Foreign relations of Vietnam

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Foreign relations of Vietnam
  Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  Nations Vietnam recognizes and has diplomatic relations with
  Nations Vietnam recognizes and does not have diplomatic relations with
  Nations Vietnam does not recognize and has diplomatic relations with
Foreign ministry in Hanoi

As of September 2016, Vietnam (officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam) maintains diplomatic relationships with 188 nations throughout the world,[1] including permanent members of United Nations Security Council.[citation needed] In 2011 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, at the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, released an official statement about Vietnam's foreign policy and a section of the statement stated: "Vietnam is a friend and reliable partner of all countries in the international community, actively taking part in international and regional cooperation processes. Deepen, stabilize and sustain established international relations. Develop relations with countries and territories in the world, as well as international organizations, while showing: respect for each other's independence; sovereignty and territorial integrity; non-interference in each other's international affairs; non-use or threat of force; settlement of disagreements and disputes by means of peaceful negotiations; mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit."[2]

Key steps had been taken by Vietnam to restore diplomatic ties with key countries, Full diplomatic relations were restored with New Zealand who opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995, while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003. Pakistan reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000. Vietnam also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005. United States–Vietnam relations improved in August 1995, when both nations upgraded their liaison offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status, with the United States later opening a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opening a consulate in San Francisco.[3]


Feudal Vietnam[edit]

Vietnam is the country with the history for more than 4000 years and it always tries to maintain the good relationship with the other neighbour countries. From Hồng Bàng dynasty to many feudal dynasties like Ngô, Đinh, Early Lê, , Trần, Later Lê, Tây Sơn and Nguyễn dynasties, Vietnam only established its relation with some countries like Imperial China, Kingdom of Champa, Khmer Empire, Lan Xang kingdom and Siam. For trade, it also accepted to exchange goods and products with European Countries like Dutch East India company and Japan. Until the foundation of modern republic government in 1945, The modern diplomatic relation of Vietnam was officially established.

Post-World War II[edit]

+ Period 1945-1946: After the surrender of Japan, Both British and Chinese Kuomintang armies came into Vietnam territory to take the Japanese imperial army out of Indochina. Government of Democratic republic of Vietnam decided to have the peace agreement with Chiang Kai-shek of Kuomintang that stationed in the north Vietnam to let them pay attention to fight the French in the south. After that, Vietnam signed the peace treaty with France in 6/3/1946.
+ Period 1947-1954 : Vietnam started to expand their foreign relation with the other countries in the world. Typically, forming the alliance with Cambodia and Laos to make anti-French campaigns, building the friendship with the anti-colonial countries such as Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia and India.

Cold war era[edit]

Vietnam war[edit]

Emblem of Vietnam.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

During the Vietnam War (1959–75), North Vietnam balanced relations with its two major allies, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.

In 1964, Zhou Enlai, worried about the escalation of U.S. forces in South Vietnam, made an informal agreement with the North. The agreement stipulated that if U.S. and South Vietnamese forces invaded North Vietnam, the Chinese would respond by loaning pilots to the North. During the invasion, Mao Zedong failed to send as many trained pilots as he promised. As a result, the North became more reliant on the Soviet Union for its defense.[4]

President Vladimir Putin attending a traditional get-together of Vietnamese graduates of Soviet and Russian universities and colleges, March 2001

By 1975, tension began to grow as Beijing increasingly viewed Vietnam as a potential Soviet instrument to encircle China. Meanwhile, Beijing's increasing support for Cambodia's Khmer Rouge sparked Vietnamese suspicions of China's motives.

Vietnamese-Chinese relations deteriorated significantly after Hanoi instituted a ban in March 1978 on private trade, a move that particularly affected the Sino-Vietnamese sector of the population. Following Vietnam's December 1978 invasion of Cambodia, China launched a retaliatory invasion of Vietnam's northern border region. Faced with severance of Chinese aid and strained international relations, Vietnam established even closer ties with the Soviet Union and its allies in the Comecon member states. Throughout the 1980s, Vietnam received nearly US$3 billion a year in economic and military aid from the Soviet Union and conducted most of its trade with the U.S.S.R. and Comecon countries. Soviet and Eastern bloc economic aid, however, ceased after the break-up of the Soviet Union.

