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Foreign relations of South Sudan

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Foreign relations

The foreign relations of South Sudan are the relations between the Republic of South Sudan and sovereign states and international organizations. The establishment of the relationships followed the formation of the South Sudanese state on 9 July 2011. South Sudan's former parent country Sudan became the first state in the world to recognize South Sudan.

Foreign policy

In the immediate aftermath of the country's independence, South Sudan's foreign policy prerogative was seen as a challenge in the quest to balance relations between the West, other African states and the Arab states.[1] Since independence, South Sudan has sought to shed its reliance on Sudan, reportedly planning to introduce the Swahili language and orient itself toward East Africa.[2][3][4]

Chronology of relations

Sudan was the first country to recognise the independence of South Sudan on 8 July 2011, 1 day prior to independence. Four other states followed suit on 8 July. Over 25 countries had recognised the country on 9 July, including all permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[5][6][7][8][9]

On 14 July 2011, South Sudan was admitted as a member of the United Nations without a vote[10][11] or objections raised by its members.[12][13][14]

Both before and after South Sudan admission to the UN, many states have issued official explicit statements about its diplomatic recognition and some have established diplomatic relations with it. In less than half a year the number of recognitions reached over 115 and the number of relations established over 50.

United Nations member states

# Country Recognition[note 1] Relations established[note 2] Further details
1  Sudan 9 July 2011[15][16] 9 July 2011[17] South Sudan–Sudan relations
2  Egypt 9 July 2011[18][19] 9 July 2011[20] Egypt–South Sudan relations
3  Germany 9 July 2011[21] 9 July 2011
4  Kenya 9 July 2011[22] 9 July 2011[23] Kenya–South Sudan relations
5  Albania 9 July 2011[24][25]
6  Algeria 9 July 2011[26][27]
7  Armenia 9 July 2011[28]
8  Australia 9 July 2011[29] 24 September 2011[30]
9  Austria 9 July 2011[31] 21 September 2011[32]
10  Botswana 9 July 2011[33] 9 July 2011[34]
11  Brazil 9 July 2011[35] 9 July 2011[36]
12  Cambodia 9 July 2011[37] 22 July 2011[38]
13  Canada 9 July 2011[39] 22 December 2011[40]
14  Central African Republic 9 July 2011[41]
15  Chile 9 July 2011[42]
16  China 9 July 2011[43] 9 July 2011[44] China–South Sudan relations
17  Cuba 9 July 2011[45] 10 July 2011[46]
18  Denmark 9 July 2011[47] Diplomatic relation Danish Foreign Minister joined the independence festivals on the 9th July 2011.[47]
19  Equatorial Guinea 9 July 2011[48]
20  Ethiopia 9 July 2011[49] Diplomatic relation
21  France 9 July 2011[50] 9 July 2011[51]
22  Ghana 9 July 2011[52][53]
23  Greece 9 July 2011[54]
24  India 9 July 2011[55] 13 March 2012[56] India–South Sudan relations
25  Ireland 9 July 2011[57] Diplomatic relation
26  Italy 9 July 2011[58] Diplomatic relation
27  Japan 9 July 2011[59] 9 July 2011[60]
28  Jordan 9 July 2011[61]
29  Latvia 9 July 2011[62] 24 January 2015[63]
30  Luxembourg 9 July 2011[64] 14 December 2011[65]
31  Libya 9 July 2011[63] 23 October 2011
32  Mali 9 July 2011[66]
33  Malta 9 July 2011[67]
34  Maldives 9 July 2011[68]
35  Mozambique 9 July 2011[69][70] 15 July 2011[71]
36  Netherlands 9 July 2011[72] 9 September 2011[73] Date given as that of establishment of diplomatic relations is that of the nomination of first Dutch ambassador, since no previous announcement of bilateral relations being established had until then been made.
37  Nigeria 9 July 2011[74] Diplomatic relations
38  Norway 9 July 2011[75] 9 July 2011[76]
39  Poland 9 July 2011[77] 31 January 2013[78]
40  Portugal 9 July 2011[79]
41  Qatar 9 July 2011[80]
42  Romania 9 July 2011[81] 17 April 2013[82]
43  Russia 9 July 2011[6][83] 22 August 2011[84] Russia–South Sudan relations
44  Rwanda 9 July 2011[85]
45  Seychelles 9 July 2011[86] 24 July 2013[86]
46  Slovakia 9 July 2011[87] Diplomatic relations
47  South Africa 9 July 2011[88] 22 September 2011[89]
48  South Korea 9 July 2011[90] 9 July 2011[91]
49  Spain 9 July 2011[92] 21 September 2011[93]
