Foreign relations of Tajikistan
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politics and government of
Foreign relations of Tajikistan are based on a desire to secure foreign investment and promote regional security while ensuring Tajikistan's independence. Sirodjidin Mukhridinovich Aslov is the Foreign Minister of Tajikistan.
- 1 Disputes
- 2 Bilateral relations
- 3 Inter-governmental organisation membership
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
- Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 October 1992 by protocol.
- Armenia is represented in Tajikistan through its embassy in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan and an honorary consulate in Dushanbe.
- Tajikistan is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
- Both countries are members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Collective Security Treaty Organization and Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area.
Relations with neighboring Afghanistan began in 1992 and are generally satisfactory. The areas which form the two countries were once connected, especially during the Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Timurid periods. After a friendship treaty in 1750 between Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan and Mohammad Murad Beg of Bukhara, the Amu Darya (Oxus River) became the official border of Afghanistan. The Persian language is widely used in both countries, and there are slightly more Tajiks in Afghanistan than Tajikistan.
In January 2007, with funding from the United States, Afghanistan and Tajikistan opened a bridge over the Pyanj River linking the two countries. Although the goal is to improve trade, the president of Tajikistan expressed concern that it could also increase drug traffic. In March 2008, Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan issued a joint communique for expanding economic and cultural relations, including improving security. In January 2009, the Afghan government agreed that Tajikistan owned 3,000 hectares of disputed land along the Pyanj River. The issue arose when the river shifted course, leaving several Tajik cotton fields on the Afghan side of the river.
Although both member of CIS, the economic relations between Azerbaijan and Tajikistan stays at a marginal level. However, in July 2012, Tajik Aluminium Company (TALCO) and Azerbaijani company Azeraluminium signed a cooperation agreement during the official visit of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon to the Republic of Azerbaijan for the construction of an oil refinery in the south of Tajikistan.
At the time of independence, portions of the Tajik boundary with the People's Republic of China were not defined. This boundary dispute was settled in agreements signed in 2002 that would cede 1,000 km² of the Pamir mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28,000 km² of Tajik lands.
In 2016 the official press agency of the People's Republic of China announced that the state will set up an anti-terrorism alliance with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 April 2011.
Foreign Minister Zarifi met with Miguel Angel Moratinos, the Foreign Minister of Spain and the Chairman of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, on April 14, 2007. Moratinos praised Tajikistan's role in improving regional security and borders. He expressed his and the OSCE's support for changing a draft law on non-governmental organizations.
Diplomatic relations between India and Tajikistan were established soon after Tajikistan gained independence following the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. Tajikistan occupies a strategically important position in Central Asia, bordering Afghanistan and the People's Republic of China and separated by a small strip of Afghan territory from Pakistan. India's role in fighting the Taliban and al-Qaeda and its strategic rivalry with both China and Pakistan have made its ties with Tajikistan important to its strategic and security policies. India's military presence and activities have been significant, beginning with India's extensive support to the anti-Taliban Afghan Northern Alliance (ANA).
In 2002, India undertook a US$10 million project to upgrade an old Soviet military base in Ayni, Tajikistan which would support the Northern Alliance forces. The base also had a hospital to treat injured anti-Taliban forces. India provided extensive counter-insurgency military training to Tajikistan and also supplied them with new aircraft. In 2003, the two countries also held a military exercise, the first such war-game by Indian troops in Central Asia. Following the downfall of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, the two countries signed a military agreement to increase military cooperation. Under this agreement, India has deployed 17 Mil Mi-17 helicopters and 150 Indian Army personnel at the Farkhor Air Base with a plan to deploy at least 12 IAF MiG-29s.
Despite their common efforts, bilateral trade has been comparatively low, valued at US$12.09 million in 2005; India's exports to Tajikistan were valued at US$6.2 million and its imports at US$5.89 million. A Tajik proposal to transmit electric power to India is currently under review. India gave US$2 million worth emergency aid to Tajikistan during the 2008 Central Asia energy crisis.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan has enjoyed a close relationship with Iran, helped along via a shared Persian identity. Iran was the first nation to establish an embassy in Dushanbe. It was also one of the first countries to extend diplomatic recognition of the newly independent Tajikistan in 1991. Iran provided diplomatic assistance and built new mosques within Tajikistan. Due to the resurgence of Iranian culture within Tajikistan, Iran helped encourage cultural exchange through conferences, media, and film festivals. Iranian television programs, magazines, and books became increasingly common in Tajikistan.
However, despite the many things the nations have in common, there are also vast differences. Tajikistan's post communist government is secular while Iran's is Islamic. Furthermore, Iran is a predominantly Shia nation while Tajikistan is Sunni. The leading figures of the Islamic revival movement in Tajikistan have stated that Iran would not be a model for whatever Islamic government they advocate for Tajikistan.