New Changed[edit]

Vietnam did not begin to emerge from international isolation until it withdrew its troops from Cambodia in 1989. Within months of the 1991 Paris Agreements, Vietnam established diplomatic and economic relations with Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states and also with most countries of Western Europe and Asia's Far East. China re-established full diplomatic ties with Vietnam in 1991. The two nations concluded a land border demarcation agreement in 1999.

In the past decade, Vietnam has recognized the importance of growing global economic interdependence and has made concerted efforts to adjust its foreign relations to reflect the evolving international economic and political situation in Southeast Asia. The country has begun to integrate itself into the regional and global economy by joining international organizations. Vietnam has stepped up its efforts to attract foreign capital from the West and regularize relations with the world financial system. In the 1990s, following the lifting of the US veto on multilateral loans to the country, Vietnam became a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Asian Development Bank. The country has expanded trade with its East Asian neighbors as well as with countries in Western Europe and North America. Of particular significance was Vietnam's acceptance into ASEAN in July 1995. Vietnam joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in November 1998 and also hosted the ASEAN summit the following month. In 2005, Vietnam attended the inaugural East Asia Summit. Vietnam became a member of the World Trade Organization in November 2006.

Current issues[edit]

Vietnamese troops on Spratly Island

While Vietnam has remained relatively conflict-free since its Cambodia days, tensions have arisen in the past between Vietnam and its neighbors, especially in the case of China since both nations assert claims to the Spratly Islands, an archipelago in a potentially oil-rich area of the South China Sea. Conflicting claims have produced over the years small scale armed altercations in the area. In 1988, more than 70 Vietnamese troops were killed during a confrontation with Chinese forces, when China occupied several islands under Vietnamese control in the Spratly Islands. China's assertion of control over the Spratly Islands and the entire South China Sea has elicited concern from Vietnam and its Southeast Asia neighbors. The territorial border between the two countries is being definitively mapped pursuant to a Land Border Agreement signed in December 1999, and an Agreement on Borders in the Gulf of Tonkin signed in December 2000. Vietnam and Russia declared a strategic partnership in March 2001 during the first visit ever to Hanoi of a Russian head of state, largely as an attempt to counterbalance China's growing profile in Southeast Asia.

Disputes – international: maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with the People's Republic of China (PRC), Malaysia, Philippines, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary with Thailand resolved in August 1997; maritime boundary dispute with the PRC in the Gulf of Tonkin resolved in 2000; Paracel Islands occupied by the PRC; offshore islands and sections of boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; agreement on land border with the People's Republic of China was signed in December 1999.

Illicit drugs: minor producer of opium poppy with 21 km2 cultivated in 1999, capable of producing 11 metric tons of opium; probably minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin destined for the US and Europe; growing opium/heroin addiction; possible small-scale heroin production

International relations[edit]


Southeast Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Brunei 29/2/1992 See Brunei–Vietnam relations

Brunei has an embassy in Hanoi, and Vietnam has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan.[5]

 Cambodia 24/6/1967 See Cambodia–Vietnam relations

Since the 1990s, relations between both nations have begun to improve. Both Vietnam and Cambodia are members of multilateral regional organizations such as ASEAN and the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation. Both nations have opened and developed cross-border trade and sought to relax visa regulations to that end.[6] Both governments have set official targets of increasing bilateral trade by 27% to USD 2.3 billion by 2010 and to USD 6.5 billion by 2015.[6][7] Vietnam exported USD 1.2 billion worth of goods to Cambodia in 2007. While Cambodia is only the 16th largest importer of Vietnamese goods, Vietnam is Cambodia's third-largest export market.[6]

 East Timor 28/7/2002 See East Timor–Vietnam relations
 Indonesia 30/12/1955 See Indonesia–Vietnam relations
  • Vietnam and Indonesia are both members of {ASEAN}, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • President Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia visited Vietnam in June 2003. At this time the two countries signed a "Declaration on the Framework of Friendly and Comprehensive Cooperation Entering the 21st Century".
  • In May 2005 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia visited Vietnam. In the December of the same year festivities were organized in the respective capital cities to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.[8] Due to the ongoing South China Sea disputes, both Vietnam and Indonesia has supported a restraint in militarizing the issue. China claims the EEZ of the Natuna Island of Indonesia, while it also claims most of the South China Sea including the Vietnam-claimed Paracel and Spratly islands.
 Laos 5/9/1962 See Laos-Vietnam relations

