and maintain good relations with its neighbors.

Key issues over the last decade have been the implementation of the Dayton Accords and the Erdut Agreement, nondiscriminatory facilitation of the return of refugees and displaced persons from the 1991-95 war including property restitution for ethnic Serbs, resolution of border disputes with Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, and general democratization.

Croatia has had an uneven record in these areas between 1996 and 1999 during the right-wing HDZ government, inhibiting its relations with the European Union and the United States. Improvement in these areas severely hindered the advance of Croatia's prospects for further Euro-Atlantic integration. Progress in the areas of Dayton, Erdut, and refugee returns were evident in 1998, but progress was slow and required intensive international engagement.

Croatia's unsatisfactory performance implementing broader democratic reforms in 1998 raised questions about the ruling party's commitment to basic democratic principles and norms. Areas of concern included restrictions on freedom of speech, one-party control of public TV and radio, repression of independent media, unfair electoral regulations, a judiciary that is not fully independent, and lack of human and civil rights protection.

A centre-left coalition government was elected in early 2000. The SDP-led government slowly relinquished control over public media companies and did not interfere with freedom of speech and independent media, though it didn't complete the process of making Croatian Radiotelevision independent. Judiciary reforms remained a pending issue as well.

Major Croatian advances in foreign relations during this period have included:

The EU application was the last major international undertaking of the Račan government, which submitted a 7,000-page report in reply to the questionnaire by the European Commission.

Foreign relations were severely affected by the government's hesitance and stalling of the extradition of Croatian general Janko Bobetko to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and inability to take general Ante Gotovina into custody for questioning by the Court.

Refugee returns accelerated since 1999, reached a peak in 2000, but then slightly decreased in 2001 and 2002. The OSCE mission in Croatia has continued to monitor the return of refugees and is still recording civil rights violations. Croatian Serbs continue to have problems with restitution of property and acceptance to the reconstruction assistance programmes. Combined with lacking economic opportunities in the rural areas of former Krajina, the return process is highly troubled.

Accession to the European Union[edit]

At the time of Croatia's application to the European Union, three EU members states were yet to ratify the Stabilization and Association Agreement: United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Italy. The new Sanader government elected in 2003 elections repeated the assurances that Croatia will fulfill the missing political obligations, and expedited the extradition of several ICTY inductees. The European Commission replied to the answers of the questionnaire sent to Croatia on April 20, 2004 with a positive opinion. The country was finally accepted as EU candidate in July 2004. Italy and United Kingdom ratified the Stabilization and Association Agreement shortly thereafter, while the ten EU member states that were admitted to membership that year ratified it all together at a 2004 European Summit. In December 2004, the EU leaders announced that accession negotiations with Croatia would start on March 17, 2005 provided that Croatian government cooperates fully with the ICTY. The main issue, the flight of general Gotovina, however, remained unsolved and despite the agreement on an accession negotiation framework, the negotiations did not begin in March 2005. On October 4, 2005 Croatia finally received green light for accession negotiations after the Chief Prosecutor of the ICTY Carla Del Ponte officially stated that Croatia is fully cooperating with the Tribunal. This has been the main condition demanded by EU foreign ministers for accession negotiations. The ICTY called upon other southern European states to follow Croatia's good example. Thanks to the consistent position of Austria during the meeting of EU foreign ministers, a long period of instability and the questioning of the determination of the Croatian government to extradite alleged war criminals has ended successfully. Croatian Prime minister Ivo Sanader declared that full cooperation with the Hague Tribunal will continue. The accession process was also complicated by the insistence of Slovenia, an EU member state, that the two countries' border issues be dealt with prior to Croatia's accession to the EU.

Croatia finished accession negotiations on 30 June 2011,[2] and on 9 December 2011, signed the Treaty of Accession. A referendum on EU accession was held in Croatia on 22 January 2012, with 66% of participants voting in favour of joining the Union.[3][4][5][6] The ratification process was concluded on 21 June 2013, and entry into force and accession of Croatia to the EU took place on 1 July 2013.[7]

Current events[edit]

The main objective of the Croatian foreign policy is positioning within the EU institutions and in the region, cooperation with NATO partners and strengthening multilateral and bilateral cooperation.