50  Sweden 9 July 2011[94] Diplomatic relations
51   Switzerland 9 July 2011[95] Diplomatic relations
52  Tanzania 9 July 2011[96]
53  Togo 9 July 2011[97]
54  Turkey 9 July 2011[98] 13 October 2011[99]
55  Uganda 9 July 2011[100] Diplomatic relations South Sudan–Uganda relations
56  United Kingdom 9 July 2011[9][101] 9 July 2011
57  United States 9 July 2011[102] 9 July 2011[103] South Sudan–United States relations
58  Zimbabwe 9 July 2011[104][105] Diplomatic relations
59  Angola 10 July 2011[106][107]
60  Bahrain 10 July 2011[108] 30 September 2012[109]
61  Burkina Faso 10 July 2011[110]
62  Cape Verde 10 July 2011[111]
63  Israel 10 July 2011[112][113] 28 July 2011[114] South Sudan–Israel relations
64  Kuwait 10 July 2011[115]
65  Somalia 10 July 2011[116] Diplomatic relations
66  Vietnam 10 July 2011[117]
67  Costa Rica 11 July 2011[118][119]
68  Czech Republic 11 July 2011[120]
69  Eritrea 11 July 2011[121] 24 July 2011[122]
70  Estonia 11 July 2011[123][124][125][126]
71  Saudi Arabia 11 July 2011[127]
72  United Arab Emirates 11 July 2011[128]
73  Indonesia 12 July 2011[129]
74  Namibia 12 July 2011[130] 12 July 2011[131]
75  Senegal 12 July 2011[132]
76  Slovenia 12 July 2011[133] 23 September 2011[134]
77  Timor-Leste 12 July 2011[135] 13 October 2011[136]
78  Djibouti 13 July 2011[137] 11 February 2012[138]
79  Liberia 13 July 2011[139]
80  Mauritania 13 July 2011[140]
81  Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 July 2011[141] Diplomatic relations
82  Uruguay 13 July 2011[142][143]
83  Belgium 14 July 2011[144] 14 October 2011[145]
84  Guinea 14 July 2011[146]
85  Guyana 14 July 2011[147]
86  Kyrgyzstan 14 July 2011[148]
87  Mexico 14 July 2011[149] 26 September 2011[150]
88  Montenegro 14 July 2011[151] 21 November 2011[152]
89  Peru 14 July 2011[153]
90  Singapore 14 July 2011[154]
91  Gabon 15 July 2011[155]
92  Hungary 15 July 2011[156][157] 24 September 2011[158]
93  Kazakhstan 15 July 2011[159]
94  North Korea 15 July 2011[160] 18 November 2011[161]
95  Colombia 16 July 2011[162] Diplomatic relations
96  Iran 16 July 2011[163]
97  Cyprus 18 July 2011[164]
98  Lebanon 18 July 2011[165]
99  Bulgaria 19 July 2011[166][167] 19 July 2011[168]
100  Bangladesh 20 July 2011[169]
101  Suriname 20 July 2011[170][171]
102  Finland 22 June 2011[172] 22 June 2012[173]
103  Pakistan 22 July 2011[174]
104  Croatia 27 July 2011[175]
105  Philippines 1 August 2011[176] 13 March 2013[177]
106  Argentina 2 August 2011[178][179]
107  Belarus 18 August 2011[180] 4 September 2013[181]
108  Panama 18 August 2011[182]
109  Serbia 18 August 2011[183] 4 January 2012
110  Yemen 6 September 2011[184] 9 October 2011[185]
111  Thailand 6 September 2011[186]
112  Lithuania 14 September 2011[187][188] 14 September 2011[189]
113  Macedonia 14 September 2011[190]
114  Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2011[191]
115  Vanuatu 28 September 2011[192]
116  Jamaica 6 October 2011[193]
117  Mongolia 20 December 2011[194] 20 December 2011[195]
118  Laos 26 December 2011 [196]
119  Venezuela 26 December 2011[196]
120  Mauritius 27 December 2011[196]
121  Syria 27 December 2011[196]
122  Sri Lanka 2011 2012[197] [198][199]
123  Ukraine 11 January 2012[200] 25 September 2012[201]
124  Malawi 26 January 2012 5 November 2015[202]
125  Georgia 5 June 2012[203] 15 June 2012[203]
126  Turkmenistan 17 August 2012[204] 17 August 2012[204]
127  Fiji 25 September 2012 5 October 2012[205]
128  Azerbaijan 27 October 2012[206] 27 October 2012[206]
129  Benin 29 January 2013 30 January 2013[207]
130  Ecuador 8 May 2015 8 May 2015[208]

Non-members of the UN

Country Recognition Relations established Notes
Holy See (Vatican City) 8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011[209][210]
22 February 2013[211] Diplomatic relations on ambassadorial level[211]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 9 July 2011[212] South Sudan does not recognize the Republic of China. It only recognizes the People's Republic of China.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 9 July 2011[213] 9 July 2011[214] African Union (AU) member [213]
 Somaliland 10 July 2011[215]
 Transnistria 12 July 2011[216]
 Palestinian Authority 14 July 2011[217]  Arab League member
 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 29 August 2011 [218] 12 November 2014[219]