Although Vietnam's historical record of leadership in the revolution and its military power and proximity will not cease to exist, Laos struck out ahead of Vietnam with its New Economic Mechanism to introduce market mechanisms into its economy. In so doing, Laos has opened the door to rapprochement with Thailand and China at some expense to its special dependence on Vietnam. Laos might have reached the same point of normalization in following Vietnam's economic and diplomatic change, but by moving ahead resolutely and responding to Thai and Chinese gestures, Laos has broadened its range of donors, trading partners, and investors independent of Vietnam's attempts to accomplish the same goal. Thus, Vietnam remains in the shadows as a mentor and emergency ally, and the tutelage of Laos has shifted dramatically to development banks and international entrepreneurs.[9]

 Malaysia 30/3/1973 See Malaysia-Vietnam relations
 Myanmar 28/5/1975 See Myanmar-Vietnam relations
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Yangon
  • Myanmar has an embassy in Hanoi.
 Philippines 12/7/1976 See Philippines–Vietnam relations

Ever since the end of the Cold War relations between the Philippines and Vietnam has warmed rapidly. Today the Philippines and Vietnam are economic allies and have a free trade deal with each other. Both nations are a part of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The Philippines and Vietnam have conducted joint military exercises together in the South China Sea and are trying to find ways to turn the Spratly Islands from an area of conflict to an area of cooperation. Vietnam is also sometimes called the only communist military ally of the Philippines. The Philippines and Vietnam are also monitoring China's expansion into the South China Sea making sure that China is no threat to either Philippine or Vietnamese islands in the South China Sea. The Philippines also imports a large amount of writing material, clothes and other products from Vietnam. On May 2009, The Philippines has inked an agreement with Vietnam to cooperate in the fight against crimes and ensuring social order. On January 2010, the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Vietnam bourse "for mutual collaboration and communication of information and experience" to facilitate the development and efficient operations of both securities markets. In 2012, Vietnam sent two military assets for a good will visit to the Philippines. Both Vietnam and the Philippines have the same stand on the South China Sea disputes, patronizing multilateral talks and international court rulings to solve the issue, tactics which China has avoided. In 2016, the Philippines strengthened its stand on the dispute through a court ruling in an international court not associated with UN and poised to create stronger relations with Vietnam for strategic defense and economic cooperation.

 Singapore 1/8/1973 See Singapore–Vietnam relations
 Thailand 6/8/1976 See Thailand–Vietnam relations

Vietnam has an embassy in Bangkok, and Thailand has an embassy in Hanoi.

East Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 China 960 (Song)
18/1/1950 (PRC)
See People's Republic of China – Vietnam relations

After both sides resumed trade links in 1991, growth in bilateral trade has increased from USD $32 million in 1991 to almost USD 7.2 billion by 2004.[10] Both governments have set the target of increasing trade volume to USD 10 billion by 2010.[10] Vietnam's exports to China include crude oil, coal, coffee and food, while China exports pharmaceuticals, machinery, petroleum, fertilizers and automobile parts to Vietnam. China has become Vietnam's second-largest trading partner and the largest source of imports.[10][11] Both nations are working to establish an "economic corridor" from China's Yunnan to Vietnam's northern provinces and cities, and similar economic zones in the Gulf of Tonkin and connecting the Nanning of Guangxi province, Lang Son province, Hanoi, Haiphong and Quang Ninh province of Vietnam.[10] Air and sea transport as well as railway have been opened between the two countries, so have the 7 pairs of national-level ports in the frontier provinces and regions of the two countries.[11] Both sides have also launched joint ventures such as the Thai Nguyen Steel Complex, which produces hundreds of thousands of tones of steel products.[10]

 Taiwan 960 (Song)
unofficial relation (Now)
see Taiwan–Vietnam relations
 Japan 1605 (Tokugawa shogunate)
See Japan-Vietnam relations
  • Lord Nguyễn Hoàng started to send national letter to Tokugawa Ieyasu to invite Japanese merchant to come to Hội An in 1605
  • Prince Cường Để exiled in Japan in 1905
  • Việt Nam Duy Tân Hội (Vietnam Modernization Association) created in 1904 by Phan Bội Châu, The Vietnamese nationalist who wished to bring his people to Japan to study through Đông Du Movement
  • Empire of Japan invaded French Indochina in 1940
  • Surrender of Japan in 1945
  • Both nation established relation in 21/9/1973
  • Following 23 October 1991 Final Act of the International Paris Conference on Cambodia among the Cambodian parties, Indonesia (as co-chair with France), and the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Japan promptly established diplomatic relations and ended economic restrictions with Cambodia and Vietnam. In November 1992, Tokyo offered Vietnam US $370 million in aid. Japan also took a leading role in peacekeeping activities in Cambodia. Japan's Akashi Yasushi, UN Undersecretary General for Disarmament, was head of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia, and Japan pledged US $3 million and even sent approximately 2,000 personnel, including members of the SDF, to participate directly in maintaining the peace. Despite the loss of a Japanese peacekeeper killed in an ambush, the force remained in Cambodia until the Cambodians were able to elect and install a government.

