Foreign relations of Panama

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Panama's foreign relations are conventional in outlook, with Panama being especially aligned with United States since the 1989 US invasion to topple the regime of General Manuel Noriega. The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies.

Diplomatic relations list[edit]

Panama has established diplomatic relations with following countries:[1]

# Country Date
1  United States 13 November 1903
2  France 18 November 1903
3  Russia 21 November 1903
4  Costa Rica 29 December 1903
5  Italy 15 January 1904
6  Venezuela 3 February 1904
7  Cuba 7 April 1904
8  Netherlands 10 April 1904
9   Switzerland 6 May 1904
10  Spain 10 May 1904
11  Portugal 21 May 1904
12  Uruguay 28 October 1904
13  Japan 7 January 1904
14  Honduras 18 September 1907
15  Belgium 15 February 1908
16  Chile 1 March 1908
17  Peru 2 March 1908
18  Brazil 3 March 1908
19  United Kingdom 9 April 1908
20  Ecuador 1908
21  El Salvador 9 March 1909
22  Argentina 5 November 1920
23  Republic of China >  People's Republic of China 2 January 1922 > 12 June 2017
24  Mexico 29 May 1923
 Holy See 21 September 1923
25  Colombia 9 July 1924
26  Guatemala 25 January 1937
27  Dominican Republic 17 March 1937
28  Sweden 3 July 1937
29  Denmark 30 July 1937
30  Norway 31 July 1937
31  Nicaragua 13 December 1938
32  Bolivia 28 August 1942
33  Paraguay 31 October 1942
34  Haiti 11 October 1945
35  Lebanon 30 April 1946
 Sovereign Order of Malta 2 August 1948
36  Turkey 14 April 1950
37  Germany 17 December 1951
38  Serbia 26 March 1953
39  Austria 18 October 1955
40  Greece 17 May 1956
41  Egypt 21 February 1958
42  Canada 11 August 1961
43  India 1 July 1962
44  South Korea 30 September 1962
45  Jamaica 18 August 1966
46  Ethiopia 17 August 1967
47  Pakistan 7 November 1967
48  Cyprus 1 April 1971
49  Romania 5 October 1971
50  Bangladesh 5 June 1972
51  Algeria 9 February 1973
52  Guyana 16 March 1973
53  Bulgaria 29 March 1973
54  Libya 29 March 1973
55  Guinea 29 March 1973
56  Poland 15 August 1973
57  Philippines 28 September 1973
58  Guinea-Bissau 16 October 1973
59  Australia 20 February 1974
60  Grenada 18 November 1974
61  Iran 7 January 1975
62  Bahrain 27 February 1975
63  Hungary 17 August 1975
64  Vietnam 28 August 1975
65  Syria 17 February 1976
66  Finland 19 February 1976
67  Malta 19 February 1976
68  Sri Lanka 8 March 1976
69  Kuwait 23 March 1976
70  Iraq 8 June 1976
71  Israel 18 June 1976
72  Morocco 15 February 1977
73  Albania 20 August 1978
74  Indonesia 27 March 1979
75  Suriname 1 May 1979
76  Equatorial Guinea 13 May 1981
77  Belize 1 December 1981
78  Myanmar 15 July 1982
79  Singapore 6 August 1982
80  Thailand 20 August 1982
81  Barbados 3 March 1983
82    Nepal 15 February 1984
83  Luxembourg 12 November 1985
84  Senegal 27 August 1987
85  Sudan 13 September 1988
86  Angola 16 February 1989
87  Maldives 19 February 1989
88  Ghana 24 February 1989
89  Bahamas 1 May 1991
90  Lithuania 19 November 1992
91  Saint Kitts and Nevis 19 November 1992
92  Czechia 15 February 1993
93  Moldova 15 February 1993
94  Slovakia 15 February 1993
95  United Arab Emirates 9 March 1993
96  New Zealand 22 March 1993
97  Seychelles 21 May 1993
98  Ukraine 21 May 1993
99  Malaysia 24 July 1993
100  Jordan 7 February 1994
101  Oman 25 February 1994
102  Latvia 22 March 1994
103  Trinidad and Tobago 24 May 1994
104  Laos 9 September 1994[2]
105  South Africa 10 January 1995
106  Estonia 13 January 1995
107  Azerbaijan 6 April 1995
108  Slovenia 10 May 1995
109  Saint Lucia 10 July 1995
110  Kazakhstan 28 July 1995
111  Cambodia 15 February 1996
112  Papua New Guinea 5 March 1996
113  Brunei 28 March 1996
114  Croatia 12 July 1996
115  Andorra 16 July 1996
116  Antigua and Barbuda 27 September 1996
117  Armenia 7 August 1998
118  Belarus 22 October 1998
119  Georgia 18 November 1998
120  Iceland 4 June 1999
121  Nigeria 12 February 2001
122  Ireland 14 February 2001
123  Qatar 8 February 2002
124  Republic of Macedonia 18 April 2002
125  Afghanistan 3 May 2002
126  San Marino 22 January 2004
127  Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 March 2004
128  Benin 20 September 2005
129  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17 July 2006
130  Tunisia 15 June 2007
131  Montenegro 29 May 2008
132  Yemen 29 June 2009[3]
133  Burkina Faso 29 July 2009
134  Botswana 15 December 2009
135  Djibouti 15 December 2009
136  Monaco 22 November 2010
137  Cameroon 14 August 2011
138  Liechtenstein 3 January 2012
139  Mongolia 17 January 2012
140  Dominica 13 March 2012
141  Palau 18 April 2012
142  Solomon Islands 11 September 2012
143  Fiji 9 November 2012[4]
 Kosovo 27 August 2013[5]
144  Saudi Arabia 15 January 2015[6]
145  Turkmenistan 28 July 2015[7]
146  Ivory Coast 29 April 2016[8]
147  Tajikistan 26 May 2018[9]

