Foreign relations of Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Escudo de España (mazonado).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Spain
Flag of Spain.svg Spain portal

After the return of democracy following the death of General Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with NATO, later joining the organization in 1982.

Spain has established itself as a major participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's European Union membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond Western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms.

Regional relations[edit]

Latin America[edit]

The Ibero-American vision[edit]

Spain has maintained its special identification with its fellow Spanish-speaking countries. Its policy emphasizes the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of "Hispano-Americanismo" (or Hispanic as it is often referred to in English), which has sought to link the Iberian peninsula to the Spanish-speaking countries in Central and South America through language, commerce, history and culture. Spain has been an effective example of transition from dictatorship to democracy, as shown in the many trips that Spain's King and Prime Ministers have made to the region.

Trends in diplomatic relations[edit]

Spain maintains economic and technical cooperation programs and cultural exchanges with Latin America, both bilaterally and within the EU. During José María Aznar's government, Spanish relations with some Latin-American countries like Mexico, Venezuela and Cuba worsened, but were exceptionally good with others like Colombia, Dominican Republic and several Central America republics. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's victory in the 2004 general elections changed this setting. Despite long-standing close linguistic, economic and cultural relations with most of Latin America, some aspects of Spanish foreign policy during this time, such as its support for the Iraq War, were not supported or widely favored.

Today, relations with Venezuela are quite good, which has caused some controversy with the United States, who have been in recent disagreements with Venezuela under Hugo Chávez and its growing relations with "Anti-American Nations", such as Cuba, China, Russia and several Islamic Middle Eastern countries. However, due to a notable public incident in 2007, Venezuelan-Spanish ties were briefly suspended, though were later re-established.

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

Spain has gradually begun to broaden its contacts with Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a particular interest in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea, where it maintains a large aid program. More recently, it has sought closer relation with Senegal, Mauritania, Mali and others to find solutions for the issue of illegal immigration to the Canary Islands. [citation needed]

Middle East[edit]

In the Middle East, Spain is known as a broker between powers. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues. The Arab countries are a priority interest for Spain because of oil and gas imports and because several Arab nations have substantial investments in Spain. [citation needed]

Europe[edit]

Spain has been successful in managing its relations with its three immediate European neighbours, France, Andorra, and Portugal. The accession of Spain and Portugal to the EU in 1986 has helped ease some of their periodic trade frictions by putting these into an EU context. Franco-Spanish bilateral cooperation has been enhanced by joint action against recurring violence by separatist Basque group ETA since the 1960s. Ties with the United Kingdom are generally good, although the question of Gibraltar remains a sensitive issue, especially since the UK vote on Brexit.

Asia[edit]

Today, Spain is trying to expand its still narrow relations with East Asian nations[1], with China, Japan and South Korea as its main points of interest in the region. [citation needed] Thailand and Indonesia are Spain's main allies in the ASEAN region, having a considerable number of agreements and a very good relationship. In the recent years Spain has also been boosting its contacts, relations and investment in other Asian countries, most notably Vietnam and Malaysia. [citation needed] Relations with the Philippines are, despite a very long colonial past, considerably weaker than the ones Spain has with other countries in the area, dealing mostly with cultural aspects and humanitarian assistance programs.

Disputes[edit]

Territorial disputes[edit]

Whilst the disputed on Gibraltar with the United Kingdom is perhaps the best known territorial dispute of Spain, the country also has disputes with Portugal and Morocco.

With the United Kingdom[edit]

Ever since it was captured in 1704 by Anglo-Dutch forces during the War of the Spanish Succession, Gibraltar has been the subject of a dispute between the United Kingdom and Spain. Situated at the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula, overseeing the Strait of Gibraltar which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediterranean Sea, the territory has great strategic importance. Today, Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory and houses an important base of British Armed Forces.