Government officials in charge of foreign policy include the Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, currently Vesna Pusić, and the President of the Republic, currently Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović.

Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 174 countries.[8] As of 2009, Croatia maintains a network of 51 embassies, 24 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic of Croatia in addition to offices of international organizations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, World Health Organization, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF.[9]

International organizations[edit]

Republic of Croatia participates in the following international organizations: CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU, FAO, G11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (observer), NATO, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMOGIP, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

There exists a Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations.

Foreign support[edit]

Croatia receives support from donor programs of:

Between 1991 and 2003, the EBRD had directly invested a total of 1,212,039,000 EUR into projects in Croatia.

In 1998, U.S. support to Croatia came through the Southeastern European Economic Development Program (SEED), whose funding in Croatia totaled $23.25 million. More than half of that money was used to fund programs encouraging sustainable returns of refugees and displaced persons. About one-third of the assistance was used for democratization efforts, and another 5% funded financial sector restructuring.

In 2003 USAID considered Croatia to be on a "glide path for graduation" along with Bulgaria. Its 2002/2003/2004 funding includes around $10 million for economic development, up to $5 million for the development of democratic institutions, about $5 million for the return of population affected by war and between 2 and 3 million dollars for the "mitigation of adverse social conditions and trends". A rising amount of funding is given to cross-cutting programs in anti-corruption, slightly under one million dollars.

The European Commission has proposed to assist Croatia's efforts to join the European Union with 245 million euros from PHARE, ISPA and SAPARD aid programs over the course of 2005 and 2006.

International disputes[edit]

Relations with neighbouring states have normalized somewhat since the breakup of Yugoslavia. Work has begun — bilaterally and within the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe since 1999 — on political and economic cooperation in the region.

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Consulate-General in Banja Luka

Discussions continue between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina on various sections of the border, the longest border with another country for each of these countries.

Sections of the Una river and villages at the base of Mount Plješevica are in Croatia, while some are in Bosnia, which causes an excessive number of border crossings on a single route and impedes any serious development in the region. The Zagreb-Bihać-Split railway line is still closed for major traffic due to this issue.

The border on the Una river between Hrvatska Kostajnica on the northern, Croatian side of the river, and Bosanska Kostajnica on the southern, Bosnian side, is also being discussed. A river island between the two towns is under Croatian control, but is also claimed by Bosnia. A shared border crossing point has been built and has been functioning since 2003, and is used without hindrance by either party.

The Herzegovinian municipality of Neum in the south makes the southernmost part of Croatia an exclave and the two countries are negotiating special transit rules through Neum to compensate for that. Recently Croatia has opted to build a bridge to the Pelješac peninsula to connect the Croatian mainland with the exclave but Bosnia and Herzegovina has protested that the bridge will close its access to international waters (although Croatian territory and territorial waters surround Bosnian-Herzegovinian territory and waters completely) and has suggested that the bridge must be higher than 55 meters for free passage of all types of ships. Negotiations are still being held.

Italy[edit]

The relations between Croatia and Italy have been largely cordial and friendly, although occasional incidents do arise on issues such as the Istrian exodus or the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone.

Montenegro[edit]

Croatia and Montenegro have a largely latent border dispute over the Prevlaka peninsula.

Serbia[edit]

The Danube border between Croatia and Serbia is in dispute, particularly in Baranja, the Island of Vukovar and the Island of Šarengrad.

Slovenia[edit]

Croatia and Slovenia have several land and maritime boundary disputes, mainly in the Gulf of Piran, regarding Slovenian access to international waters, a small number of pockets of land on the right-hand side of the river Dragonja, and around the Sveta Gera peak.