Bilateral relations[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada 11 August 1961[1] See Canada–Panama relations
 China 2 January 1909[1] See China–Panama relations

Panama established a diplomatic relationship with the Qing Dynasty in 1909. After the Xinhai Revolution, Panama recognized the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), and has retained diplomatic ties with the ROC. In 2009, after President Ricardo Martinelli took office, Panama wished to switch diplomatic relations from the ROC to the People's Republic of China (PRC), but this was rejected by the PRC government based on violation of PRC's viewpoint on the One-China policy. Martinelli reaffirmed its commitment to Taiwan in the diplomatic arena, clearing doubts he could establish official ties with PRC; he also thanked the Taiwanese for cooperation and expressed the hope that cooperation and investments would intensify. "Panama reaffirms its determination to strengthen diplomatic ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan), as well as strengthening trade ties with the People's Republic of China (PRC)," said Foreign Minister Juan Carlos Varela, at a meeting in the Council of Taiwan Affairs.[12] On June 12, 2017, President Juan Carlos Varela announced that Panama has established a diplomatic relationship with People's Republic of China, and Panama has severed diplomatic relationship with the Republic of China (Taiwan).

 India 1 June 1962[1] See India–Panama relations

Panama is the first country in Central America where India established a resident embassy in 1973. Bilateral commercial and trade relations are steadily growing between India and Panama, with Panama seen as the gateway for expansion into Latin America.[13]

 Kosovo 27 August 2013[5]

Panama officially recognised the independence of the Republic of Kosovo on 16 January 2009.[17] Kosovo and Panama established diplomatic relations on 27 August 2013, following the establishment of diplomatic relations Kosovo announced it would be opening an embassy in Panama and that this embassy would be Kosovo's 'gateway to Latin America'.[18]

 Mexico 29 May 1923[1] See Mexico–Panama relations
 Russia 21 November 1903[1] See Panama–Russia relations
  • Panama has an embassy in Moscow.[21]
  • Russia has an embassy in Panama city.[22]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1 June 1979[1] See Panama–Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations

Panama was the first Latin American country on recognizing the SADR in 1978, during the military rule of Omar Torrijos. [23] Panama also has the oldest Sahrawi embassy in Latin America. Relations are suspended from 20 November 2013.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2006[1]
 Serbia 1953[1]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1953.[25]
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[26]
 South Africa 1995[1]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 January 1995.[1][27]
  • Panama opened an embassy in Pretoria in August 2000.[27]
  • South Africa is represented in Panama through its embassy in Lima, Peru.[27]
 South Korea 30 September 1962[1]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on Sep 30, 1962.