Japan is the single biggest country donor to Vietnam. It has pledged $US 890 million in aid for the country this year, or 6.5 percent higher than the 2006 level of $US 835.6 million.[17]

 Mongolia 1280 (Yuan dynasty)
See Mongolia–Vietnam relations

The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995.[18] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998.[19]

There have been 13 sessions of the Vietnam-Mongolia inter-governmental committee on cooperation in trade, economics and sci-tech, with the next to be held in Ulaanbaatar in 2010.[20] On 25 May 2004 in Ulaanbaatar, the countries signed agreements on railway transport and scientific and technological cooperation.[21] Other agreements have covered areas such as plant protection and quarantine regulations, customs, health and education.[20]

 North Korea 1226 (Goryeo)
See North Korea–Vietnam relations
  • Prince Lý Long Tường of Lý Dynasty fled and exiled in Kingdom of Goryeo in 1226 to avoid the execution of Trần Dynasty
  • Both had some meetings when both of them sent envoys to pay tribute to China Empire.
  • North Korea recognised Communist ally North Vietnam in 31/1/1950
  • In July 1957, President Ho Chi Minh visited North Korea
  • North Korean leader Kim Il-sung visited North Vietnam in November–December 1958 and November 1964.
  • In February 1961, the two governments concluded an agreement on scientific and technical cooperation.
  • President Kim Il Sung sent some fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese 921st and 923rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi while Hanoi was bombed by The US air forces.
  • From 1950 to 1960s, students from North Vietnam began studying in North Korea as early as the 1960s.
  • Relations later declined due to investment and trade disputes in the 1990s and 2000s and emerging relationship between South Korea and Vietnam[22]
 South Korea 1226 (Goryeo)
See South Korea–Vietnam relations


  • Prince Lý Long Tường of Lý Dynasty fled and exiled in Kingdom of Goryeo in 1226 to avoid the execution of Trần Dynasty
  • Both had some meetings when both of them sent envoys to pay tribute to China Empire.
  • South Korea recognised Capitalist ally South Vietnam
  • President Park Chung Hee sent ROK troops to fight in Vietnam war in 1960s.

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Republic of Korea started on 22 December 1992.

  • 1994 August Prime Minister Lee Young-deok
  • 1996 November President Kim Young-sam
  • 1998 December President Kim Dae-jung
  • 2002 April Prime Minister Lee Han-dong
  • 2004 October President Roh Moo-hyun
  • 2006 January Speaker of National Assembly Kim Won-ki
  • 2006 November President Roh Moo-hyun (APEC)
  • 2008 April Speaker of National Assembly Lim Chae-jung
  • 2009 May Presidential Envoy Lee Byung-suk
  • 2009 October President Lee Myung-bak
  • 2009 November Speaker of National Assembly Kim Hyong-o
  • 2010 October President Lee Myung-bak
  • 2013 January Speaker of National Assembly Kang Chang Hee
  • 2013 September President Park Geun-hye(G20).[23]
  • Bilateral Trade in 2013 was $28,250million
    • Exports : $21,080million
    • Imports : $7,170million
  • Investment (cumulative total as of 2013) : $16 billion
  • Grand Aid (cumulative total as of 2013) : $240 million
  • Loan Aid (cumulative total as of 2013) : $1,880 million
  • People-to-People Exchanges in 2017 :
    • Number of the South Korean visitors to the Vietnam was about 2,415,245
    • Number of the Vietnamese visitors to the South Korea was about 220,675
  • Number of the South Koreans living in Vietnam in 2012 was about 135,000
  • Number of the Vietnamese living in South Korea in 2013 was about 120,069 \