As of 2011 Iran is the second largest investor in Tajikistan after China.
Diplomatic relations between Japan and Tajikistan were established on 2 February 1992. Japan opened an embassy at Dushanbe in January 2002, and Tajikistan opened an embassy in Tokyo in November 2007.
The Tajik embassy in Putrajaya is currently under construction. Both countries have been enjoying warm diplomatic relations since the relations were established on 11 March 1992, and are willing to make constructive efforts towards progress.
Relations between the two states were established when the republic of Tajikistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. Trade and cooperation has steadily grown between the two nations, with several summits being held on how to improve trade between the two nations. Although relations between the two countries had been strained by the situation in Afghanistan which shares a border with both countries.
In March 2008 Said Saidbaig, the Tajik Ambassador, announced that his country would be able to export cheap electricity to Pakistan and Iran.
There are hundreds of thousands Tajiks living in Pakistan, although nearly all are from Afghanistan, not Tajikistan.
Until 2005, Russia had 11,000 border guards manning the Tajik frontier with Afghanistan. In September 2012, and after months of negotiating, Russia and Tajikistan have reached an agreement on what Russia will pay for its bases in Tajikistan and extended the lease to 20 or 29 years. The bases are used for 9,000 Russian troops of the 201st Motor Rifle Division. The new deal with Tajikistan makes it worthwhile for Russia to upgrade the four army camps and one air base they occupy. To get the long lease, Russia agreed to sell Tajikistan weapons and military equipment at a sharp discount and train Tajik officers in Russian schools, for free, for the duration of the deal. Tajikistan also promises to help keep the heroin out of Russia.
- Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 9 September 1995.
- In 2011, the total trade value amounted EUR 5,64 million.
U.S.-Tajik relations have developed considerably since September 11, 2001. The two countries now have a broad-based relationship, cooperating in such areas as counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, and regional growth and stability. In light of the Russian border forces' withdrawal from the Tajik-Afghan border, the U.S. Government leads an international donor effort to enhance Tajikistan's territorial integrity, prevent the transit of narcotics and material or technology related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and support a stable, peaceful Tajikistan in order to prevent the spread of influence and activities of radical groups and terrorists.
Inter-governmental organisation membership
Tajikistan is a member of the following international organisations:
- United Nations
- World Bank
- International Monetary Fund (IMF)
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
- Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
- Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
- Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
- Eurasian Economic Community (EUASEC)
- Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
- "Aslov Sirodjidin Muhridinovich - Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan". The Embassy of the Republic of Tajikistan to the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
- CIA World Factbook 2000 says, "territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area; periodic target of Islamic terrorists from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan"
- "Tajiks of Afghanistan". Afghan Network. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- "Tajikistan, Afghanistan Open New Border Bridge". Javno.com. August 26, 2007. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- "Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan to bolster economic, cultural ties". Parvand. 2008-03-26. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- "Afghanistan Cedes Disputed Land To Tajikistan". Radio Free Europe. January 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- "Azerbaijan Intends to Build Oil Refinery in Tajikistan". he Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Reuters (4 August 2016). "China joins Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan in security alliance". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- OSCE chief says Tajikistan helping secure region RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty
- "Asia Times Online :: South Asia news - India makes a soft landing in Tajikistan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Defence & Security Intelligence & Analysis - IHS Jane's 360". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- India, Tajikistan to boost military cooperation. Expressindia.com (2002-04-27). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
- India, Tajikistan to hold military exercises - news. Siliconindia.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
- India's first overseas 'military base' taking shape in Tajikistan
- Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan. Atimes.com (2008-02-01). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
- India, Tajikistan To Develop Bilateral Trade
-  Archived June 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- India offers $2 million aid to cold-hit Tajikistan. Thaindian.com (2008-03-04). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) of Japan
- "CONTINUATION OF STATE VISIT OF THE PRESIDENT OF TAJIKISTAN TO MALAYSIA". Khovar. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Emomali Rahmon Instructs Tajik Diplomats to Start Their Mission in Malaysia". Avesta (Tajikistan). 24 June 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Relations of Tajikistan with Malaysia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tajikistan. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Pakistan, Tajikistan agree to boost trade
- Musharraf leaves for Tajikistan on Sunday
- "BBC News - South Asia - Tajikistan warns Pakistan over Taleban". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Tajikistan to supply cheap power to Pakistan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Russians Continue to Guard the Tajik Border with Afghanistan". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 21 September 2012.
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes).Tajikistan. State.gov (2010-09-22). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.