Foreign relations of the Cook Islands
The Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with various countries and is a member of multilateral organisations. While the country is in free association with New Zealand, which can act on the Cook Islands' "delegated authority [...] to assist the Cooks Islands" in foreign affairs, the Cook Islands nevertheless enters into treaty obligations and otherwise "interacts with the international community as a sovereign and independent state."
In the 1980s the Cook Islands became a member of several United Nations specialized agencies: the World Health Organization in 1984, the Food and Agriculture Organization and UNESCO in 1985, and the International Civil Aviation Organization in 1986. The Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs records that in 1988 New Zealand declared "that its future participation in international agreements would no longer extend to the Cook Islands..." In 1991 the Cook Islands became a full member of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Preparatory Committee and the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change (INC), which the Repertory of Practice describes as "further evidence that the international community had accepted the Cook Islands as a “State” under international law." The United Nations Secretariat therefore "recognized the full treaty-making capacity of the Cook Islands" in 1992 and the Secretary-General, in his capacity as the depository of multilateral treaties, decided that the Cook Islands could participate in treaties that were open to "all states".
As of November 2018, the Cook Islands has diplomatic relations with 52 states. In 2000 the Cook Islands government signed the Cotonou Partnership Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP).
Upon signature of this agreement the Cook Islands Government established a representation to the EU in Brussels. In 2002 this representation was upgraded to a full diplomatic mission with accreditation to the European Union. The establishment of this mission marked an important development in Cook Islands international relations representing the first full diplomatic mission established by the Cook Islands outside of Pacific countries.
The following countries have established formal diplomatic relations with the Cook Islands.
- Australia 1994
- Fiji 1998
- Kiribati 3 September 2013
- Marshall Islands 3 September 2013
- Micronesia 24 September 2014
- Nauru 1994
- New Zealand 1993
- Niue 2013
- Palau 3 September 2013
- Papua New Guinea 1995
- Samoa 2013
- Solomon Islands 2013
- Tonga 18 November 2014
- Tuvalu 2013
- Vanuatu 30 July 1980 or 2013
- Belgium 6 April 2005
- Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 April 1996
- Czech Republic 12 May 2008
- Estonia 25 October 2018
- European Union 2001
- France 2000
- Germany March 2001
- Greece 22 October 2018
- Holy See 29 April 1999
- Iceland 13 October 2017
- Italy 21 February 2002
- Kosovo 18 May 2015
- Malta 6 October 2017
- Netherlands 16 August 2011
- Norway 18 July 1991 
- Portugal 12 August 1995
- Spain 29 January 1998
- Switzerland 7 March 2011
- Turkey 20 October 2008
- China 25 July 1997
- India 1998; see Cook Islands–India relations
- Indonesia 12 July 2019
- Iran 1 March 1996
- Israel April 2008
- Japan 16 June 2011[note 1]
- Malaysia 2 May 1992
- Philippines 12 December 2011
- Singapore 6 August 2012
- South Korea 22 February 2013
- Thailand April 2005
- Timor-Leste 17 August 2002
- United Arab Emirates 5 August 2018
- Antigua and Barbuda 9 November 2017
- Brazil 21 August 2015
- Chile 3 August 2016 or before
- Cuba 2 September 2002
- Jamaica 14 May 2003
- Peru September 2017
The following countries have established consular relations with the Cook Islands only.
- Monaco 2007 or before[note 2]
- Panama 2016 or before
- United States 22 February 1995 or before[note 3]
International organisation participation
- ACP, AOSIS, AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, IMO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, ILO IOC, OPCW, Pacific Islands Forum, Red Cross/Red Crescent, South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission, Sparteca, SPC, UNESCO, WHO, WMO
- Commonwealth of Nations – the Cook Islands are part of the Commonwealth, but is not a member state, being a dependency of New Zealand, whose Commonwealth membership covers the Cook Islands, Niue, and Tokelau, as well as New Zealand itself.
