Foreign relations of Rwanda

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Nations with which Rwanda has diplomatic relations.

Rwanda has been the center of much international attention since the war and genocide of 1994. The country is an active member of the United Nations, having presided over the Security Council during part of 1995 and again in 2013–2014. The UN assistance mission in Rwanda, a UN Chapter 6 peace-keeping operation, involved personnel from more than a dozen countries. Most of the UN development and humanitarian agencies have had a large presence in Rwanda.

During the height of the crisis, a three-month period in 1994, however, the UN removed most of its peacekeepers, and virtually all other formal foreign support fled as well. The only other nation to directly involve itself at that point was France. While the Rwandan Civil War was a complex sequence of violent episodes which included killers and victims on all sides, most historians agree with RPF's assertions that the 1994 genocide was a deliberate, methodical Hutu campaign to completely exterminate the Tutsis, and that plans for the genocide were well known in advance by European, American, and UN officials.[1][2]

While formal foreign assistance evaporated at the height of the emergency, more than 200 non-governmental organizations were carrying out humanitarian operations. Several west European and African nations, Canada, People's Republic of China, Egypt, Libya, Russia, the Holy See, and the European Union maintain diplomatic missions in Kigali.

Rwanda is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Commonwealth of Nations since November 2009; and the East African Community, which may become the East African Federation. The country is also a member of the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA).

Bilateral relations[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 25 November 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 November 1975[3]
 Andorra 14 November 2018 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 November 2018[4]
 Antigua and Barbuda 10 December 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 December 2019[5]
 Argentina 8 January 1975 Both countries signed a joint communique establishing diplomatic relations in New York on 8 January 1975[6]
 Armenia 29 March 2004 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 March 2004[7]
 Australia 2007 Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2007[8]
  • Rwanda is accredited to Australia through its High Commission in Singapore, Rwanda also has an Honorary Consul based in Melbourne.[9]
  • Australia is represented in Rwanda through its High Commission in Nairobi, Kenya.
 Azerbaijan 28 May 2004 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 May 2004[10]
 Bahrain 2 March 1998 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 March 1998[11]
 Bangladesh 13 January 1984 See Bangladesh-Rwanda relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 January 1984[12] In 1994 Bangladesh provided roughly 900 peace-keeping troops, including soldiers and medical personnel, to Rwanda to aid in keeping the peace during the Rwandan genocide, one of more than 40 countries to do so.[13]

 Barbados 23 July 2015 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 July 2015[14]
 Belarus 25 February 2002 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 2002[15]
 Belgium 1 July 1962 See Belgium-Rwanda relations

Belgium was the colonial power, administering the League of Nations mandate in Ruanda Urundi from 1922 until their independence in 1962. See Ruanda-Urundi.

During the 1994 Genocide, 10 Belgian Peacekeepers were murdered while trying to protect then-Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana.[16]

 Belize 22 January 2020 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 January 2020[19]
 Bolivia 22 September 2021 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 September 2021[20]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 17 October 2013 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 October 2013[21]
 Brazil 20 January 1981 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 January 1981[22]
 Brunei Darussalam 9 December 2020 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 December 2020[23]
 Bulgaria 20 December 1979 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 December 1979[24]
 Burundi August 1969[25]

Burundi and Rwanda have always had diplomatic relations as the two were very closed linked kingdoms and their political relations can date back to the year 1091, when the Kingdom of Rwanda was founded, the two kingdoms always had close relationships and even political alliances between the two monarchies. In the modern era, the two states dispute sections of border on the Akanyaru and the Kagera/Nyabarongo rivers, which have changed course since the 1960s, when the boundary was delimited; cross-border conflicts among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces persist in the Great Lakes region.