Slovenia was disputing Croatia's claim to establish the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone, an economic section of the Adriatic.

Other issues that have yet to be fully resolved include:

Diplomatic relations[edit]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1992-08-25 See Albanian–Croatian relations
 Andorra 1995-04-28
  • Croatia is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Madrid (Spain).
  • Andorra is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).
 Armenia 1994-07-08 See Armenia–Croatia relations
 Austria 1992-01-15 See Austria–Croatia relations
 Azerbaijan 1995-01-26 See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
 Belarus 1992-09-25
 Belgium 1992-03-10
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-07-21 See Bosnia and Herzegovina – Croatia relations
 Bulgaria 1992-08-13 See Bulgaria–Croatia relations
 Cyprus 1993-02-04
 Czech Republic 1993-01-01
 Denmark 1992-02-01 See Croatia–Denmark relations
 Estonia 1992-03-02
  • Croatia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 1992-02-19
 France 1992-04-24
 Georgia 1993-02-01
  • Croatia is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and consulate in Tbilisi.[20]
  • Georgia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).[21]
 Germany 1992-01-15

See Croatian–German relations

 Greece 1992-07-20
 Holy See 1992-02-08
 Hungary 1992-01-18 See Croatia–Hungary relations
 Iceland 1992-06-30
  • Croatia is represented in Iceland thought it embassy in Copenhagen (Denmark) and consulate in Reykjavik.[27]
  • Iceland is represented in Croatia thought it embassy in Berlin (Germany) and consulate in Zagreb.[27]
  • Iceland is the first fully sovereign country that recognized Croatia. (December 19, 1991)
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland 1995-01-27
 Italy 1992-01-17 See Croatia-Italy relations
 Kosovo 2008-06-30 See Croatia–Kosovo relations
 Latvia 1992-02-14
 Liechtenstein 1992-02-04
  • Croatia is represented in Liechtenstein through its embassy in Bern (Switzerland).
  • Liechtenstein isn't represented in Croatia.
 Lithuania 1992-03-18
 Luxembourg 1992-04-29
  • Croatia is represented in Luxembourg through it embassy in Brussels (Belgium).[36]
  • Luxembourg is represented in Croatia through it embassy in Berlin (Germany).[37]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Macedonia 1992-03-30
  • Croatia has an embassy in Skopje, and the general consulate in Bitola.
  • Macedonia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 consulates in Zadar and Rijeka.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Macedonia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union while Macedonia is among 5 official candidates.
 Malta 1992-06-30
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1992-12-22
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an embassy in Zagreb.
 Moldova 1992-07-28
 Montenegro 2006-07-07
 Netherlands 1992-04-23
 Norway 1992-02-20
 Poland 1992-04-11
 Portugal 1992-02-03
 Romania 1992-08-29
 Russia 1992-05-25 See Croatia–Russia relations
 San Marino 1993-02-11
  • Croatia is represented in San Marino through its embassy in Rome (Italy).[50]
  • San Marino is represented in Croatia through its General embassy in San Marino.[51]
  • According to legend San Marino was founded in year 301 by Croatian sculptor Saint Marinus from the island of Rab.
 Slovakia 1993-01-01
 Slovenia 1992-02-06 See Croatia–Slovenia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and 2 honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split.
  • Both countries shares 670 km of common border.
  • Croatia and Slovenia were part of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1991.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Serbia 1996-09-09
then as FR Yugoslavia and including Montenegro
See Croatia–Serbia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Belgrade and a general consulate in Subotica.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 general consulates in Rijeka and Vukovar.
  • Both countries shares 241 km of common border.
  • Croatia and Serbia were part of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1991.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union while Serbia is among 5 candidates for membership.
 Spain 1992-03-09 See Croatia–Spain relations
 Sweden 1992-01-29
  Switzerland 1992-01-30
 Turkey 1992-08-26
 Ukraine 1992-02-18
 United Kingdom 1992-06-24