  • The Republic of Panama has an embassy in Seoul.[28]
  • The Republic of Korea has an embassy in Panama City.[29][30][31]
 Spain 10 May 1904[1] See Panama–Spain relations
 United States 13 November 1903
3 April 1964[1]
See Panama–United States relations

The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies. Cultural ties between the two countries are strong, and many Panamanians go to the United States for higher education and advanced training. In 2007, the U.S. and Panama partnered to launch a regional health worker training center. The center provides training to community healthcare workers in Panama and throughout Central America. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. There is also a rapidly growing enclave of American retirees in the Chiriqui Province in western Panama.

Multilateral relations[edit]

Coat of arms of Panama.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Panama

Panama is a member of the UN General Assembly (and most major UN agencies) and has served three terms in the UN Security Council. In November 2006, it was elected to serve a two-year term on the Security Council, beginning January 1, 2007. It maintains membership in several international financial institutions, including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the International Monetary Fund.

Panama is a member of the Organization of American States and was a founding member of the Rio Group. Although it was suspended from the Latin American Economic System — known informally both as the Group of Eight and the Rio Group — in 1988 due to its internal political system under Manuel Noriega, Panama was readmitted in September, 1994 as an acknowledgment of its present democratic credentials.

Panama is also one of the founding members of the Union of Banana Exporting Countries and belongs to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Panama is a member of the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN) as well as the Central American Integration System (SICA). Panama joined its six Central American neighbors at the 1994 Summit of the Americas in signing the Alliance for Sustainable Development known as the Conjunta Centroamerica-USA or CONCAUSA to promote sustainable economic development in the region.

Panama is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS DE LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ" (PDF). p. 195. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  2. ^ "List of states which the Lao PDR has established diplomatic relations since 1950" (PDF). MFA of Laos. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  3. ^ "Decrees establishing diplomatic relations with Panama, Venezuela". Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Formal diplomatic relations list" (PDF). Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Panamá puerta de entrada de Kosovo a América Latina" (in Spanish). 27 August 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  6. ^ "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Republic of Panama sign agreement on establishment of diplomatic relations". 15 January 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Turkmenistan, Panama establish diplomatic relations". 28 July 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  8. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Cote D'Ivoire and Panama as of 29 Apr. 2016". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  9. ^ "Panama establishes diplomatic relations with Tajikistan". 26 May 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  10. ^ Embassy of Canada in Panama City (in English, French and Spanish)
  11. ^ Embassy of Panama in Ottawa (in English and Spanish)
  12. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/05/12/wikileaks-china-rejects-panama-wish-ties/
  13. ^ "India-Panama Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  14. ^ Indian Embassy in Panama
  15. ^ Indian mission in Panama
  16. ^ Panama Embassy in India
  17. ^ Panama recognised independent state of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2009-01-16
  18. ^ Panamá puerta de entrada de Kosovo a América Latina, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República de Panamá, 2013-08-27 (in Spanish)
  19. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Panama City (in Spanish)
  20. ^ Embassy of Panama in Mexico City (in Spanish) Archived November 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Embassy of Panama in Moscow (in Spanish)
  22. ^ Embassy of Russia in Panama City (in Russian and Spanish)
  23. ^ Panamá y la república Saharaui
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ [3]
  27. ^ a b c [4]
  28. ^ https://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&sm=top_sug.pre&fbm=1&acr=1&acq=%EC%A3%BC%ED%95%9C%ED%8C%8C%EB%82%98&qdt=0&ie=utf8&query=%EC%A3%BC%ED%95%9C+%ED%8C%8C%EB%82%98%EB%A7%88+%EB%8C%80%EC%82%AC%EA%B4%80
  29. ^ http://pan.mofa.go.kr/worldlanguage/america/pan/main/index.jsp
  30. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24568.jsp?menu=m_30_30
  31. ^ https://www.premiercasa.com/en/panama/panama-guide/korean-embassy-panama-relations
  32. ^ Embassy of Panama in Madrid (in Spanish)
  33. ^ Embassy of Spain in Panama City (in Spanish)
  34. ^ Embassy of Panama in Washington, DC
  35. ^ Embassy of the United States in Panama City (in English and Spanish)

30. Embassy of Japan in Panama [5]