Foreign relations of Hungary
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungary's foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. During the Communist period, Hungary maintained treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria. It was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first central European country to withdraw from those organizations, now defunct.
After 1989, Hungary oriented more towards the West, joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The policies of the Fidesz government since 2010 evoked criticism from the EU partners, the Council of Europe and Human Rights Watch because of a press and media law considered by some as anti-democratic and a new constitution that was feared to undermine the rule of law and human rights protection.
As with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. For Hungary, this is a history of more than 400 years of domination by great powers—the Ottomans, the Habsburg dynasty, the Germans during World War II, and the Soviets during the Cold War—and a geography of regional instability and separation from Hungarian minorities living in neighboring countries. Hungary's foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a direct response to these factors. Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungary's most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997. Hungary became a member of NATO in 1999, and a member of the EU in 2004.
Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern Europe. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955.
- The Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams project
This involves Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and .was agreed on September 16, 1977 ("Budapest Treaty"). The treaty envisioned a cross-border barrage system between the towns Gabčíkovo, Czechoslovakia and Nagymaros, Hungary. After intensive campaign the project became widely hated as a symbol of the old communist regime. In 1989 Hungarian government decided to suspend it. In its sentence from September 1997, the International Court of Justice stated that both sides breached their obligation and that the 1977 Budapest Treaty is still valid. In 1998 the Slovak government turned to the International Court, demanding the Nagymaros part to be built. The international dispute is still not solved as of 2008.
Illicit drugs: Major trans-shipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines
Refugee protection: The hungarian border barrier was built in 2015, and Hungary was criticized by other European countries for using tear gas and water cannons on refugees of the Syrian Civil War as they were trying to pass the country.
Hungary and Central Asia
A number of Hungarian anthropologists and linguists have long had an interest in the Turkic peoples, fueled by the eastern origin of the Hungarians' ancestors. The Hungarian ethnomusicologist Bence Szabolcsi explained this motivation as follows: "Hungarians are the outermost branch leaning this way from age-old tree of the great Asian musical culture rooted in the souls of a variety of peoples living from China through Central Asia to the Black Sea".
Relations by region and country
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Austria||See Austria–Hungary relations
Austrian-Hungarian relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union. Both countries have a long common history since the ruling dynasty of Austria, the Habsburgs, inherited the Hungarian throne in the 16th century. Both have been part of the now-defunct Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1921, after their separation.
|Belarus||See Foreign relations of Belarus|
|Belgium||See Foreign relations of Belgium|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1992-04-10||See Bosnia and Herzegovina – Hungary relations|
|Bulgaria||1920||See Bulgaria–Hungary relations|
|Croatia||See Croatia–Hungary relations|
|Cyprus||See Foreign relations of Cyprus|
|Czech Republic||See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic|
|Denmark||See Denmark-Hungary relations|
|Estonia||See Foreign relations of Estonia|
|Finland||See Foreign relations of Finland|
|France||See France–Hungary relations|
|Georgia||See Foreign relations of Georgia|
|Germany||See Germany–Hungary relations|
|Greece||See Foreign relations of Greece|
Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. Until the end of World War I, Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş were part of the Kingdom of Hungary, after the war they became part of the Romanian territory.
|Serbia||1882-11-21||See Hungary–Serbia relations|
|Slovakia||1993||See Hungary–Slovakia relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Iran||1939||See Hungary–Iran relations|
|Iraq||See Hungary–Iraq relations|
|Israel||See Hungary–Israel relations|
|Japan||See Hungary–Japan relations|
|Malaysia||1969||See Hungary–Malaysia relations
|North Korea||See Hungary – North Korea relations
|People's Republic of China||1949-10-04||See People's Republic of China – Hungary relations
|South Korea||1 February 1989||See Hungary – South Korea relations
|Sri Lanka||See Hungary – Sri Lanka relations
Sri Lanka has an embassy in Vienna, Austria that is accredited to Hungary and has a consul in Budapest Hungary maintains a consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Hungary contributed to relief after the 2004 Tsunami, and has since stepped up aid to Sri Lanka.
|Thailand||1973-10-24||See Hungary–Thailand relations|
Rest of world
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Brazil||See Brazil–Hungary relations
Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate general in São Paulo. The Hungarian Embassy in Brasília has consular jurisdiction over most of the Brazilian territory, except for the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul, which fall under the jurisdiction of the Consulate General in São Paulo. Brazil has an embassy in Budapest. The Brazil-Hungary Cultural Agreement was signed in 1992, and ratified on January 12, 1996.
|Canada||See Foreign relations of Canada|
|Mexico||1901||See Hungary–Mexico relations
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1901, during the time of Austria–Hungary. Diplomatic relations were suspended between 1941 and 1974. They were re-established on May 14, 1974.
|United States||1922||See Hungary–United States relations
Normal bilateral relations between Hungary and the U.S. were resumed in December 1945 when a U.S. ambassador was appointed and the embassy was re-opened.