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1992-10-15
 Angola 1994-11-16
  • Croatia is represented in Angola through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).[62]
  • Angola is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).[63]
 Benin 2001-03-26
  • Croatia is represented in Benin through its embassy in Paris (France).[64]
  • Benin is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[65]
 Burkina Faso 1995-05-18
  • Croatia is represented in Burkina Faso through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Burkina Faso is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[66]
 Cape Verde 1994-08-13
  • Croatia is represented in Cape Verde through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Cape Verde isn't represented in Croatia.
 Chad 1999-09-17
  • Croatia is represented in Chad through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Chad isn't represented in Croatia.
 Comoros 1999-06-29
  • Croatia is represented in Comoros through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Comoros isn't represented in Croatia.
 Côte d'Ivoire 1995-10-17
 Egypt 1992-10-01 See Croatia–Egypt relations
 Eritrea 1999-06-04
  • Croatia is represented in Eritrea through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Eritrea isn't represented in Croatia.
 Ethiopia 1995-10-17
  • Croatia is represented in Ethiopia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Ethiopia isn't represented in Croatia.
 Gabon 2001-10-22
  • Croatia is represented in Gabon through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Gabon isn't represented in Croatia.
 Gambia 1998-10-16
  • Croatia is represented in Gambia through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Gambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in London (UK).
 Ghana 1993-02-17
  • Croatia is represented in Ghana through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Ghana is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Guinea-Bissau 1995-10-19
  • Croatia is represented in Guinea-Bissau through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Guinea-Bissau isn't represented in Croatia.
 Lesotho 1998-11-06
  • Croatia is represented in Lesotho through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Lesotho is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Libya 2000-03-30 See Croatia–Libya relations
 Maldives 1997-04-08
  • Croatia is represented in Maldives through its embassy in New Delhi (India).
  • Maldives isn't represented in Croatia.
 Mali 1995-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Mali through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mali is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Mauritania 2004-11-11
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritania through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mauritania isn't represented in Croatia.
 Mauritius 1997-09-03
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritius through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mauritius isn't represented in Croatia.
 Morocco 1992-06-26
 Mozambique 1996-08-23
  • Croatia is represented in Mozambique through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mozambique isn't represented in Croatia.
 Nigeria 1993-01-07
  • Croatia is represented in Nigeria through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Nigeria is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1993-05-23
  • Croatia is represented in São Tomé and Príncipe through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • São Tomé and Príncipe isn't represented in Croatia.
 Senegal 1997-10-01
  • Croatia is represented in Senegal through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Senegal isn't represented in Croatia.
 Seychelles 1997-09-30
  • Croatia is represented in Seychelles through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Seychelles aren't represented in Croatia.
 South Africa 1992-11-19
 Sudan 1992-07-17
  • Croatia is represented in Sudan through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Sudan is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Tonga 1993-12-20
  • Croatia is represented in Tonga through its embassy in Canberra (New Zealand).
  • Tonga isn't represented in Croatia.
 Tanzania 1993-07-02
 Togo 1993-12-20
  • Croatia is represented in Tongo through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Tongo isn't represented in Croatia.
 Tunisia 1993-01-30
 Uganda 1999-03-10
  • Croatia is represented in Uganda through its embassy in Pretoria (New Zealand).
  • Uganda isn't represented in Croatia.
 Zambia 1995-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Zambia through its embassy in Pretoria (New Zealand).
  • Zambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).