Representation in South Sudan

The United States upgraded its Juba consulate to an embassy on 9 July 2011,[220] as did France.[221] Also Sudan has announced that it plans to open an embassy in Juba, upon independence,[222] while Egypt has announced it intends to convert its existing consulate in Juba into a full embassy.[223][224] The United Kingdom has opened an embassy in South Sudan, as well.[225]

On 16 September 2011, the ambassadors of the United Kingdom and Norway presented their credentials, the first to do so.[226] Credentials were presented on 15 November of that year by Chinese, German and Kenyan ambassadors.[227]

According to Indian officials, the country will upgrade its consulate in Juba to an embassy and appoint an ambassador to South Sudan.[228][229]

International organisations

South Sudan became a member of the United Nations on 13 July 2011.[230] It joined the African Union on 27 July 2011.[231] It's also a member in: the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

South Sudan has also either applied or is in the process of applying to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa,[232] the Commonwealth of Nations,[233] the East African Community,[234] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[232] the International Monetary Fund,[235] and the World Bank.[236] South Sudan has also been assured membership in the Arab League,[237] should it decide to pursue membership, though it could also opt for observer status.[238] it may also seek membership in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, which has expressed interest in giving South Sudan admission[239] despite not being a majority Muslim state.

On 24 July 2011, President Salva Kiir told the Speaker of the East African Legislative Assembly that he hoped the EAC will consider expediting South Sudan's accession to the supranational organisation. South Sudan is considered very likely to join the EAC, but an exact timetable for admission has not yet been mooted publicly.[240]

International organisation Status
African Union (AU) South Sudan became the 54th member state of AU on 12 July 2011.[citation needed]
 Arab League The Arab League wishes South Sudan to become a member state.[241] However, South Sudan does not have a majority Arab population and in South Sudan there is strong opposition to joining.[242]
 East African Community (EAC) South Sudan's membership in the EAC is favoured by all members.[243]
 International Olympic Committee (IOC) South Sudan does not as yet have a National Olympic Committee. A South Sudanese marathon runner competed as an Independent Olympian at the 2012 London Olympics.[original research?] On 7 November 2015, South Sudan became 206th IOC Member State.
 United Nations (UN) On 14 July, South Sudan became 193rd UN Member State.[244]
FIFA (FIFA) On 25 May 2012, South Sudan became the 209th member of FIFA.[245]

Individual states

Bangladesh

Bangladesh recognizes the independence of South Sudan on July 20, 2011.

China

China recognizes the independence of South Sudan on July 9, 2011.[246]

Egypt

Essam Sharaf, Prime Minister of Egypt after the Arab Spring-inspired revolution in 2011 made his first foreign visit to Khartoum and Juba in the lead-up to South Sudan's secession.[247] Egypt was one of four countries to recognise South Sudan as an independent state on the first day.

Israel

Relations between the two states commenced with Israel's recognition of South Sudan a day after its independence[248] and South Sudan announcing the following week its intention to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel.[249] On 28 July 2011, it was announced that full diplomatic ties had been established between the two countries.[250] This is considered a significant boon to Israel, as Sudan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and does not recognise Israeli sovereignty.[249]

Economic ties show the most potential. As of 23 July 2011, several Israeli companies are already in talks for various business deals.[251] Israel is host to thousands of refugees from South Sudan, who are now ready to return to their native country.[252]

South Korea

The Republic of Korea government is providing for the South Korean [253] military to South Sudan in UN Mission (UNMISS) in South Sudan.[254][better source needed]

Sudan

Since independence relations with Sudan have been under negotiation. Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir first announced, in January 2011, that dual citizenship in the North and the South would be allowed,[255] but upon the independence of South Sudan he retracted the offer. He has also suggested an EU-style confederation.[256] In February 2012, an agreement was reached by which citizens of both countries could live, work, and own property in both countries, and freely travel between the two.[257]

Uganda

Prior to independence relations between the two states were fostered through cultural contacts such as the presence of South Sudanese students in Uganda. As independence approaches the two states started to enhance their economic ties. However, the Lord's Resistance Army's presence in South Sudan was a stumbling block.

South Sudan and the Commonwealth of Nations

South Sudan has applied for full membership of the Commonwealth. If and when it is accepted, South Sudan will become the newest Commonwealth republic.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Diplomatic recognition is an explicit official unilateral act in the foreign policy of states in regards to another party. Not having issued such a statement doesn't necessarily mean the state has objections against the existence, independence, sovereignty or government of the other party. South Sudan is not one of the states with limited recognition.
  2. ^ Establishment of diplomatic relations is an official bilateral act between the governments of two states. Not having established such relations doesn't necessarily mean the states have objections against the existence, independence, sovereignty or government of the other party. South Sudan is not one of the states with limited recognition.

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