Foreign relations of Madagascar

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Madagascar has diplomatic relations with many countries, both individual bilateral relations and by virtue of its membership of African and other regional blocs. International aid has been received from the IMF and the World Bank, and a national environmental plan supported by the World Bank and USAID began in 1990.

Regional relations[edit]

Madagascar historically has remained outside the mainstream of African affairs, although it is a member of the Indian Ocean Commission, the Organization of African Unity (now renamed the AU), the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA), and the Non-Aligned Movement. Madagascar was admitted to the Southern African Development Community in 2004.

Bilateral relations[edit]

Active diplomatic relationships are maintained with Europe, especially the UK, France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland, as well as with Russia, Japan, South Korea, India, Indonesia, Egypt and China. Madagascar also maintains good relations with the United States.

International agencies being present in the country allows to react quickly to emergencies such as a food crisis.[1]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 25 June 1993

The two countries established diplomatic relations on June 25, 1993.[2]


Australia's diplomatic representation to Madagascar is from the High Commission in Port Louis, Mauritius. Madagascar is represented by an Honorary Consul-General based in Sydney.[3]

 Canada See Canada–Madagascar relations
Embassy of Madagascar in Ottawa
 China 6 November 1972 See China-Madagascar relations

China and Madagascar established diplomatic relations on November 6, 1972.[6]

 Croatia 27 September 2006

The two countries established diplomatic relations on September 27, 2006.[9][10]


Cyprus is represented in Madagascar through its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa[11] and an honorary consulate in Antananarivo.[12]

 France 26 June 1960 See France–Madagascar relations
Embassy of Madagascar in Paris
  • Greece is represented in Madagascar through its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.[15]
  • Madagascar is represented in Greece through its embassy in Rome, Italy.[15]
 India See India–Madagascar relations

India has had maritime links with Madagascar for several centuries.[16] India opened a Consulate General in Antananarivo in 1954. Upon Madagascar gaining independence in 1960, it was upgraded to an Embassy.[16] There are about 20,000 persons of Indian origin in Madagascar, including approximately 2,500 Indian passport holders.[17]


The two countries have a number of bilateral agreements in force.[20]

 Japan 5 July 1960

The two countries established diplomatic relations on July 5, 1960.[21]

 Mexico 1975
  • Madagascar is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and maintains an honorary consulate in Mexico City.[22]
  • Mexico is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.[23]

The Malagasy authorities continue their diplomatic normalisation with the international community, including Pakistan. Pakistan are exporters of rice, garments, fresh fruits and wheat flour. Madagascar's requested Pakistan’s federal government to help their country in overcoming food crisis as well as provide economic support.

The ministry of foreign affairs said he would also propose Pakistan to sign a new framework of bilateral relationship with Madagascar to promote economic and trade relations.

 Romania 10 September 1968

The two countries established diplomatic relations on September 10, 1968.[24]

 Russia 29 September 1972 See Madagascar–Russia relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Madagascar and the Soviet Union started on September 29, 1972.

During the 2009 Malagasy political crisis, Russia's Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov stated that Russia is "concerned by the increased frequency of attempts on the African continent to resort to non-constitutional methods of solving internal political problems." He went on to say that, in addition to increasing economic and social problems, the use of force is of concern and runs counter to democratic principles, whilst affirming Russia's support of the African Union's position.[25]

 Serbia 1960
  • The two countries have established diplomatic relations in 1960.[28]
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between the two countries.[29]
 South Africa

South Africa and Madagascar share maritime borders with each other.