With Morocco[edit]

The strategic position of the Strait of Gibraltar has left a legacy of a number of sovereignty disputes, including those with Morocco concerning the "five places of sovereignty" (plazas de soberanía) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Peñon de Alhucemas, Peñon de Vélez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas. Spain maintains sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla, Peñon de Velez de la Gomera, Alhucemas and the Chafarinas Islands (captured following the Christian reconquest of Spain) based upon historical grounds, security reasons and on the basis of the UN principle of territorial integrity. Spain also maintains that the majority of residents are Spanish. Morocco claims these territories on the basis of the UN principles of decolonisation, territorial integrity and that Spanish arguments for the recovery of Gibraltar substantiate Morocco’s claim.

With Portugal[edit]

Olivenza (Spanish) or Olivença (Portuguese) is a town and seat of a municipality, on a disputed section of the border between Portugal and Spain, which is claimed de jure by both countries and administered de facto as part of the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura. The population is 80% ethnic Portuguese and 30% of Portuguese language. Olivenza/Olivença was under continuous Portuguese sovereignty since 1297 until it was occupied by the Spanish in 1801 and formally ceded by Portugal later that year by the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz still stands and has never been revoked. Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by that treaty. Portugal claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz was revoked by its own terms (the breach of any of its articles would lead to its cancellation) when Spain invaded Portugal in the Peninsular War of 1807.

Portugal further bases its case on Article 105 of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815, which Spain signed in 1817, that states that the winning countries are to "endeavour with the mightiest conciliatory effort to return Olivenza/Olivença to Portuguese authority". Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by the Treaty of Alcanizes of 1297. Spain interprets Article 105 as not being mandatory on demanding Spain to return Olivenza/Olivença to Portugal, thus not revoking the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal has never made a formal claim to the territory after the Treaty of Vienna, but has equally never directly acknowledged the Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença.

Portugal continues to claim Olivenza/Olivença, asserting that under the Vienna Treaty of 1815, Spain recognized the Portuguese claims as "legitimate". The historic disputes with Portugal over the Savage Islands in the Atlantic Ocean were resolved in recent times.

Spanish public opinion is not generally aware of the Portuguese claim on Olivenza/Olivença (in contrast to the Spanish claim on Gibraltar or the Moroccan claims on Ceuta, Melilla and the Plazas de soberanía). On the other hand, awareness in Portugal has been increasing under the efforts of pressure groups to have the question raised and debated in public.

Bilateral relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Spain relations
 Angola
  • Angola has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Luanda.
 Cameroon
  • Cameroon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Yaoundé.
 Chad
  • Chad is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
 Côte d'Ivoire
  • Côte d'Ivoire has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Abidjan.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kinshasa.
 Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Cairo.
 Equatorial Guinea 12 October 1968 See Equatorial Guinea–Spain relations
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Gambia
  • Gambia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Banjul.
 Kenya
  • Kenya has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Mauritania See Mauritania–Spain relations
 Morocco See Morocco–Spain relations

Spain has several interests in Morocco. This is dictated by geographic proximity and long historical contacts, as well as by the two Spanish enclave cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the northern coast of Africa. While Spain's departure from its former colony of Western Sahara ended direct Spanish participation in Morocco, it maintains an interest in the peaceful resolution of the conflict brought about there by decolonization. These issues were highlighted by a crisis in 2002, when Spanish forces evicted a small contingent of Moroccans from a tiny islet off Morocco's coast following that nation's attempt to assert sovereignty over the Spanish island.

 Mozambique
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Maputo.
 Nigeria
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic See Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic–Spain relations
  • Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has a delegation office in Madrid[5] and a delegation office in Barcelona.[6]
 Senegal
  • Senegal has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Dakar.
 South Africa
  • South Africa has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.
 Tunisia
  • Spain has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Madrid.


Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1863 See Argentina–Spain relations
 Belize 13 January 1989

Both countries established diplomatic relations on January 13, 1989[9].

 Bolivia 1847 See Bolivia–Spain relations

A diplomatic crisis with Bolivia in 2005 due to a misunderstanding was quickly resolved by Zapatero and Spain became the first European country visited by Evo Morales on January 4, 2006. However, there remain problems surrounding the exploitation of oil and gas fields in the country by Spanish corporations like Repsol.