Central Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Kazakhstan 26/9/1992 see Foreign relations of Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan 4/6/1992 see Foreign relations of Kyrgyzstan
 Tajikistan 14/7/1992 see Foreign relations of Tajikistan
 Turkmenistan 29/7/1992 see Foreign relations of Turkmenistan
 Uzbekistan 17/1/1992 see Foreign relations of Uzbekistan

South Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 16/9/1974 See Foreign relations of Afghanistan
 Bangladesh 11/2/1973 See Foreign relations of Bangladesh
 Bhutan 19/1/2012 See Foreign relations of Bhutan
 India 7/1/1972 See India–Vietnam relations

India and Vietnam are members of the Mekong–Ganga Cooperation, created to develop to enhance close ties between India and nations of Southeast Asia. Vietnam has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council and join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).[24] In the 2003 joint declaration, India and Vietnam envisaged creating an "Arc of Advantage and Prosperity" in Southeast Asia;[25] to this end, Vietnam has backed a more important relationship and role between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its negotiation of an Indo-ASEAN free trade agreement.[25][26] India and Vietnam have also built strategic partnerships, including extensive cooperation on developing nuclear power, enhancing regional security and fighting terrorism, transnational crime and drug trafficking.[25][27][28]

 Maldives 18/6/1975
   Nepal 15/5/1975
 Pakistan 8/11/1972 See Pakistan–Vietnam relations

Pakistan opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1973. However, due to economic reasons, Pakistan closed the embassy in 1980. Vietnam also opened its embassy in Islamabad in 1978 and had to close it down in 1984 due to its own economic difficulty. Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Vietnam in recent years have considerably improved. Both countries' leaders expressed their willingness to strengthen their existing relations, not only in the political sphere but also in other areas such as trade and economics, and exchange more visits from one to another's country, including both high-ranking and working visits. Pakistan reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000. Vietnam also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005.

 Sri Lanka 21/7/1970

West Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bahrain 31/3/1995
 Iran 4/8/1973 See Iran–Vietnam relations
 Iraq 10/7/1968
  • Since December 1969, Iraq has an embassy in Hanoi.
 Israel 12/7/1993 See Israel–Vietnam relations
 Jordan 9/8/1980
 Kuwait 10/1/1976[30]
 Lebanon 12/2/1981
 Oman 9/6/1992
 Palestine 19/11/1988
 Qatar 8/2/1993
 Saudi Arabia 21/10/1999
 Syria 21/7/1966
 Turkey 7/6/1978
 United Arab Emirates 1/8/1993
 Yemen 16/10/1963


Country Formal relations began Notes
 EU 1990
 Albania 11/2/1950

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1950.[31][32]

 Andorra 12/6/2007
 Armenia 14/7/1992 See Armenia–Vietnam relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Armenia and Vietnam were established on 14 July 1992.[33]
  • Vietnam is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[34]
 Belarus 24/1/1992 [35] See Belarus–Vietnam relations
  • Since 1997, Belarus has an embassy in Hanoi.[36]
  • Since November 2003, Vietnam has an embassy in Minsk.[37]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 26/1/1996
 Bulgaria 8/2/1950 See Bulgaria–Vietnam relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Hanoi.[38]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Sofia.[39]
  • In 2006, the Bulgarian Government agreed to a healthcare cooperation plan with Vietnam. The two-year plan includes cooperation in many areas, mainly in public healthcare, inpatient and outpatient help, food security, medical education.[40]
 Belgium 22/3/1973[41] See Belgium–Vietnam relations
 Croatia 1/7/1994
 Czech Republic 2/2/1950 (as Czechoslovakia) See Czech Republic–Vietnam relations
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark 25/11/1971 See Denmark–Vietnam relations
 Estonia 20/2/1992
 Finland 25/1/1973 See Foreign relations of Finland
 France 12/4/1973 See France–Vietnam relations

France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit father Alexandre de Rhodes. Various traders would visit Vietnam during the 18th century, until the major involvement of French forces under Pigneau de Béhaine to help establish the Nguyễn dynasty from 1787 to 1789. France was heavily involved in Vietnam in the 19th century under the pretext of protecting the work of Catholic missionaries in the country. France progressively carved for itself a huge colony, which would form French Indochina in 1887. France continued to rule Vietnam as a colony until France's defeat in the First Indochina War and the proclamation of Vietnam's independence in 1954.