  • Madagascar has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.[30]
  • South Africa has an embassy in Antananarivo.[31]
 South Korea

Documents bearing on the establishment of relations with the Republic of Korea (ROK) include:

From Madagascar to the ROK

  • 1994 March Minister of Promotion of Industries Razafimahaleo
  • 1994 May Minister of Posts and Communications Andriamanjato
  • 2005 May Minister of Public Administration Ranjivason
  • 2006 November Minister of Foreign Affairs Marcel Ranjeva

From the ROK to Madagascar

  • 1993 March Special Envoy Roh Young-chan
  • 1995 January Delegation of Cabinet Member including Minister of Posts and Communications
  • 1996 September Special Envoy Roh Young-chan
  • 2001 November Special Envoy Shin Hyo-heon
  • 2002 October Special Envoy Kwon In-hyeok.[32]
  • Madagascar is represented in Turkey through its embassy in Rome, Italy.[33]
  • Turkey has opened its embassy in Antananarivo on 21 April 2010.[33]
 United States See Madagascar–United States relations
Embassy of Madagascar in Washington, DC

Relations between the United States and Madagascar date to the middle 19th century. The two countries concluded a commercial convention in 1867 and a treaty of peace, friendship, and commerce in 1881. Traditionally warm relations suffered considerably during the 1970s, when Madagascar expelled the U.S. ambassador, closed a NASA tracking station, allied with the USSR, and nationalized two U.S. oil companies. In 1980, relations at the ambassadorial level were restored.

Throughout the troubled period, commercial and cultural relations remained active. In 1990, Madagascar was designated as a priority aid recipient, and assistance increased from $15 million in 1989 to $40 million in 1993. Recent U.S. assistance has contributed to a population census and family planning programs; conservation of Madagascar's remarkable biodiversity, private sector development, agriculture, democracy and governance initiatives; and media training. Madagascar became the first country with a Millennium Challenge Account compact when it signed an agreement worth $110 million in April 2006. The Ravalomanana government is especially positive about ties with the United States.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website (Background Notes).[36][37]

 Vietnam 19 December 1972

The two countries established diplomatic relations on December 19, 1972.[38][39]

International Aid[edit]

The World Bank had a $600 million commitment to Madagascar through 21 active International Development Association projects.

On June 23, 2000 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a $41 million disbursement of its new three-year $141 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility. This money is intended to secure Malagasy credit, and to cover additional financing gaps caused by recent natural disasters.

In 2003, the World Bank released more than $100 million in poverty reduction aid in response to Madagascar's efforts to stop corruption. Then, in October 2004, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank said they would write off $2 billion in debt—almost half Madagascar's total debt.

In March 2005, Madagascar was the first beneficiary of development aid offered by the United States in a plan aimed at rewarding countries determined by Washington to be putting forth market reforms and advocating democracy.

Further debt relief constituted another infusion of favorable developments for Madagascar when on June 11, 2005, at a pre-G8 summit meeting in London, world leaders agreed to write off $40 billion in debt owed by the world's poorest countries. Under the plan, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the African Development Fund would write off 100 percent of the money owed to them by 18 countries

Madagascar and international aid for the environment[edit]

Since the mid-1980s, the donor community, led by the World Bank and the USAID, has recognized that Madagascar is one of the world's most unusual natural wonders. As such, it has invested substantially in Malagasy conservation efforts. At $18 million per annum, the environment program of USAID-Madagascar is the second largest American program in Madagascar, and one of the largest programs of its kind in the world. The World Bank further supported this environmental effort with an additional $180 million. Other bilateral donors including France, Germany and others have funded specific project initiatives in coordination with the World Bank and the USAID.

Eighty percent of the flora and fauna are endemic. The problem recognized by the international community is that this unique and valuable land has proven fragile. The bulk of the rainforests have already been destroyed causing significant erosion and a threat to water sources in arid areas. The international community has recognized this environmental catastrophe in progress and has responded in force by supporting and guiding the Malagasy government in its conservation program. Research has demonstrated that "tavy", a form of slash and burns agriculture, has been the largest contributor to environmental degradation in Madagascar. As a result, the 1990s have seen both a prohibition on tavy in many places and an acceleration in the creation of national parks and protected areas that are off limits to agriculture. The goal has been to establish more than 50 such parks and protected areas in a 15-year period.

While Madagascar's conservation crisis remains severe, its economic situation is also grave. With a population that is more than 80 percent agrarian, limiting resource through the creation of parks and farming restrictions is economically devastating to a significant percentage of the rural population. The need for economic development is thus exacerbated by the rapid growth of environmental policies and institutions.

