Foreign relations of Ukraine

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politics and government of
Ukraine

Ukraine has formal relations with many nations and in recent decades has been establishing diplomatic relations with an expanding circle of nations. The foreign relations of Ukraine are guided by a number of key priorities outlined in the foreign policy of Ukraine.

Western relations[edit]

Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. The European Union's Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Ukraine went into force on March 1, 1998. The European Union (EU) has encouraged Ukraine to implement the PCA fully before discussions begin on an association agreement. The EU Common Strategy toward Ukraine, issued at the EU Summit in December 1999 in Helsinki, recognizes Ukraine's long-term aspirations but does not discuss association. On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe—OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine also has a close relationship with NATO and has declared interest in eventual membership. It is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). Former President Viktor Yushchenko indicated that he supports Ukraine joining the EU in the future. Plans for Ukrainian membership to NATO were shelved by Ukraine following the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election in which Viktor Yanukovych was elected President.[1] Yanukovych opted to keep Ukraine a non-aligned state.[2] This materialized on June 3, 2010 when the Ukrainian parliament (Verkhovna Rada) excluded, with 226 votes, the goal of "integration into Euro-Atlantic security and NATO membership" from the country's national security strategy giving the country a non-aligned status.[3][4] "European integration" has remained part of Ukraine's national security strategy and co-operation with NATO was not excluded.[4] Ukraine then considered relations with NATO as a partnership.[5][6] Ukraine and NATO continued to hold joint seminars and joint tactical and strategical exercises.[7][8] After February 2014's Yanukovych ouster and following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine (which Russia denies) Ukraine renewed its drive for NATO membership.[3] On 23 December 2014 the Verkhovna Rada abolished, with 303 votes, Ukraine's non-aligned status.[3]

Diplomatic missions of Ukraine

Relations with CIS states[edit]

Ukraine maintains peaceful and constructive relations with all its neighbors[citation needed]; it has especially close ties with Russia and Poland. Relations with the former are complicated by energy dependence and by payment arrears. However, relations have improved with the 1998 ratification of the bilateral Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. Also, the two sides have signed a series of agreements on the final division and disposition of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet that have helped to reduce tensions. Ukraine became a (non-official) member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on December 8, 1991, but in January 1993 it refused to endorse a draft charter strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members, and completely ceased to participate as a member in March 2014. Ukraine was a founding member of GUAM (Georgia-Ukraine-Azerbaijan-Moldova).

In 1999–2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia. Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since 1992.

Leonid Derkach (chairman of the SBU, which is Ukraine's security service, successor to the KGB) was fired due to Western pressure after he organized the sale of radar systems to Iraq while such sales were embargoed.[9]

International disputes[edit]

Belarus[edit]

The 1997 boundary treaty with Belarus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security.

Russia[edit]

Delimitation of the land boundary with Russia is incomplete, but the parties have agreed to defer demarcation. The maritime boundary through the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[10] A recent shock to Ukraine-Russia relations came when hackers the latter reportedly hacked Ukraine's power grids leading to a blackout and widespread terror.

Moldova[edit]

Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria Region which remains under OSCE supervision.

Romania[edit]

Ukraine and Romania have settled their dispute over the Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and the Black Sea maritime boundary at the International Court of Justice. The 2010 CIA World Factbook states that "Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea".[citation needed]

Investment promotion[edit]

State enterprise InvestUkraine was created[11] under the State Agency for Investment and National Projects (National Projects)[12] to serve as a One Stop Shop for investors and to deliver investment consulting services.

Relations by country[edit]

Multi-national[edit]

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union 2009 See Ukraine–European Union relations, Council of Europe

The Eastern Partnership is meant to complement the Northern Dimension by providing an institutionalised forum for discussing visa agreements, free trade deals and strategic partnership agreements with the EU's eastern neighbours.

 United Nations 1945 / 1992 See Economic Commission of Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
 NATO 1995 See Ukraine–NATO relations, Partnership for Peace program, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
 Commonwealth of Independent States 1991 Participating (not as an official member)

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1993 See Algeria–Ukraine relations
  • Algeria recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1992.
  • Algeria has an embassy in Kiev.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Algiers (opened in 1999).[13]
  • Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in 1993. Soon (1993–1994) military and trade agreements between two countries were signed.[13]
 Egypt See Foreign relations of Egypt
 Guinea Ukraine has shown support for military dictatorships in Guinea by supplying the militia of Moussa Dadis Camara.[14]
 South Africa See South Africa – Ukraine relations
  • South Africa established its Embassy in Kiev in October 1992.[15]
  • Ukraine established its Embassy in Pretoria in 1995.[16]