  • Burundi has an embassy in Kigali.
  • Rwanda has an embassy in Bujumbura.
 Canada 1965
  • Canada has a diplomatic office in Kigali.
  • Rwanda has a high commission in Ottawa.
 China 12 November 1971 See China–Rwanda relations

China and Rwanda established diplomatic relations on 12 November 1971.[26]

  • China has an embassy in Kigali.
  • Rwanda has an embassy in Beijing.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 August 1962, broken 11.1.1968-February 1969, 13.9.1996-17.5.1998, 27.7.1998-23.7.2009

In 1998, Rwanda, along with Uganda, invaded the Democratic Republic of the Congo to back Congolese rebels trying to overthrow then-President Laurent Kabila. Rwandan troops remain in the Congo, backing rebels that aim to overthrow Laurent Kabila's son, Joseph Kabila, who is now the President of the Congo. Rwandan troops have pulled back, however, behind disengagement lines set forth in the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement.

Rwandan President Paul Kagame met with the Democratic Republic of the Congo's President Joseph Kabila in Goma on 6 August 2009.[27] It was the first presidential meeting between the two countries for 13 years,[28] with the two countries having come to a disagreement in 1996 following an invasion by Rwanda into eastern Congo, a disagreement which was renewed in 1998 after a further invasion.[27] The pair of presidents spent more than two hours in the company of each other and "reviewed all issues of common interest".[27] Kabila referred to it as "the first giant step forward" in what was referred to as an "all new era".[28] One month previous to the meeting both countries had appointed ambassadors to each other's capitals.[27][28]

 Costa Rica 8 March 2001 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 March 2001[29]
 Croatia 15 February 2018 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 February 2018[30]
 Cuba 7 September 1979 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 September 1979[31]
 Djibouti 21 January 2011 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 January 2011[32]
 Dominica 15 April 2021 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 April 2021[33]
 Dominican Republic 6 December 2011 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 December 2011[34]
 Ecuador 17 October 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 October 2019[35]
 Estonia 14 March 2006 Both countries signed a joint statement establishing diplomatic relations in Brussels on 14 March 2006[36]
 Finland 1 June 1983 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 June 1983[37]
 France 1 July 1962, broken off 24 November 2006 and re-established 29 November 2009

See France–Rwanda relations

As a result of French complicity before, during and after the genocide, with the genocidaires,[38] Rwanda cut off relations with France at the end of the war, and replaced French with English as an official language. Relations were resumed in November 2009. Nicolas Sarkozy visited Kigali in February 2010.[39]

in 2016, A French court ordered the re-opening of the case investigating Rwanda president Juvénal Habyarimana's plane crash's fatal plane crash.[40] The move angered administration in Ghana. The National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide (CNLG) issued the names of French military 22 officers[41] requested for depositions. The officers were station in France during the 1994 Turquoise safe zone operation.

 Georgia 23 March 2011 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 March 2011[42]
 Germany 13 February 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 February 1963[43]
 Grenada 3 March 2021 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 March 2021[44]
 Haiti 15 August 2018 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 August 2018[45]
 Hungary 31 July 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 July 1972[46]
 Iceland 12 May 2004 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 May 2004[47]
 India 1967 See India–Rwanda relations
  • India is represented in Rwanda through its High Commission in Kigali.[48]
  • Rwanda has its embassy in New Delhi.[49]
 Indonesia 16 January 1984 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 January 1984[50]
 Jamaica 6 November 1998 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 November 1998[51]
 Japan
 Kazakhstan 10 May 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 May 2012[55]
 Kenya 11 June 1965[56][57] See Kenya-Rwanda Relations
 Laos 31 August 2009 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 August 2009[59]
 Latvia 10 April 2007 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 April 2007[60]
 Liechtenstein June 2016 Both countries established diplomatic relations in June 2016[61]
 Lithuania 27 March 2013 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 March 2013[62]
 Malawi See Malawi–Rwanda relations
 Maldives 6 September 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 September 2019[63]
 Malta 12 July 2018 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 July 2018[64]
 Mauritius 16 March 2001 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 March 2001[65]
 Mexico 21 January 1976
  • Mexico is accredited to Rwanda from its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya and maintains an honorary consulate in Kigali.[66]
  • Rwanda is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.[67]
 Mongolia 25 November 2013 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 November 2013[68]
 Montenegro 12 April 2013 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 April 2013[69]
 Namibia 21 December 1990 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 December 1990[70]
   Nepal 20 July 2018 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 July 2018[71]
 Netherlands 1963 The Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda was established in the Kingdom of the Netherlands in The Hague on the 1st of November 2006[72]
 New Zealand 17 April 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 April 2012[73]
 Nicaragua 8 November 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 November 2019[74]
 North Korea 22 April 1972[75] See North Korea–Rwanda relations
 Oman March 1998 Both countries established diplomatic relations in March 1998[76]
 Peru 7 December 2017 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 December 2017[77]
 Philippines 15 December 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1982[78]
 Poland 10 July 1965 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 July 1965[79]
 Portugal 12 February 1976 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 1976[80]
 Qatar 4 May 2017[81]
  • Representatives of Qatar and Rwanda established diplomatic relations on 4 May 2017 after signing a joint communiqué at the UN.[82]
 Romania 15 July 1965 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 July 1965[83]
 Russia 17 October 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 October 1963[84]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 15 February 2019[85]