Bolivian President Evo Morales met King Juan Carlos and held talks with Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero during a visit to Spain in September 2009 with the intention of resolving issues concerning the nationalisation of the Bolivian energy sector. The move has the potential to hurt some Spanish companies however relations were said to be "positive" between the Bolivian state and Spanish private sector energy companies. Evo Morales said that Bolivia is ready to accept outside investment in its energy and natural resource industries as long as foreign firms do not act as owners and that Bolivia is "looking for investment, be it from private or state sector. We want partners, not owners of our natural resources."

It was suggested that Bolivia would also negotiate with Spanish companies to produce car parts and lithium batteries in the future.[10]

 Brazil 1834 See Brazil–Spain relations
 Canada July 1935 See Canada–Spain relations
 Chile 1844 See Chile–Spain relations

Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

 Colombia 1881 See Colombia–Spain relations
 Costa Rica 10 May 1850 See Costa Rica–Spain relations
 Cuba 1902 See Cuba–Spain relations
 Dominican Republic 1855 See Dominican Republic–Spain relations
 Ecuador 1840 See Ecuador–Spain relations
 El Salvador 24 June 1865 See El Salvador–Spain relations
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.[32]
  • Spain has an embassy in San Salvador.[33]
 Guatemala 1838 See Guatemala–Spain relations
 Haiti 1 April 1939
 Honduras 17 November 1894 See Honduras–Spain relations
 Jamaica See Jamaica–Spain relations
  • Jamaica is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kingston.
 Mexico 26 December 1836 See Mexico–Spain relations
 Nicaragua 20 March 1851 See Nicaragua–Spain relations
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Managua.[44]
 Panama May 1904 See Panama–Spain relations
 Paraguay 10 September 1880 See Paraguay–Spain relations
 Peru 1879 See Peru–Spain relations
 United States See Spain–United States relations

Under the government of José María Aznar, Spain developed exceptionally good relations with the USA, in great part due to the personal empathy between Aznar and George W. Bush. Following Zapatero's decision to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq immediately after the 2004 general elections, relations predictably soured, although important commercial links remained intact. When elected, President Barack Obama expressed his wish to enhance cooperation between both countries, especially in policies like the Green Energy plan from Zapatero,[53] introducing the AVE (the Spanish High Speed Train) in United States [54] and aiding US by receiving in Spanish prisons Guantanamo Prison detainees [55]

 Uruguay 19 July 1870 See Spain–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 1846 See Spain–Venezuela relations

Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kabul.
 Armenia See Armenia–Spain relations
 Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Baku.
 China See China–Spain relations
 East Timor
  • East Timor is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Spain is accredited to East Timor from its embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia.
 Georgia
  • Georgia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 India 1956 See India–Spain relations
 Indonesia See Indonesia–Spain relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iraq On Kurdistan Region, see Kurdistan Region–Spain relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Iran
  • Iran has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tehran.
 Israel 1975 See Israel–Spain relations
 Japan 12 November 1868 See Japan–Spain relations
 Jordan
  • Jordan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Amman.
 Kazakhstan 11 February 1992 See Kazakhstan–Spain relations
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Madrid.[77]
  • Spain has an embassy in Astana and a consulate-general in Istanbul.[78]
 Kuwait
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kuwait City.
 Lebanon
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Beirut.
 Malaysia 12 May 1967 See Malaysia–Spain relations
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
 North Korea 7 February 2001
  • North Korea has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to North Korea from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Pakistan

Pakistan and Spain enjoy extremely cordial and friendly ties.[79] Relations were established in the late 1950s. Pakistanis form the largest Asian immigrant community in Spain.