Asia[edit]

Middle East[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bahrain 1993-01-18
  • Croatia is represented in Bahrain through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Bahrain isn't represented in Croatia.
 Iran 1992-04-18 See Croatia–Iran relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy and a cultural centre in Zagreb.
  • Croatia and Iran signed 24 agreements of cooperation.
 Iraq 2005-01-05
  • Croatia is represented in Iraq through its embassy in Baghdad.[70]
  • Iraq is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna.[71]
 Israel 1997-09-04 See Croatia–Israel relations
 Jordan 1994-06-29
 Kuwait 1994-08-10
  • Croatia is represented in Kuwait through its embassy in Doha (Qatar).[73]
  • Kuwait is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic) and consulate in Zagreb.[74]
 Lebanon 1994-12-05
 Qatar 1992-12-05 See Croatia–Saudi Arabia relations
 Saudi Arabia 1995-06-08
  • Croatia is represented in Saudi Arabia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Saudi Arabia isn't represented in Croatia but citizens that need any assistance are advised to contact the Saudi Arabia embassy in Sarajevo (BiH).
 Syria 1997-08-29 See Croatia–Syria relations
 United Arab Emirates 1992-06-23
  • Croatia is represented in United Arab Emirates through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).[82]
  • United Arab Emirates are represented in Croatia through its embassy in Berlin (Germany).[83]
 Yemen 1993-01-17
  • Croatia is represented in Yemen through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Yemen is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.

Central Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1996-01-03
 Kazakhstan 1992-10-20
 Kyrgyzstan 1996-12-23
  • Croatia is represented in Kyrgyzstan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Turkmenistan 1996-07-02
 Uzbekistan 1995-02-06
  • Croatia is represented in Uzbekistan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).

South Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 India 1992-07-09
   Nepal 1998-02-06
  • Croatia is represented in Nepal through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Kathmandu.
  • Nepal is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[88]
 Pakistan 1994-07-20
 Sri Lanka 1997-02-14
  • Croatia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Colombo.[90]
  • Sri Lanka is represented in Sri Lanka through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[91]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Burma 1999-09-03
 Cambodia 1996-09-10
  • Croatia is represented in Cambodia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Cambodia isn't represented in Croatia.
 Indonesia 1992-09-03
 Laos 1996-03-04
 Malaysia 1992-05-04
  • Croatia is represented in Malaysia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Malaysia has embassy in Zagreb.
 Philippines 1993-02-25
 Singapore 1992-11-23
 Thailand 1992-09-09
 Timor-Leste 2003-02-05
 Viet Nam 1994-07-01

East Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 China (People's Republic) 1992-05-13
 Japan 1993-03-05
 Mongolia 1993-03-10
 North Korea 1992-11-30
  • Croatia is represented in North Korea through its embassy in Beijing (China).[103]
  • North Korea is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).[104]
 South Korea 1992-11-18

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1992-02-13
 Nauru 2000-12-14
  • Croatia is represented in Nauru through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).[109]
  • Nauru isn't represented in Croatia.
 New Zealand 1992-02-25
 Samoa 1994-03-08
  • Croatia is represented in Samoa through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  • Samoa isn't represented in Croatia.

Americas[edit]

Caribbean[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1999-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[112]
  • Antigua and Barbuda is represented in Croatia through its through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
 Cuba 1992-09-23
 Grenada 2000-05-19
  • Croatia is represented in Grenada through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Jamaica 1996-10-09
  • Croatia is represented in Jamaica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[113]
 Saint Lucia 1997-12-10
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Lucia through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1994-10-07
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).