Both countries signed a mutual visa wave agreement in April 2018.[86]

 Saint Lucia 28 August 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 August 2019[87]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9 November 2021 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 November 2021[88]
 Saudi Arabia 29 March 2018[89]
  • Representatives of Saudi Arabia and Rwanda establish diplomatic relations on 29 March 2018 at the UN. Several bilateral agreements were also signed.[90]
 Serbia 15 June 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 June 1971[91]
 Seychelles 2006 Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2006[92]
 Singapore 18 March 2005[93] The High Commission of the Republic of Rwanda in Singapore was officially opened in 2008[94]
  • Singapore is accredited to Rwanda through a non-resident high commissioner based in Singapore.
  • Rwanda has a high commission in Singapore.
 Slovenia 8 December 2006 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 December 2006[95]
 South Korea 21 March 1963, broken 31 May 1975 – 10 September 1987 22 August 1972 opened Embassy Republic of Korea in Rwanda, but closed 31 May 1975, reopened 11 September 1987, the embassy was closed again 30 November 1990 and reopened 30 December 2011. Rwanda opened its Embassy in Seoul 30 March 2009[96]
  • Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Republic of Rwanda is 21 March 1963.[97]
 Spain 16 June 1967[98] See Rwanda–Spain relations
  • Rwanda is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Rwanda from its embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
 Sri Lanka 20 April 2011 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 April 2011[99]
 Suriname 14 October 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 October 2019[100]
 Tajikistan 30 July 2018 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 July 2018[101]
 Tanzania 8 January 1965 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 January 1965[102]

See Rwanda-Tanzania relations

 Thailand 30 October 1987 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 October 1987[103]
 Trinidad and Tobago 27 May 2022 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 May 2022[104]
 Turkey 18 February 1980[105] See Rwanda–Turkey relations
  • Rwanda has an embassy in Ankara.[106]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Kigali.[106]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 32.4 million USD in 2019 (Rwandan exports/imports: 0.2/32.2 million USD).[106]
 Uganda 18 December 1962

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 December 1962[107]

 Ukraine 8 September 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 September 1993[108]
 United Arab Emirates 1995[109] UAE Embassy in Kigali opened its temporary premises in March 2018 and was relocated to its current premises in April 2019[110]
  • Rwanda has an embassy in the UAE
  • Trade volume stood at $434.8 million in 2018[111]
 United States 1 July 1962[112] See Rwanda–United States relations
Embassy of Rwanda in Washington, D.C.

U.S. Government interests have shifted significantly since the 1994 genocide from a strictly humanitarian concern focusing on stability and security to a strong partnership with the Government of Rwanda focusing on sustainable development. The largest U.S. Government programs are the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the President's Malaria Initiative, which aim to reduce the impact of these debilitating diseases in Rwanda. Other activities promote rural economic growth and support good governance and decentralization. Overall U.S. foreign assistance to Rwanda has increased fourfold over the past four years.[when?]

 Uruguay 16 June 2009 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 2009[113]
 Vanuatu 3 October 2018 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 October 2018[114]
 Venezuela 18 August 1981 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 August 1981[115]
 Vietnam 30 September 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 September 1975[116]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/countries-areas/. (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets)[117]

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