 Georgia 30/6/1992
 Germany 03/02/1955 (with East Germany and unified Germany)
23/9/1975 (with West Germany)
 Greece 15/4/1975 See Foreign relations of Greece
 Holy See No relation See Holy See–Vietnam relations

With the end of the Vietnam War, the Apostolic Delegate was forced to leave. Since an apostolic delegation, unlike an embassy, is not a bilateral institution with involvement by the State, the Apostolic Delegation for Vietnam has not been suppressed, but has remained inactive since 1975.[43] In January 2011 the Holy See appointed the first ambassador, formally "non-resident representative to Vietnam" with Archbishop Leopoldo Girelli being the first to hold the post in addition to Archbishop Girelli's other role as Apostolic Nuncio to Singapore and Apostolic Delegate to Malaysia.

Temporary missions from the Holy See to discuss with the Government matters of common interest are sent every year or two, and there has been at least one visit to the Vatican by a Vietnamese mission. Marxism and communism officially promoted atheism, causing Roman Catholics and other Christians to be associated with the anti-communist South Vietnam region. This has strained relations between the Holy See and the Hanoi Government. Leading bishops have been imprisoned for several years, in what some observers have described as a persecution of the Vietnamese Church. There is also a question of Church property confiscated by the Vietnamese government and that the Church has sought to recover.

 Hungary 3/2/1950 See Foreign relations of Hungary
 Iceland 5/8/1973 See Foreign relations of Iceland
 Ireland 5/4/1996 See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland
 Italy 23/3/1973 See Foreign relations of Italy
 Kosovo No relation

Vietnam supports Serbia in Kosovo issue

 Latvia 12/2/1992
 Liechtenstein 2/7/2008
 Lithuania 18/3/1992
 Luxembourg 15/11/1973 See Luxembourg–Vietnam relations

Luxembourg's representation in Vietnam is through its embassy in Beijing, China.[44] Vietnam is represented through its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.[45]

 Malta 14/11/1974
 Moldova 11/6/1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 11, 1992.[31][46]

 Monaco 29/11/2007
 Montenegro 4/8/2006
 Macedonia 10/6/1994
  • The countries established diplomatic relations on June 10, 1994.[31]
  • Macedonia is represented in Vietnam through its embassy in Beijing, China.[47]
  • Vietnam is represented in Macedonia through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.[47]
 Netherlands 9/4/1973 See Netherlands–Vietnam relations

Netherlands has an embassy in Hanoi, Daeha Office Tower, 6th floor 360, Kim Ma Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi, and a consulate in Ho Chi Minh City, Saigon Tower, Suite 901, 29 Le Duan Boulevard, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City,

 Norway 25/11/1971 See Foreign relations of Norway
 Poland 4/2/1950 (as Polish People's Republic)
 Portugal 1/7/1975 See Portugal–Vietnam relations

In 2015 both countries are celebrating 500 years of relations, remembering 1515 when the Portuguese traveler Duarte Coelho, reached Cochinchina, Champa and Tonkin[48] starting a long period of trading relations with the Portuguese established in Macau and in Malacca.
Portugal has honorary consulates both in Hanoi (31 Pho Duc Chinh, Truc Bach Ward, Ba Dinh District, Ha noi) and in Ho Chi Minh City (66/11 Pham Ngoc Thach, Q3, Ho Chi Minh)[49]

 Romania 3/2/1950
 Russia 30/1/1950 (as USSR)
Russia (Now)
See Russia–Vietnam relations
 San Marino 6/7/2007
 Serbia 10/3/1957(as SFR Yugoslavia
 Slovakia 2/2/1950 (as Czechoslovakia)
 Slovenia 7/6/1994
 Spain 23/5/1977[51] See Spain–Vietnam relations
 Sweden 11/1/1969 See Foreign relations of Sweden
  Switzerland 11/10/1971 See Foreign relations of Switzerland
 Ukraine 23/1/1992[52] See Ukraine–Vietnam relations
 United Kingdom 12/4/1973 [53] See United Kingdom–Vietnam relations

Rest of world[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 1973-10-25
 Australia 1973-02-26
 Belize 1995-01-04

Both countries established diplomatic relation on January 4, 1995.[31]

 Brazil 1989-05-08 See Foreign relations of Brazil
 Botswana 2009-02-11
  • In 2013, Botswana was the last African state which established foreign relation with Vietnam.
 Canada 1973-08-21 See Canada–Vietnam relations
  • Canada maintains an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate general in Vancouver.
 Cape Verde 1975-08-07

Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 8, 1975.[31]

 Central African Republic 2008-11-10

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 10, 2008.[31]

 Costa Rica 1976-04-24[55] See Foreign relations of Costa Rica
 Cuba 1960-12-02 See Cuba–Vietnam relations
 Dominica 2013

Dominica and Vietnam established diplomatic relation on November 1, 2013.[56]

 El Salvador 2010-01-16[57]
 Egypt 1963-09-01 See Foreign relations of Egypt
 Fiji 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 May 1993.[31]

 Grenada 1979

Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 15, 1979.[31]

 Guatemala 1993-01-07[58] See Foreign relations of Guatemala
 Guinea-Bissau 1973

Both countries established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1973.[31]

 Guyana April 19, 1975
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 19, 1975.[31]
  • Economic and commercial relations are very limited.[59]
 Kenya 1995-12-21
  • As of 1998, this was the last African country with which Vietnam established bilateral diplomatic links.[60]
  • Vietnam has planned to set up an embassy in Nairobi since 2016.
 Lesotho 1998-01-06

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 January 1998.[31]

 Madagascar 1972-12-19

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 19, 1972.[31][61]

 Mauritania 1965-03-15

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 15, 1965.[31]

 Mauritius 1994-05-04

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 4, 1994.[31]

 Mexico 1975-07-15 See Mexico–Vietnam relations
 New Zealand 1975-06-19[64]

Full diplomatic relations were restored in 1989. New Zealand opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995, while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 18, 1995.[31]

 Samoa 1994-03-29

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 29, 1994.[31][65]

 Sao Tome and Principe 1976-11-06

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 6, 1976.[31]

 Sierra Leone 1978-06-24

Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 24, 1978.[31]

 Solomon Islands 1996-10-30

Both countries established diplomatic relations on October 30, 1996.[31][66]

 Swaziland 2013-05-21[67]
 Tanzania 1965-02-14[68]
 Togo 1975-08-02

Both countries established diplomatic relations on February 8, 1975.[31]

 United States 1995-07-11 See United States–Vietnam relations
  • In August 1995, both nations upgraded their liaison offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status, with the United States later opening a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco.[3]
 Venezuela 1989-12-18 See Venezuela–Vietnam relations

Vietnam has had an embassy in Caracas and Venezuela an embassy in Hanoi. Though bilateral trade was $11.7 million in 2007[69] relations show "great potential".[70] Over the past ten years, the two countries have witnessed new developments in various fields, including politics, economics, culture and society, particularly in the oil and gas industry.[71]

Vietnamese President Nguyễn Minh Triết arrived in Caracas on 18 November for a two-day official visit on an invitation from Hugo Chávez.[72] Triet hailed Vietnam's friendship with Venezuela as he sought to focus on tying up oil and gas deals, including a joint development fund. He said that "We (Vietnamese) are grateful for the support and solidarity that they (Venezuelans) have offered us until now." Triết said.

Since Hugo Chávez's visit to Vietnam in 006, his government stepped up bilateral relations with the country, which also included a visit by the Communist Party general secretary, Nông Đức Mạnh in 2007. Petróleos de Venezuela and Petrovietnam also announced a number of joint projects since the 2006 visit, including Petrovietnam's was given a concession in the Orinoco basin and an agreement to transport Venezuelan oil to Vietnam, where the two would together build an oil refinery that Vietnam lacks. On the 2006 visit Chávez praised Vietnam's revolutionary history as he attacked the United States for its "imperialist" crimes in the Vietnam War. On the 2008 visit Triết returned similar comments as he lauded a group of Venezuelans who captured a US soldier during the Vietnam war in an unsuccessful bid to prevent the execution of a Vietnamese revolutionary.[69] The two leaders also signed a deal for a $200 million joint fund and 15 cooperation projects.[73]

In March 2008 an agreement was signed to cooperate in tourism between Vietnam and Venezuela. President Nguyễn Minh Triết received the PDVSA's Vice President Asdrubal Chavez and stated that oil and gas cooperation would become a typical example of their multi-faceted cooperation.[74] In 2009 the Venezuelan government approved $46.5 million for an agricultural development project with Vietnam.[75]

 Vanuatu 1982

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 March 1982.[31]

 Zambia 1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on September 15, 1972.[31][76]

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]