Latin America[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1992-04-13 See Argentine–Croatian relations
 Bolivia 1992-11-26
 Brazil 1992-12-23
 Chile 1992-04-15 See Chile–Croatia relations
 Colombia 1995-04-25
  • Colombia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Croatia is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Croatia is defined as an ally by Colombia on the war on drugs and as an example to follow after a post-conflict situation[116]
 Costa Rica 1995-10-19
  • Croatia is represented in Costa Rica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Costa Rica is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
 Ecuador 1996-02-22
  • Croatia is represented in Ecuador through its embassy in Santiago (Chile).
  • Ecuador is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
 El Salvador 1997-07-24
  • Croatia is represented in El Salvador through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • El Salvador isn't represented in Croatia.
 Guatemala 1992-12-22
  • Croatia is represented in Guatemala through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Guatemala isn't represented in Croatia.
 Honduras 1999-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Grenada through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Honduras isn't represented in Croatia.
 Mexico 1992-12-06
 Nicaragua 1996-03-29
  • Croatia is represented in Nicaragua through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Nicaragua isn't represented in Croatia.
 Panama 1996-06-12
  • Croatia is represented in Panama through its embassy in Washington D.C. (US).
  • Panama is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Piraeus (Greece).[119]
 Paraguay 1992-03-13
  • Croatia is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina).
  • Paraguay isn't represented in Croatia.
 Peru 1993-01-12
  • Croatia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Santiago (Chile) and consulate in Lima.
  • Peru is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and consulate in Zagreb.
  • There are around 6,500 people of Croatian descent living in Peru.
 Suriname 1997-12-17
  • Croatia is represented in Suriname through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).[120]
  • Suriname isn't represented in Croatia.
 Uruguay 1993 -05-04 See Croats in Uruguay
  • Croatia is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and consulate in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay isn't represented in Croatia.
  • According to UN estimates there are some 3,300 people of Croat descent living in Uruguay. Other estimates place the figure at around 5,000.
 Venezuela 1992-10-09
  • Croatia is represented in Venezuela through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Venezuela is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).

North America[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada 1993-04-14
 United States of America 1992-08-11 See Croatia–United States relations

No diplomatic relations[edit]

Croatia hasn't established diplomatic relations with these 21 UN member states:

Country
 Bahamas
 Dominica
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Bhutan
 Cook Islands
 Kiribati
 Marshall Islands
 Niue
 Palau
 Solomon Islands
 Tonga
 Tuvalu
 Burundi
 Central African Republic
 Djibouti
 Liberia
 Niger
 Rwanda
 Somalia
 South Sudan
 Swaziland

Croatia hasn't established diplomatic relations with these 9 States with limited recognition (except Kosovo):

Country
 Republic of Abkhazia
 Republic of China
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
 State of Palestine
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
 Republic of South Ossetia
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
 Transnistria
 Somaliland