  • Pakistan has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Islamabad and honorary consulates in Karachi and Lahore.
 Philippines See Philippines–Spain relations

Philippine former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo concluded her second state visit in Spain in July 2006, bringing back millions of dollars of Spanish investments, particularly in Tourism and Information Technology. The Spanish king, Juan Carlos I, also reiterated in Mrs. Arroyo's visit, his support for her project in the Philippines to re-establish Spanish as an official language in the country. He and his wife, Queen Sofia attended the 1998 centennial celebrations in Manila, commemorating 100 years of independence from Spain. The mediation of King Juan Carlos I is said to have produced the pardon and liberation of two Filipina domestic workers sentenced to death in Kuwait and the UAE.

  • Philippines has an embassy in Madrid.[80]
  • Spain has an embassy in Manila.[81]
 Qatar See Qatar–Spain relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Doha.
 Saudi Arabia
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Málaga.
  • Spain has an embassy in Riyadh.
 South Korea 7 March 1950[82]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Kingdom of Spain began on 7 March 1950.[83]

 Taiwan
 Thailand
  • Spain has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Madrid.
 Turkey See Spain–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates
  • Spain has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Madrid.
 Uzbekistan
  • Spain is accredited to Uzbekistan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Madrid.
 Vietnam
  • Spain has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Madrid.

Europe[edit]

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Albania 12 September 1986 See Albania-Spain relations
 Andorra
 Belarus 13 February 1992
 Bulgaria 8 May 1810 See also Bulgaria–Spain relations
 Croatia 9 March 1992 See Croatia–Spain relations
 Denmark See Denmark–Spain relations
 France See France–Spain relations
 Germany See Germany–Spain relations
 Greece See Greece–Spain relations
 Holy See 1530 See Holy See–Spain relations
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.[106]
 Hungary See Hungary–Spain relations
 Ireland 1924 See Ireland–Spain relations
 Italy See Italy–Spain relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations after the unification of Italy. Relations between Italy and Spain have remained strong and affable for centuries owing to various political, cultural, and historical connections between the two nations. In the Early modern period, southern and insular Italy came under Spanish control, having been previously a domain of the Crown of Aragon. This extended period of foreign domination left marked influences in the modern southern Italian dialects. During the Spanish civil war, the Corps of Volunteer Troops, a fascist expeditionary force from Italy, supported the Nationalist forces led by Francisco Franco. It's estimated that around 75,000 Italians fought in the war.

  • Italy has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.[111]
  • Spain has an embassy in Rome and consulates-general in Genova, Milan and Naples.[112]
 Malta 1977
 Moldova 30 January 1992 See Moldova–Spain relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Madrid.[115]
  • Spain is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • In 2008, the Spanish government indicated that 12,582 Moldovan citizens were legally working there.[116] Spain is a significant investor in Moldova through Unión Fenosa which owns three of Moldova's five energy distribution companies.[117]
 Monaco
  • Monaco has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Netherlands
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in The Hague.
 Poland See Poland–Spain relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Portugal See Portugal–Spain relations

Relations between Portugal and Spain are also good. They cooperate in the fight against drug trafficking and tackling forest fires (common in the Iberian Peninsula in summers), for example. These close relations are facilitated by similar governments: the government of conservative Spanish PM José María Aznar coincided with the government of also conservative José Manuel Durão Barroso in Portugal; today, both José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero of Spain and José Sócrates of Portugal are socialists.

Portugal also holds claim to the disputed territory of Olivença in the Portuguese-Spanish border.

 Romania 5 January 1967 See Romania–Spain relations
  • Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 5 January 1967; 21 years after they were broken.
  • Romania has an embassy in Madrid and consulates-general in Barcelona, Bilbao and Seville.[120]
  • Spain has an embassy in Bucharest.[121]
  • Both countries are full members of the Latin Union, of NATO and of the European Union.
  • There are around 730,000 people of Romanian descent living in Spain.
 Russia 1520 See Russia–Spain relations

Spain and the Grand Duchy of Moscow first exchanged envoys in the 1520s; regular embassies were established in 1722. Soviet-Spanish relations, once terminated after the Spanish Civil War, were gradually reestablished since 1963 and fully established in 1977. Trade between two countries amounts to two billion Euros (2008); in March 2009 two countries signed an energy agreement providing national energy companies access to other party's domestic markets.