Asia and Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia See Armenia–Ukraine relations

February

 Australia
 Azerbaijan 1992 See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations

Azerbaijan plays an important role in the foreign policy of Ukraine due its strategic role. Both countries are among the founding members of GUAM and after the independence from Soviet Union, they've remained very close friendship. The relations of strategic cooperation, political, economical and cultural relations between two countries are at very high level. Azerbaijan has an embassy in Kiev.[19] Ukraine has an embassy in Baku.[20] There are about 32.000 Ukrainians live in Azerbaijan, while there are over 45,000 Azerbaijanis in Ukraine. The two countries support each other in entering international organizations.[21] Ukraine supports the peaceful resolution of the conflict of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict within the framework of Azerbaijan's territorial integrity and ready to take part in possible peacekeeping operation under the mandate of the United Nations. Azerbaijan also helped Ukraine in to shelter Chernobyl sarcophagus.

 Georgia See Georgia–Ukraine relations

Since their independence from the Soviet Union, both countries consider each other as strategic partners and have forged close political and cultural relations. During the Shevardnadze era, the Georgian government maintained its close relations with Ukraine. However, the relationship has further enhanced after Rose Revolution in Georgia and Orange Revolution in Ukraine. During the Orange Revolutions, many Georgians rallied in Kiev in support of Viktor Yushchenko. Both countries maintain pro-western political orientation and aspire to join NATO and the European Union. The close friendship between Presidents Mikheil Saakashvili and Viktor Yushchenko has also played an important role in recent political and cultural unity of the two countries. However, the cultural and political unity between two nations existed long ago. There are many cultural events in both courtiers, celebrating close relations between Georgian and Ukrainian people. In 2007, Georgians unveiled a statue to Taras Shevchenko in Tbilisi while Ukrainians erected the statue of Georgia’s epic poet Shota Rustaveli in Kiev.

 India See India–Ukraine relations

The Indian Embassy in Kiev was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its Mission in New Delhi in February 1993. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 till its closure in March 1999.

 Indonesia See Foreign relations of Indonesia
 Iraq See Iraq–Ukraine relations

Ukraine has an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq has an embassy in Kiev. A small contingent of Ukraine operated in Iraq in the wake of the invasion of Iraq mainly concerning police work and reconstruction.

 Israel 1992 See Israel–Ukraine relations
 Japan See Japan–Ukraine relations

Japan extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on December 28, 1991, immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union and full diplomatic relations were established on January 26, 1992. Ukraine maintains an embassy in Tokyo,[24] and Japan maintains an embassy in Kiev.[25]

 Kazakhstan 1991 See Kazakhstan–Ukraine relations
 Malaysia 1992-03-03 See Malaysia–Ukraine relations
 New Zealand 1992-02-27

New Zealand recognized Ukraine as independent state on 27 February 1992 Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on March 3, 1992. Since 2015, the New Zealand Embassy in Warsaw (Poland) has been accredited to act as New Zealand's embassy to Ukraine. Since October 2008 the Honorary Consulate of New Zealand operates in Kyiv. In December 2007 The Embassy of Ukraine in Australia was accredited to act as Ukraine's embassy for New Zealand. In April 2006 New Zealand's Minister for Foreign Affairs paid an official visit Ukraine.[30]

 Pakistan 1992 See Pakistan–Ukraine relations
  • Pakistan recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1991.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Kiev.[31]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Islamabad.[32]
  • Ukraine and Pakistan have been cooperating with each other in educational sector as well as cultural exchanges. Pakistan and Ukraine are also heavily cooperating with each other in aerospace engineering, aerospace technologies, bio-medical sciences and science and technology.
 People's Republic of China See People's Republic of China – Ukraine relations

China has an embassy in Kiev and a Consulate-General in Odessa. Ukraine has an embassy in Beijing and a Consulate-General in Shanghai. Chinese Ukrainian trade relations have intensified since 2008[33] and are growing, for instance various Chinese companies are interested in investing in the construction of a large orbital road around Kiev and in building a number of bridges across the Dnipro River.[34] China intends to provide a loan of 25 million yuan (about USD 3.7 million) to Ukraine.[35]

 Saudi Arabia 1993-04 See Saudi Arabia – Ukraine relations
  • Saudi Arabia recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1992.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Riyadh and an honorary consulate in Jeddah.[36]
  • In January 2003, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma made an official visit to Saudi Arabia.
 Singapore 1992-05-31 See Singapore–Ukraine relations
  • Singapore recognized Ukraine’s independence on January 2, 1992.
  • Singapore is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[37]
  • Since December 2002, Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Singapore.[38]
  • In 2007, the two countries commenced negotiations for a free trade agreement.[39] In 2006, Ukraine was Singapore's 55th largest trading partner last year, with total trade amounting to S$774 million [40]
  • In 2007, the two countries signed a double taxation agreement.[41]
 North Korea See Foreign relations of North Korea
 South Korea 10 February 1992[42] See South Korea–Ukraine relations
 Turkey See Turkish–Ukrainian relations