- In November 2011, the Cook Islands were one of the eight founding members of Polynesian Leaders Group, a regional grouping intended to cooperate on a variety of issues including culture and language, education, responses to climate change, and trade and investment.
- The Cook Islands participate in the International Maritime Organization, the United Nations regulatory body for the shipping trade.
Participation in international treaties and conventions
- Party to the following treaties and conventions: Biodiversity Convention, Cotonou Agreement, Geneva Conventions, POPs Project, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, UNCLOS, UNFCCC and its Kyoto protocol, Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty,[note 4] International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, Biological Weapons Convention, Convention of the International Mobile Satellite Organization
- List of diplomatic missions of the Cook Islands
- List of diplomatic missions in the Cook Islands
- Foreign relations of Niue
- Foreign relations of New Zealand
- Politics of the Cook Islands
- Japan recognized independence of the Cook Islands on 25 March 2011.
- Cook Islands Honorary Consul is appointed to and acknowledged in Monaco since 2007 or before.
- Cook Islands Honorary Consul in Los Angeles is recognized by the United States since 1995.
- including the Facility Agreement with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.
- Joint Centenary Declaration of the Principles of the Relationship between New Zealand and the Cook Islands Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, clause 4; signed by the Prime Minister of New Zealand and the Prime Minister of the Cook Islands at Rarotonga on 11 June 2001. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs, Supplement No. 8, Volume VI at para 11 Archived 2013-10-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Summary of Practice of the Secretary-General as Depositary of Multilateral Treaties (United Nations, New York, 1999) at para 86
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration (2015). "Foreign Affairs". Cook Islands Government. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- Makereta Komai (2013). "Cook Island establishes diplomatic relations with Kiribati, Palau and Marshall Islands". Pacific Islands News Association. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- "Palau Formally Establishes Diplomatic Relations With The Cook Islands". Oceania TV News. 2013-09-04. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "FSM and Cook Islands establish diplomatic relations". fsmupdates. 2014-09-27. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- Government of the Federated States of Micronesia (2013-11-04). "Countries With Which the Federated States of Micronesia Has Established Diplomatic Relations". Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration (2015). "Pacific Relations". Cook Islands Government. Archived from the original on 2014-07-06. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- "Diplomatic relations with all Pacific Island Forum members complete". Cook Islands News. 2014-11-20. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "Asia/Pacific Division".
- "Souhrnná teritoriální informace Cookovy ostrovy" [Summary of territorial information Cook Islands] (PDF) (in Czech). Czech Embassy Canberra & Czech Consulate Sydney. 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
- "Estonia and Cook Islands establish diplomatic relations". MFA Estonia. 2018-10-25. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
- "Deutschland und die Cookinseln: Bilaterale Beziehungen". German Foreign Ministry. 2020-05-13. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
- "Ministry of Foreign Affairs Announcement on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Cook Islands". Embassy of Greece in Canberra. 2018-10-22. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
- "Diplomatic relations between Iceland and Cook Islands". Ministry for Foreign Affairs Iceland. 2017-10-13. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
- "Kosova lidh marrëdhënie diplomatike me Ishujt Cook" [Kosovo established diplomatic relations with the Cook Islands]. KOHA (in Albanian). 2015-05-18. Archived from the original on 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- MW/CIHC (2015-05-19). "Ceremony celebrates Kosovo ties". Cook Islands News. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "Press Release By The Ministry For Foreign Affairs And Trade Promotion: Diplomatic relations established with the Cook Islands and Papua New Guinea". Government of Malta. 2017-10-07. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration (2011-08-16). "Cook Islands and Netherlands establish diplomatic relations". Cook Islands Government. Archived from the original on 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "Norges opprettelse av diplomatiske forbindelser med fremmede stater" [Norway's establishment of diplomatic relations with foreign states] (PDF) (in Norwegian). 1999-04-27. Retrieved 2017-12-02.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration (2011-03-07). "Cook Islands and Switzerland establish diplomatic relations". Cook Islands Government. Archived from the original on 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Turkish Republic (2011). "Türkiye–Cook Adaları Siyasi İlişkileri" [Turkey-Cook Islands Political Relations] (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2016-02-18. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- Association, Pacific Islands News (14 July 2019). "Cook Islands establish diplomatic relations with Indonesia". Pina. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration (2012-06-15). "Visit by Israeli Ambassador". Cook Islands Government. Archived from the original on 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- Embassy Of Israel In New Zealand (2017-10-07). "The Cook Islands". Retrieved 2017-11-11.