 Serbia 14 October 1916 See Serbia–Spain relations
 Ukraine 30 January 1992
 United Kingdom See Spain–United Kingdom relations

The 2001 UK Census recorded 54,482 Spanish-born people living in the UK.[128] In comparison, it is estimated that 100,000 British-born people live in Spain.[citation needed]

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Australia 26 October 1967 See Australia–Spain relations
 New Zealand 28 March 1969 See New Zealand–Spain relations

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cortada, James W. Spain in the Twentieth-Century World: Essays on Spanish Diplomacy, 1898-1978 (1980) online
  • Cortada, James W. A Bibliographic Guide to Spanish Diplomatic History, 1460-1977 (Greenwood Press, 1977) 390 pages
  • Garcia Cantalapiedra, David, and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, Contemporary Spanish Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2014). text
  • Gillespie, Richard (April 2007). "Spanish foreign policy: party alternatives or the pursuit of consensus?". Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans. 9 (1): 29–45. doi:10.1080/14613190701216995.

Historical[edit]

  • Black, Jeremy. The Rise of the European Powers, 1679-1793 (1990) excerpt and text search, 220pp
  • Cortada, James W. Spain in the Nineteenth-Century World: Essays on Spanish Diplomacy, 1789-1898 (1994)
    • Cortada, James W. Spain in the Twentieth-Century World: Essays on Spanish Diplomacy, 1898-1978 (1980)
  • Elliott, J. H. Imperial Spain: 1469-1716 (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Elliott, J. H. Spain, Europe and the Wider World 1500-1800 (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Kamen, Henry. Empire: how Spain became a world power, 1492-1763 ( 2004).
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973), very detailed outline
  • Mckay, Derek and H.M. Scott. The Rise of the Great Powers 1648 - 1815 (1983)
  • Merriman, R. B. The Rise of the Spanish Empire in the Old World and in the New (4 vols, 1918) online free vol 1-2-4
  • Mowat, R. B. A History of European Diplomacy, 1451-1789 (1928), basic introduction online
  • New Cambridge Modern History vol III. The Counter-Reformation and price revolution, 1559-1610 (1968) ed by R. B. Wernham; ch 6, 9, 17
  • New Cambridge Modern History vol IV. The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War 1609-48/59 (1970) ed, by J. P. Cooper, ch 9, 15,23
  • Parker, Geoffrey. Philip II (4th ed. 2002) excerpt and text search
  • Payne, Stanley G. The Franco Regime, 1936-1975 (1987)
  • Slape, Emily, ed. The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia (2 vol ABC-CLIO, 2016).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Política exterior española, un balance de futuro. José María Beneyto, 2011, p 425, ch 11 by Florentino Rodao
  2. ^ Embassy of Equatorial Guinea in Spain (in French and Spanish)
  3. ^ Embassy of Spain in Equatorial Guinea (in Spanish)
  4. ^ Embassy of Spain in Rabat (in English and Spanish)
  5. ^ Sahrawi Delegation in Madrid (in Spanish)
  6. ^ Sahrawi Delegation in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  7. ^ Embassy of Argentina in Madrid (in English and Spanish)
  8. ^ Embassy of Spain in Buenos Aires (in Spanish)
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2009/09/2009914223014746611.html
  11. ^ Embassy of Bolivia in Madrid (in Spanish)
  12. ^ Embassy of Spain in La Paz (in Spanish)
  13. ^ Embassy of Brazil in Spain (in Portuguese and Spanish)
  14. ^ Embassy of Spain in Brazil (in Portuguese and Spanish)
  15. ^ Embassy of Canada in Madrid
  16. ^ Embassy of Spain in Ottawa
  17. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Montreal