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/vanjska-politika
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference eu was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Croats say 'yes' to EU membership | Europe | DW.DE | 22.01.2012". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Independent Newspapers Online (23 December 2011). "Croatia sets date for EU referendum". Iol.co.za. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  5. ^ "Croatian parliament calls EU referendum for January 22". Focus-fen.net. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  6. ^ "Parl't decides that EU referendum will be held on 22 January". Daily.tportal.hr. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  7. ^ "EU Summit: Accession Treaty with Croatia to be signed in 2011". eu2011.hu. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  8. ^ Drago Pilsel (May 5, 2011). "S kojim državama nemamo diplomatske odnose?" [Which countries do we have no diplomatic relations with?] (in Croatian). t-portal. Retrieved September 24, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices to Croatia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved September 24, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Foreign Ministries of Belarus and Croatia To Hold Political Consultations". Belarus. Retrieved 2009-11-26. The diplomatic relations between Belarus and Croatia were established on September 25, 1992. There is no Belarusian Embassy to Croatia and there is no Embassy of Croatia to Belarus. The states maintain their bilateral relations through their embassies to Russia. 
  11. ^ "Belarus Signs Intergovernmental Agreement on Cooperation to Integrate Druzhba and Adria Oil Pipelines". Belarus. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  12. ^ "Belgian embassy in Zagreb". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  13. ^ "Croatian embassy in Brussels". Be.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  14. ^ a b "Croatia, Zagreb, Embassy of the Republic of Bulgaria". mfa.bg. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  15. ^ "Croatian embassy in Prague (in Croatian and Polish only)". Cz.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  16. ^ "Czech embassy in Zagreb". Mzv.cz. 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  17. ^ "Finnish embassy in Zagreb". Finland.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  18. ^ Drazen Karaman dkaraman@free.fr; Zvonimir Frka-Petesic zfrka@amb-croatie.fr. "Croatian embassy in Paris(in Croat and French only)". Amb-croatie.fr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  19. ^ "French embassy in Zagreb (in Croat and French only)". Ambafrance-hr.org. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  20. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/gruzija-atena,313.html#p
  21. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/gruzija-budimpesta,411.html#p
  22. ^ "Greek embassy in Zagreb". Grembassy.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  23. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/grcka-atena,32.html#p
  24. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/sveta-stolica-vatikan,79.html#p
  25. ^ "Croatian embassy in Budapest (in Croatian and Hungarian only)". Hu.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  26. ^ "Hungarian embassy in Zagreb". Mfa.gov.hu. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  27. ^ a b http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/island-berlin,44.html#p
  28. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/irska-dublin,36.html#p
  29. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/irska-zagreb,42.html#p
  30. ^ "Croatian embassy in Rome (in Croatian and Italian only)". It.mvp.hr. 1944-07-22. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  31. ^ "Italian embassy in Zagreb". Ambzagabria.esteri.it. 2006-10-10. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  32. ^ "Croatia establishes embassy to Kosovo, seated in Pristina". Mvpei.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  33. ^ "Kosovar Embassy in Zagreb, Croatia". Embassy Pages. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  34. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/litva-vilnius,304.html#p
  35. ^ "MVPEI". Mvpei.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  36. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/luksemburg-bruxelles,305.html#p
  37. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/luksemburg-berlin,2508.html#p
  38. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/malta-split,443.html
  39. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/crna-gora-dubrovnik,2527.html#p
  40. ^ "Ponovno otkrivena Duklja!". Glas-slavonije.hr. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  41. ^ "Croatian embassy in The Hague". Nl.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  42. ^ "Dutch embassy in Zagreb". Mfa.nl. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  43. ^ "Norwegian embassy in Zagreb". Norwegianembassy.hr. 2009-11-08. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  44. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/norveska-rijeka,166.html#p
  45. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/poljska-warszawa,88.html#p
  46. ^ a b http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/poljska-zagreb,182.html#p
  47. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/rumunjska-zagreb,186.html#p
  48. ^ (Russian) (Croatian) Embassy of Croatia in Moscow
  49. ^ (Russian) (Croatian) Embassy of The Russian Federation in Zagreb
  50. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/san-marino-rim,258.html#p
  51. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/san-marino-,366.html#p
  52. ^ "Croatian embassy in Bratislava (in Croatian and Slovakian only)". Sk.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  53. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/slovacka-zagreb,417.html#p
  54. ^ "Swedish embassy in Zagreb". Swedenabroad.com. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  55. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/svicarska-zagreb,217.html#p
  56. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/ukrajina-zagreb,223.html#p
  57. ^ "Ukrainian embassy in Zagreb (in Croatian and Ukrainian only)". Mfa.gov.ua. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  58. ^ "British embassy in Zagreb". Ukincroatia.fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  59. ^ "Croatian embassy in London". Uk.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  60. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/alzir-alzir,206.html#p