- "Establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and the Cook Islands and a courtesy call by Mr Takeaki Matsumoto, Foreign Minister of Japan to Hon Henry Puna, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands" (PDF). Embassy of Japan in New Zealand. 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "Lecture by Prime Minister Puna of the Cook Islands -State recognition of the Cook Islands to lead to furthering cooperation-". Meiji University. 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2014-10-20.
The Cook Islands are the 193rd state to be recognized as an independent state by Japan.
- "State Recognition of the Cook Islands and Founding of Diplomatic Relations" (PDF). Embassy of Japan in New Zealand. 2011-09-02. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
With the recognition of the Cook Islands, Japan now recognises 193 countries.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration (2011-12-16). "The Cook Islands and the Philippines Establish Formal Diplomatic Ties". Cook Islands Government. Archived from the original on 2015-10-16. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "Singapore established bilateral relations with Niue and Cook Islands on 6 August 2012". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Singapore. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014.
Singapore has established diplomatic relations with Cook Islands, ... Niue, ...
- Korea, Cook Islands to establish diplomatic ties by year's end: "Korea will establish diplomatic relations with the Cook Islands in the South Pacific Ocean by the end of this year, making it the 190th country with which Seoul will have diplomatic ties", 2012-10-23
- "Korea, Cook Islands to begin diplomatic ties". The Korea Herald. 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- "UAE, Cook Islands sign deal to establish diplomatic relations". The Gulf Today. 5 August 2018. Archived from the original on 6 August 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "Antigua and Barbuda Establishes Diplomatic Relations with the Cook Islands". Antigua Chronicle. 2017-11-15. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between Brazil and the Cook Islands, retrieved 2015-09-01
- "...presented their credentials to the Queens Representative". Cook Islands Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Immigration. 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2017-10-11.
- "Countries with which Jamaica has Established Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. 2014. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2016-01-27.
- "Cook Islands formalises links with third Latin nation". Cook Islands News. 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
- "The Cook Islands expand relations with Latin American countries". Cook Islands Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Immigration. 2017-10-05. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
- "Cook Islandss". dirco.gov.za. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- Ordonnance Souveraine n° 1.259 du 10 août 2007 auto risant à exercer les fonctions de Consul honoraire des Iles Cook dans Notre Principauté. (Journal de Monaco Bulletin Officiel de la Principautè)
- Honorary Consul in Monaco Archived 2016-01-30 at the Wayback Machine
- "Consulate of the Cook Islands in Panama City, Panama". EmbassyPages.com. 2016. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
- "Foreign Consular Offices in the United States". U.S. State Department. 2012-04-20. Archived from the original on 2012-09-26. Retrieved 2015-01-23.
- Zabeena (2015-06-22). "Cook Islands joins ILO". Fiji Television Limited. Archived from the original on 2015-10-15. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- "The World Factbook 2020: Cook Islands". CIA. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- "NZ may be invited to join proposed ‘Polynesian Triangle’ ginger group", Pacific Scoop, 19 September 2011
- "New Polynesian Leaders Group formed in Samoa", Radio New Zealand International, 18 November 2011
- "American Samoa joins Polynesian Leaders Group, MOU signed". Samoa News. Savalii. 20 November 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- CBTO Preparatory Commission. "Cook Islands tenth State signatory to have signed Facility Agreement". Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- International Mobile Satellite Organization (2015). "Member States". Archived from the original on 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2015-10-09.