Turkey and Ukraine have a long chronology of historical, geographic, and cultural contact. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in early 1990s when Turkey became one of the first states in the world to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Ukraine. Turkey has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate general in Odessa.[43] Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul.[44]

 Thailand See Thailand–Ukraine relations
  • Thailand is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Bangkok.
 Vietnam See Ukraine–Vietnam relations

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria 1992 See Austria–Ukraine relations

Ukraine includes a great deal of territory (some later part of Poland or Czechoslovakia before 1939) that used to be part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, most of the Chernivtsi Oblast and the Zakarpattia Oblast. Austria has an embassy in Kiev and 3 honorary consulates (in Donetsk, Kharkiv and Lviv). Ukraine has an embassy in Vienna and 2 honorary consulates (in Klagenfurt and Salzburg).

 Belarus See Belarus–Ukraine relations

Today, the two countries share 891 km of border. Belarus has an embassy in Kiev and an honorary consulate in Lviv[45] Ukraine has an embassy in Minsk and a general consulate in Brest.[46] Both countries are full members of the Baku Initiative, Common Economic Space, Central European Initiative and Commonwealth of Independent States.

 Belgium 1992 See Belgium–Ukraine relations

Belgium has an embassy in Kiev; Ukraine has an embassy in Brussels and two honorary consulates (in Antwerp and Mons). Although politically the two nations are not closely connected, they have a long history of economic integration and trade, with Belgian investment playing a role in the contemporary Ukrainian economy. As of 2008, trade revenue generated between the two nations accounted for approximately USD1 billion.

 Bulgaria 1992 See Bulgaria–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992. Bulgaria has an embassy in Kiev and a Consulate-General in Odessa.[47] Ukraine has an embassy in Sofia and a Consulate-General in Varna.

 Croatia 1992 See Croatia–Ukraine relations
 Cyprus 1992
 Czech Republic 1992 See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
 Denmark 1992 See Denmark-Ukraine relations
 Estonia 1992 See Foreign relations of Estonia
 Finland 1992 See Foreign relations of Finland
 France 1992 See Foreign relations of France
 Germany 1918 See Germany–Ukraine relations
 Greece 1992 See Foreign relations of Greece
 Holy See See Foreign relations of the Holy See
 Hungary See Foreign relations of Hungary
 Iceland See Foreign relations of Iceland
 Ireland See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland
 Italy See Foreign relations of Italy
 Latvia 1992-02-12 See Latvia–Ukraine relations
 Lithuania See Lithuania–Ukraine relations
 Malta See Malta–Ukraine relations

The Maltese embassy in Moscow (Russia) is also accredited as a non resident embassy to Ukraine. Ukraine is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy).

 Moldova See Moldova–Ukraine relations

Ukraine opened an Embassy in Chişinău in[citation needed] and a Consulate in Balti in 2005. The Ukrainian ambassador in Chişinău is Serhiy Pirozhkov. The border between Moldova and Ukraine is 985 kilometers. Ukrainians are the second largest ethnicity group in Moldova after ethnic Moldavians. There are 442,346 of Ukrainians in Moldova, which represents 11.2% of the population. Moldavians are the fourth ethnic minority in Ukraine[citation needed]. As of 2001 Ukrainian Census, there were 258,600 Moldavians in Ukraine[citation needed] – which represents 0,5% of the Ukrainian population. For 70.0% of Moldavian speaking Ukrainians[citation needed], Russian 17.6% and Ukrainian 10.7% are the native languages.

 Montenegro See Montenegro–Ukraine relations

Ukraine recognized the Republic of Montenegro on June 15, 2006.[58] Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 22, 2006. The Ukrainian embassy in Belgrade (Serbia) is accredited as a non resident embassy to Montenegro. In 2008, both countries indicated an intent to open resident embassies.[59]

 Netherlands 1992 See Netherlands–Ukraine relations
 Norway 1992 See Norway–Ukraine relations
 Poland See Poland–Ukraine relations

Poland was the first country in the World to recognize Ukrainian independence. The relations have been improving since, with Poland and Ukraine forming a strong strategic partnership.[64] Various controversies from their shared history occasionally resurface in Polish-Ukrainian relations, but they are not having a major influence on the bilateral relations of Poland and Ukraine.[65]