National Environmental Action Plan[edit]

The USAID and the World Bank worked together with the Malagasy government in the late 1980s to try to find a way to reconcile these two difficult and seemingly mutually-exacerbating problems. The result of these discussions was the creation of the Malagasy Office of the Environment and the signing of a National Environmental Action Plan.

The National Environmental Action Plan is intended to be implemented in three phases. The first phase of Madagascar's Environment Plan (EP1, 1990–1996) was marked by the creation of Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDP). These ICDPs were intended to offer farmers economic alternatives ecologically unsound environmental practices. This phase also focused on establishing an institutional environment. The USAID funded the creation of the ANGAP (National Association for the Management of Protected Areas - the national park service), employing consultants to model an institutional structure based upon a modified version of the South African and American national parks and protected areas systems.

The second phase (1997–2002) focuses on the implementation of a larger "landscape approach" to conservation and development, and the transference of conservation and development project ownership from international non-government organizations to the Malagasy national parks association (ANGAP). The focus of the third phase (2003–2008) is not yet clarified, but will require the completion of the indigenization process and the withdrawal of foreign economic support.

Early evaluations of the donor programs have criticized the integrated conservation and development approach for paying no more than lip service to development. Biological conservation has been prioritized at the cost of local livelihoods. Further, the development initiatives that have been implemented are not well integrated. Most local recipients of development aid do not connect the aid to the agricultural and land restrictions. Local animosity towards these programs is thus commonly high.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ford, Peter; Peterson, Scott; Brown, Ryan Lenora (July 30, 2017). "Can famine be checked as Africa faces its worst crisis since the 1980s?". Christian Science Monitor. 
  2. ^ "Madagascar - Bilateral Relations - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  3. ^ "Madagascar". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  4. ^ Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada. "High Commission of Canada to South Africa". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  5. ^ "Embassy of Madagascar in Canada". Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  6. ^ "Madagascar --". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  7. ^ "Ambassade de la République Populaire de Chine en République de Madagascar". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  8. ^ "誉鼎娱乐-誉鼎娱乐平台". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  9. ^ "MVEP • Date of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  10. ^ "MVEP • Overview of Bilateral Treaties of the Republic of Croatia by Country". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  11. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS - Cyprus Diplomatic Missions Abroad". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  12. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS - Honorary Consular Officers of the Republic of Cyprus". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  13. ^ "La France à Madagascar". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  14. ^ "Accueil". Ambassade Madagascar. 
  15. ^ a b "Greece's Bilateral Relations". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  16. ^ a b "India-Madagascar Relations" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  17. ^ "India - Madagascar Relations" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  18. ^ "Embassy of India, Antananarivo, Madagascar". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-01-07. Retrieved 2017-02-26. 
  21. ^ "Japan-Madagascar Relations (Basic Data)". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  22. ^ "Malagasy Embassy - EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MADAGASCAR IN WASHINGTON D.C". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  23. ^ "Bienvenido". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  24. ^ "Diplomatic Relations of Romania - Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  25. ^ "Transcript of Remarks and Response to Media Questions by Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov at Joint Press Conference Following Talks with Ojo Maduekwe, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria, Moscow, March 17, 2009" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  26. ^ "Посольство Мадагаскара в РФ - Обращение Посла МАДАГАСКАРА в РФ". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  27. ^ "Главная - Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  28. ^ "Madagascar". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  29. ^ "МАDAGASCAR" (DOC). Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  30. ^ "Embassy of Madagascar in Pretoria". 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  31. ^ "Department of International Relations and Cooperation - South Africa". 
  32. ^ Korea, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of. "Countries and Regions > Middle East and Africa > List of the Countries". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  33. ^ a b "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  34. ^ "Malagasy Embassy - EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MADAGASCAR IN WASHINGTON D.C". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  35. ^ "Home - Madagascar - United States Mission". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  36. ^ "Background Note: Madagascar". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  37. ^ "Madagascar". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  38. ^ "General Information about Countries and Regions". Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
  39. ^ "VIETNAM - MADAGASCA RELATIONS". Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

External links[edit]