  18. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Toronto
  19. ^ Embassy of Chile in Madrid (in Spanish)
  20. ^ Consulate-General of Chile in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  21. ^ Embassy of Spain in Santiago (in Spanish)
  22. ^ Embassy of Colombia in Madrid (in Spanish)
  23. ^ Embassy of Spain in Bogota (in Spanish)
  24. ^ Embassy of Costa Rica in Spain
  25. ^ Embassy of Spain in Costa Rica
  26. ^ Embassy of Cuba in Madrid (in Spanish)
  27. ^ Embassy of Spain in Havana (in Spanish) Archived 2013-03-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ Embassy of the Dominican Republic in Madrid (in Spanish)
  29. ^ Embassy of Spain in Santo Domingo (in Spanish)
  30. ^ Embassy of Ecuador in Madrid (in Spanish)
  31. ^ Embassy of Spain in Quito (in Spanish)
  32. ^ Embassy of El Salvador in Madrid (in Spanish)
  33. ^ Embassy of Spain in San Salvador in (in Spanish)
  34. ^ Embassy of Guatemala in Spain (in Spanish)
  35. ^ Embassy of Spain in Guatemala (in Spanish)
  36. ^ Embassy of Spain in Haiti
  37. ^ Embassy of Honduras in Madrid (in Spanish)
  38. ^ Embassy of Spain in Managua (in Spanish)
  39. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Madrid (in Spanish)
  40. ^ Consulate of Mexico in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  41. ^ Embassy of Spain in Mexico City (in Spanish)
  42. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Guadalajara (in Spanish)
  43. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Monterrey (in Spanish)
  44. ^ Embassy of Spain in Managua (in Spanish)
  45. ^ Embassy of Panama in Madrid (in Spanish)
  46. ^ Embassy of Spain in Panama City (in Spanish)
  47. ^ Embassy of Paraguay in Madrid (in Spanish only)
  48. ^ Consulate-General of Paraguay in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  49. ^ Consulate-General of Paraguay in Málaga (in Spanish)
  50. ^ Embassy of Spain in Asunción (in Spanish)
  51. ^ Embassy of Peru in Madrid
  52. ^ Embassy of Spain in Lima
  53. ^ "Renewable Energy in Spain: Details on the Government's New FIT Regulation".
  54. ^ "Obama's Transportation Secretary Impressed by Spain's AVE".
  55. ^ "Spain offers to help Obama in closing Guantanamo".
  56. ^ Emabassy of Spain in Washington, DC (in English and Spanish)
  57. ^ Embassy of the United States in Madrid (in English and Spanish)
  58. ^ Embassy of Uruguay in Madrid (in Spanish)
  59. ^ Consulate-General of Uruguay in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  60. ^ Consulate-General of Uruguay in Las Palmas (in Spanish)
  61. ^ Consulate-General of Uruguay in Santiago de Compostela (in Spanish)
  62. ^ Embassy of Spain in Montevideo (in Spanish)
  63. ^ Embassy of Venezuela in Madrid (in Spanish)
  64. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  65. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Bilbao (in Spanish)
  66. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in Spanish)
  67. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Vigo (in Spanish)
  68. ^ Embassy of Spain in Caracas (in Spanish)
  69. ^ Embassy of Armenia in Madrid (in Armenian, English and Spanish)
  70. ^ Indian Embassy in Madrid
  71. ^ Honorary Consulate Generals of India in Spain
  72. ^ Spanish Embassy in India
  73. ^ Embassy of Israel in Madrid (in Hebrew and Spanish)
  74. ^ Embassy pf Spain in Tel Aviv (in English and Spanish)
  75. ^ Embassy of Japan in Madrid
  76. ^ Embassy of Spain in Tokyo
  77. ^ Embassy of Kazakhstan in Madrid
  78. ^ Embassy of Spain in Astana
  79. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2011-01-23.
  80. ^ Embassy of the Philippines in Madrid (in Spanish)
  81. ^ Embassy of Spain in Manila (in English and Spanish)