Both countries share a border of about 529 km.[66] Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure.[67]

 Portugal 1992 See Portugal–Ukraine relations
  • Portugal recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1991.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Kiev.
  • Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Lisbon and a consulate in Porto.[68]
  • There are between 40,000 and 150,000 Ukrainians living in Portugal.[citation needed]
 Romania 1992 See Romania–Ukraine relations
 Russia 1991 See Russia–Ukraine relations

Russia has an embassy in Kiev and consulates in Kharkiv, Lviv, Odessa and Simferopol. Ukraine has an embassy in Moscow and consulates in Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Tyumen and Vladivostok. Relations between the two country's governments have been unfriendly since the presidency of Leonid Kuchma expired. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[10] Some analysts believe that the current Russian leadership is determined to prevent a Russian equivalent of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution in Russia. This mindset is supposed to explain not only Russian domestic policy but its sensitivity over events abroad as well.[69] Many in Ukraine and beyond believe that Russia has periodically used its vast energy resources to bully its smaller, dependent neighbour, but the Russian Government argues instead that it is internal squabbling amongst Ukraine's political elite that is to blame for the deadlock.[70] Later Putin stated that the government of the Russian Federation respects the sovereignty of Ukraine, while several Russian parliamentaries as well some governors were claiming for the liquidation of Ukraine.

 Serbia 1994-01-01 See Serbia–Ukraine relations
  • Serbia recognized Ukraine in December 1991 by the decision on the recognition of the former republics of the Soviet Union.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Kiev.
 Slovakia 1993-01-01 See Slovakia–Ukraine relations
 Slovenia 1992-03-10
 Spain See Foreign relations of Spain
 Sweden 1992-01-13 See Sweden–Ukraine relations
  • Sweden has an embassy in Kiev and an honorary consulate in Kakhovka.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Stockholm.
  Switzerland See Switzerland–Ukraine relations

Contacts between Switzerland and Ukraine go back to Tsarist times. Switzerland recognized Ukraine in 1991 and immediately opened an embassy in Kiev.[76] Ukraine has an embassy in Bern.[77][78]

 United Kingdom See Ukraine – United Kingdom relations

North America[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Belize

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1999.[81]

 Canada See Canada–Ukraine relations

Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on January 27, 1992.[82] Canada opened its embassy in Kiev[83] in April 1992, and the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa opened in October of that same year, paid for mostly by donations from the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in 1993 and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in 2008.[84] Canada also has a consulate in L'viv.

 Mexico 1992-01-12 See Mexico–Ukraine relations
 Panama 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 May 1993.[87]

 United States See Ukraine–United States relations

The United States enjoys cordially friendly and strategic relations with Ukraine and attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine's transition to a democratic state with a flourishing free market economy.[88]

South America[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1992-01-06
 Brazil February 11, 1992 See Brazil-Ukraine relations

Brazil and Ukraine are strategic partners and cooperate in trade, space technology, education, energy, healthcare, and defense.[92] Brazil recognized Ukraine's independence on December 26, 1991, and bilateral relations were established on February 11, 1992.[93] The recent development of a joint space industry has strengthened the bilateral ties between the two countries.[92] Ukraine considers Brazil its key trade partner in Latin America and has been a vocal supporter of the Brazilian bid for a permanent seat at the United Nations Security Council.[92][94]

 Chile See Foreign relations of Chile
 Guyana 2001

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 November 2001.[95]