In December 2010, the Fidesz government adopted a press and media law which threatens fines on media that engage in "unbalanced coverage". The law aroused criticism in the European Union as possibly "a direct threat to democracy".
In 2013, the government adopted a new constitution that modified several aspects of the institutional and legal framework in Hungary. These changes have been criticized by the Council of Europe, the European Union and Human Rights Watch as possibly undermining the rule of law and human rights protection.
- List of diplomatic missions in Hungary
- List of diplomatic missions of Hungary
- Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens
- Azerbaijan-Hungary relations
- "Croatia and Hungary recognize Kosovo". The Associated Press. International Herald Tribune. 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
- Hungary border crackdown, The Guardian 16 September 2015
- Hungarian police spary tear gas water cannons at migrants, CBS news 16 september 2015
- Róna-Tas, András (1999). Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history. Central European University Press. pp. 409–410. ISBN 963-9116-48-3.
- ipos, János Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Ends of the Steppe
- Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Hungarian honorary consulate in Yerevan
- Hungarian embassy in Sarajevo (in Hungarian only)
- Bulgarian embassy in Budapest
- Hungarian embassy in Sofia (in Bulgarian and Hungarian only)
- Hungarian embassy in Dublin
- Irish embassy in Budapest
- "CSO Emigration" (PDF). Census Office Ireland. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Hungarian embassy in Rome (in Hungarian and Italian only)
- Hungarian general consulate in Milan (in Hungarian and Italian only)
- Italian embassy in Budapest (in Hungarian and Italian only)
- "Hungary recognizes Kosovo’s Independence". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Hungary. 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- "Embassy of the Republic of Hungary in Pristina". Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- Hungarian embassy in Riga (in Hungarian and Latvian only)
- Hungarian embassy in Vilnius (in Hungarian only)
- Dizaino Kryptis. "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija - Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Montenegro office and relation with Hungary
- Dutch embassy in Budapest
- Hungarian embassy in The Hague
- Hungarian embassy in Oslo
- "Norvégia - hivatalos honlapja Magyarországon". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Lisbon
- "Jay E. Peterson". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Ljubljana (in Hungarian and Slovenian only)
- "Embassy of the RS Budapest". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Madrid (in Hungarian and Spanish only)
- Hungarian general consulate in Barcelona (in Hungarian, Catalan and Spanish only)
- "เล่นคาสิโนออนไลน์ 24 ชั่วโมงผ่านบาคาร่าไม่มีวันหยุด". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Kan醨i-szigetek Tiszteletbeli Magyar Konzul醫usa - Consulado Honorario de la Rep鷅lica de Hugr韆 de las Islas Canarias". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Spanish embassy in Budapest (in Spanish only)
- "Embassy of Hungary in Turkey". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Bükreş Büyükelçiliği". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Kiev
- Hungarian consulate general in Uzhhorod (in Hungarian and Ukrainian only)
- "Посольство України в Угорщині". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in London
- "UK and Hungary". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Bilateral relations between Hungary and Indonesia
- "Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Tehran
- "New Web Site". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Amman (also accredited to Iraq)
- Hungarian embassy in Tel Aviv
- "Error-2010-f3". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Tokyo
- "在ハンガリー日本国大使館". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Islamabad
- Pakistani embassy in Budapest
- "CEE Needs to Play the Asia Card". Euromoney. May 4, 2011.
- "Embassy and Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka". Sri Lankan Embassy in Vienna. Retrieved 2009-05-03.[dead link]
- "List of honorary consuls in Hungary" (in Hungarian). Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- "Consulate of the Republic of Hungary". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- "Bilateral Relations (Sri Lanka)". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Hungarian embassy in Bangkok
- Thai embassy in Budapest
- Thailand's embassy in Budapest
- "สถานเอกอัครราชทูต ณ กรุงบูดาเปสต์". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Hanoi
- Commonwealth of Australia. "About the Australian Embassy in Hungary". Retrieved 23 December 2008.
- Hungarian consulate general in Sydney
- Embassy of Hungary in Mexico City (in English and Spanish)
- "Bienvenidos a la portada". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Magyar Nagykövetség - Washington DC". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Home - Embassy of the United States Budapest, Hungary". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- ‘The New Press and Media Act in Hungary’ (concerning the December 2010 law), by Kai Ekholm and Tarja Svärd-Ylilehto. ifla.org, 5 October 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Hungary: Constitutional Change Falls Short". hrw.org. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Borhi, László, “In the Power Arena: U.S.-Hungarian Relations, 1942–1989,” The Hungarian Quarterly (Budapest), 51 (Summer 2010), pp 67–81.
- Glant, Tibor, “Ninety Years of United States-Hungarian Relations,” Eger Journal of American Studies, 13 (2012), pp 163–83.
- Hornyak, Arpad. Hungarian-Yugoslav Diplomatic Relations, 1918-1927 (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press; 2013) 426 pages