  82. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070823/1_24610.jsp?menu=m_30_40
  83. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070823/1_24610.jsp?menu=m_30_40
  84. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/press/pressreleases/index.jsp?menu=m_10_20&sp=/webmodule/htsboard/template/read/engreadboard.jsp%3FtypeID=12%26boardid=302%26seqno=315297
  85. ^ http://whic.mofa.go.kr/board.do?menuNo=100&boardConfigNo=35&boardNo=10851&action=view
  86. ^ Embassy of South Korea in Madrid (in Korean and Spanish)
  87. ^ Embassy of Spain in Seoul (in English and Spanish)
  88. ^ Embassy of Spain in Ankara (in Spanish and Turkish)
  89. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Madrid (in Spanish and Turkish)
  90. ^ Embassy of Albania in Madrid (in English and Spanish)
  91. ^ Embassy of Spain in Tirana (in Spanish)
  92. ^ Embassy of Andorra in Madrid (in Spanish)
  93. ^ Embassy of Spain in Andorra la Vella (in English and Spanish)
  94. ^ Embassy of Bulgaria in Madrid (in Bulgarian, English and Spanish)
  95. ^ Embassy of Spain in Sofia (in Bulgarian and Spanish)
  96. ^ Embassy of Croatia in Madrid (in Croatian and Spanish)
  97. ^ Embassy of Spain in Zagreb (in Croatian, English and Spanish)
  98. ^ Embassy of Denmark in Madrid (in Danish and Spanish)
  99. ^ Embassy of Spain in Copenhagen (in Danish, English and Spanish)
  100. ^ Embassy of France in Madrid (in French and Spanish)
  101. ^ Embassy of Spain in Paris (in French and Spanish)
  102. ^ Embassy of Germany in Madrid (in German and Spanish)
  103. ^ Embassy of Spain in Berlin (in German and Spanish)
  104. ^ Embassy of Greece in Madrid (in Greek and Spanish)
  105. ^ Embassy of Spain in Athens (in English and Spanish)
  106. ^ Embassy of Spain to the Holy See (in Spanish)
  107. ^ Embassy of Hungary in Madrid (in Hungarian and Spanish)
  108. ^ Embassy of Spain in Budapest (in English and Spanish)
  109. ^ Embassy of Ireland in Madrid (in English and Spanish)
  110. ^ Embassy of Spain in Dublin (in English and Spanish)
  111. ^ Embassy of Italy in Madrid (in Italian and Spanish)
  112. ^ Embassy of Spain in Rome (in Italian and Spanish)
  113. ^ List of Maltese representations in Spain
  114. ^ Embassy of Spain in Valletta (in Spanish)
  115. ^ Embassy of Moldova in Madrid (in Moldovan)
  116. ^ "Extranjeros con tarjeta de residencia en vigor incluidos en el Régimen General según nacionalidad y tipo de autorización de residencia. 31-12-2008". Secretaría de Estado de Inmigración y Emigración. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
  117. ^ "Moldova". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
  118. ^ Embassy of Portugal in Madrid (in Portuguese and Spanish)
  119. ^ Embassy of Spain in Lisbon (in Portuguese and Spanish)
  120. ^ Embassy of Romania in Madrid (in Romanian and Spanish)
  121. ^ Embassy of Spain in Bucharest (in English, Romanian and Spanish)
  122. ^ Embassy of Russia in Madrid (in Russian and Spanish)
  123. ^ Embassy of Spain in Moscow (in English and Spanish)
  124. ^ Embassy of Serbia in Madrid (in Serbian and Spanish) Archived 2014-11-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  125. ^ Embassy of Spain in Belgrade (in Serbian and Spanish only)
  126. ^ Embassy of Spain in Kiev (in Spanish and Ukrainian)
  127. ^ Embassy of Ukraine in Madrid (in Spanish and Ukrainian)
  128. ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  129. ^ Embassy of Spain in London (in English and Spanish)
  130. ^ Embassy of the United Kingdom in Madrid
  131. ^ Embassy of Australia in Spain
  132. ^ Embassy of Spain in Australia
  133. ^ Embassy of New Zealand in Madrid
  134. ^ Embassy of Spain in Wellington