 Paraguay 1993-02-26 See Paraguay–Ukraine relations
  • Paraguay is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[96]
  • Ukraine is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and an honorary consulate in Asuncion.
  • There is an important community of people of Ukrainian origins in Paraguay (between 10,000 and 15,000 people), most of whom arrived at the beginning of the 20th century. (See also Ukrainians in Paraguay)
 Uruguay
  • Ukraine is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina).[97]
  • Uruguay is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and through an honorary consulate in Kiev.
  • There are around 10,000 people of Ukrainian descent living in Uruguay.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ukraine makes it official: Nation will abandon plans to join NATO, Kyiv Post (May 28, 2010)
  2. ^ Yanukovych opens door to Russian navy keeping base in Ukraine GlobalSecurity.org Retrieved on March 09, 2010
  3. ^ a b c Ukraine has no alternative to Euro-Atlantic integration – Ukraine has no alternative to Euro-Atlantic integration – Poroshenko, Interfax-Ukraine (23 December 2014)
    Ukraine abolishes its non-aligned status – law, Interfax-Ukraine (23 December 2014)
    Ukraine’s complicated path to NATO membership, Euronews (23 December 2014)
    Ukraine Takes Step Toward Joining NATO, New York Times (23 December 2014)
    Ukraine Ends ‘Nonaligned’ Status, Earning Quick Rebuke From Russia, The Wall Street journal (23 December 2014)
  4. ^ a b Ukraine drops NATO membership bid, EUobserver (June 6, 2010)
  5. ^ Yanukovych: Ukraine currently not ready to join NATO, Kyiv Post (May 27, 2010)
  6. ^ Yanukovych: Ukraine positively evaluates level of relations with NATO, Kyiv Post (September 21, 2011)
  7. ^ Ukraine, NATO to hold security exercises during Euro 2012, Kyiv Post (26 March 2012)
  8. ^ Yanukovych approves program of Ukraine-NATO cooperation for 2012, Kyiv Post (20 April 2012)
  9. ^ "Ukraine and Iraq refute newspaper's allegations of illegal weapons deals (07/21/02)". www.ukrweekly.com. Retrieved 2017-02-18. 
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  12. ^ "Ïðî óòâîðåííÿ Äåðæàâíîãî àãåíòñòâà Óêðà¿íè ç óïðàâë³ííÿ... - â³ä 30.06.2010 ¹ 570". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
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  26. ^ "Посольство Республики Казахстан в Украине и Республике Молдова". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
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  28. ^ "Redirecting". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  29. ^ "Посольство України в Малайзії". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  30. ^ http://australia.mfa.gov.ua/en/ukraine-new-zealand/diplomacy
  31. ^ "Ñòâîðåííÿ ñöåíàð³¿â ðîçãîðòàííÿ - Îãëÿä ñêðèïòîâûõ ìîâ - Python". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  32. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Islamabad Archived August 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ Ukraine hopes to step up trade, economic cooperation with China, says premier Archived February 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Interfax-Ukraine (June 22, 2009)
  34. ^ China wants to invest in construction of large ring road around Kiev, says Tymoshenko Archived February 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Interfax-Ukraine (June 22, 2009)
  35. ^ China To Provide Grant Of USD 3.7 Million To Ukraine[permanent dead link], Ukrainian News Agency (July 2, 2009)
  36. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Riyadh
  37. ^ "Embassy of The Republic of Singapore - Moscow". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  38. ^ "Welcome To - Fund Raising Auctioneers". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
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  44. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Ankara
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  46. ^ "Міністерство закордонних справ України". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  47. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Kiev (in Bulgarian only)
  48. ^ "Все о Кипре". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  49. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Nicosia
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  51. ^ "Ukrainian embassy in Paris". Mfa.gov.ua. Retrieved 2011-06-10. 
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  62. ^ Norwegian embassy in Kiev
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  64. ^ Zajączkowski, 2005.
  65. ^ Copsey, 2006.
  66. ^ (Polish) Informacje o Polsce – informacje ogólne Archived June 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Page gives Polish PWN Encyklopedia as reference.
  67. ^ Local Border Traffic Agreement With Poland Takes Effect, Ukrainian News Agency (July 1, 2009)
  68. ^ "Посольство України в Португальській Республіці". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  69. ^ Russia: World watching for any change, BBC News (March 3, 2008)
  70. ^ The rifts behind Europe's gas row, BBC News (January 8, 2009)
  71. ^ Slovak embassy in Kiev
  72. ^ "Посольство України в Словацькій Республіці". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  73. ^ Serhy Yekelchyk "Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation", Oxford University Press (2007), ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3 (page 128-130)
  74. ^ Slovenian embassy in Kiev
  75. ^ "Посольство України в Республіці Словенія". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  76. ^ "Swiss representation in Ukraine". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  77. ^ "UKRAINE - Informationsportal für die Schweiz". UKRAINE - Informationsportal für die Schweiz. Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  78. ^ "Посольство України в Швейцарській Конфедерації та в Князівстві Ліхтенштейн (за сумісництвом)". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  79. ^ British embassy in Kiev
  80. ^ "Посольство України у Сполученому Королівстві Великої Британії та Північної Ірландії". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  81. ^ [1]
  82. ^ For a detailed discussion of Canada's early diplomatic engagement with Canada, see Bohdan Kordan, "Canadian Ukrainian Relations: Articulating the Canadian Interest," in L. Hajda, ed. (1996), Ukraine in the World: Studies in the International Relations and Security Structure of a Newly Independent State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  83. ^ The capital of Ukraine (commonly "Kiev" in English) is officially recognized by both the Canadian and Ukrainian governments as Kyiv in all English communications (although not in French).
  84. ^ Edmonton Journal
  85. ^ Mexican embassy in Kiev (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
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