  61. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/alzir-zagreb,2.html#p
  62. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/angola-lisabon,207.html#p
  63. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/angola-bec,264.html#p
  64. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/benin-pariz,228.html#p
  65. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/benin-gen%C3%A9ve,265.html#p
  66. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/burkina-faso-bec,18.html#p
  67. ^ "Croatian embassy in Pretoria". Za.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  68. ^ "Hrvatsko iseljeništvo u Južnoafričkoj Republici". mvep.hr (in Croatian). Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Republic of Croatia. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  69. ^ "Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties signed with South Africa". Mvpei.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  70. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/irak-bagdad,544.html#p
  71. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/konzularne-informacije/vize/pregled-viznog-sustava0/irak,331.html#p
  72. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/jordan-rim,71.html#p
  73. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/kuvajt-doha,296.html#p>
  74. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/kuvajt-prag,98.html#p
  75. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/libanon-bejrut,76.html#p
  76. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/konzularne-informacije/vize/pregled-viznog-sustava0/libanon,151.html#p
  77. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/katar-doha,290.html#p
  78. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/katar-zagreb,77.html#p
  79. ^ "Syrian embassy in Budapest (also accredited to Croatia)". Syrianembassy.hu. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  80. ^ http://www.vecernji.hr/hrvatska/rh-priznala-sirijsku-oporbu-kao-legitimnog-predstavnika-naroda-499500
  81. ^ http://www.index.hr/vijesti/clanak/hrvatska-priznala-sirijsku-oporbu-kao-jedinu-legitimnu-vlast-u-siriji/657850.aspx
  82. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/ujedinjeni-arapski-emirati-kairo,221.html#p
  83. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/ujedinjeni-arapski-emirati-berlin,447.html#p
  84. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/kazahstan-moskva,288.html#p
  85. ^ a b http://www.jutarnji.hr/milanovic-zbog-zastoja-danas-osobno-predaje-brod-berdimuhamedovu/1247525/
  86. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/indija-new-delhi,31.html#p
  87. ^ "Indian embassy in Zagreb". Indianembassy.hr. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  88. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/nepal-gen%C3%A9ve,421.html#p
  89. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/pakistan-teheran,82.html#p
  90. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/sri-lanka-colombo,78.html#p
  91. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/sri-lanka-bec,210.html#p
  92. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/laoska-narodna-demokratska-republika-kuala-lumpur,298.html#p
  93. ^ "Croatian embassy in Jakarta (also accredited to Thailand)". Croatemb.or.id. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  94. ^ "Thai embassy in Budapest (also accredited to Croatia)". Thaiembassy.org. 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  95. ^ "Croatian embassy in Beijing". Cn.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  96. ^ "Chinese embassy in Zagreb". Hr.china-embassy.org. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  97. ^ "Japanese embassy in Zagreb". Hr.emb-japan.go.jp. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  98. ^ "Japan-Croatia Relations". Mofa.go.jp. 1993-03-05. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  99. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/mongolija-bec,441.html#p
  100. ^ Stephen Turnbull (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190-1400. Osprey Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 1-84176-523-6. The Mongol way now led via Lake Balaton to a crossing of the Drava river into Croatia. The Mongols soon captured Zagreb, and before very long they were in ... 
  101. ^ Marcus Tanner (2001). Croatia: a nation forged in war. Yale University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-300-09125-7. 
  102. ^ Vjekoslav Klaić (1982). Povijest Hrvata [History of the Croats]. Knjiga prva: Prvo doba: Vladanje knezova i kraljeva hrvatske krvi (641 - 1102) (in Croatian) (Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske). 
  103. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/demokratska-narodna-republika-koreja-peking,321.html#p
  104. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/demokratska-narodna-republika-koreja-bukurest,96.html#p
  105. ^ http://hrv.mofa.go.kr/worldlanguage/europe/hrv/main/index.jsp
  106. ^ a b http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070818/1_24624.jsp?menu=m_30_40
  107. ^ "Australian embassy in Zagreb". Croatia.embassy.gov.au. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  108. ^ http://www.hrvatiizvanrh.hr/hr/hmiu/hrvatsko-iseljenisto-u-australiji/17
  109. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/nauru-canberra,217.html#p
  110. ^ "New Zealand embassy in Rome (also accredited to Croatia)". Nzembassy.com. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  111. ^ http://www.hrvatiizvanrh.hr/hr/hmiu/hrvatsko-iseljenistvo-u-novom-zelandu/31
  112. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/antigva-i-barbuda-new-york,208.html#p
  113. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/jamajka-new-york,301.html#p
  114. ^ Croatian embassy in Buenos Aires
  115. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/brazil-brasilia,16.html#p
  116. ^ "República de Croacia". Cancillería. Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  117. ^ "MVEP • Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices of Croatia • Mexico, Washington DC". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  118. ^ Administrator. "Honorary Consulates". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  119. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/panama-piraeus,383.html#p
  120. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/surinam-brasilia,253.html#p

External links[edit]