Foreign relations of the Netherlands

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Azure, billetty Or a lion with a coronet Or armed and langued Gules holding in his dexter paw a sword Argent hilted Or and in the sinister paw seven arrows Argent pointed and bound together Or. [The seven arrows stand for the seven provinces of the Union of Utrecht.] The shield is crowned with the (Dutch) royal crown and supported by two lions Or armed and langued gules. They stand on a scroll Azure with the text (Or) "Je Maintiendrai" (French for "I will maintain".)
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Netherlands

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the Atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. While historically the Kingdom of the Netherlands was a neutral state, since 1945 it has become a member of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union and many other international organisations. The Dutch economy is very open and relies on international trade. During and after the 17th century—its Golden Age--the Dutch built up a commercial and colonial empire. It was a leading shipping and naval power and was often at war with England, its main rival. Its main colonial holding was Indonesia, which fought for and achieved independence after 1945. The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. Foreign trade policy is handled by the European Union. The Dutch have been active in international peacekeeping roles.

History[edit]

Former colonial possessions of the Dutch Empire.

In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

During the 18th century the power and wealth of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbors weakened it. Britain seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, turning it into New York. There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795–1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810), and later simply a French imperial province.

In 1815–1940 it was neutral and played a minor role in world diplomacy, apart from a failed effort to control Belgium before giving up in 1839.[1] It was invaded and cruelly treated by Germany in 1940–45, with starvation and killing the Jews the main Nazi policies.

Policy[edit]

Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte with U.S. President Donald Trump in the Oval Office of the White House on 18 July 2019

The Dutch Government conducted a review of foreign policy main themes, organization, and funding in 1995. The document "The Foreign Policy of the Netherlands: A Review" outlined the new direction of Dutch foreign policy. The Netherlands prioritizes enhancing European integration, maintaining relations with neighboring states, ensuring European security and stability (mainly through the mechanism of NATO and emphasizing the important role the United States plays in the security of Europe), and participating in conflict management and peacekeeping missions. The foreign policy review also resulted in the reorganization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Through the creation of regional departments, the Ministry coordinates tasks previously divided among the international cooperation, foreign affairs, and economic affairs sections.

Atlantic cooperation[edit]

Protest in Hague against the deployment of Pershing II missiles, 1983

Dutch security policy is based primarily on membership in NATO, which the Netherlands co-founded in 1949. Because of Dutch participation in NATO nuclear weapons are stationed in the Netherlands, see Volkel Air Base.

The Dutch also pursue defense cooperation within Europe, both multilaterally – in the context of the Western European Union and the European Security and Defence Policy of the EU – and bilaterally, as in the German-Netherlands Corps. In recent years, the Dutch have become significant contributors to UN peacekeeping efforts around the world as well as to the Stabililzation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR) in Bosnia.

European integration[edit]

The Dutch have been strong advocates of European integration, and most aspects of their foreign, economic, and trade policies are coordinated through the European Union (EU). The Dutch postwar customs union with Belgium and Luxembourg (the Benelux group) paved the way for the formation of the European Community (precursor to the EU), of which the Netherlands was a founding member. Likewise, the Benelux abolition of internal border controls was a model for the wider Schengen Accord, which today has 29 European signatories (including the Netherlands) pledged to common visa policies and free movement of people across common borders.

The Dutch stood at the cradle of the 1992 Maastricht Treaty and have been the architects of the Treaty of Amsterdam concluded in 1998. The Dutch have thus played an important role in European political and monetary integration; indeed, until the year 2003, Dutchman Wim Duisenberg headed the European Central Bank. In addition, Dutch financial minister Gerrit Zalm was the main critic of the violation of the Stability and Growth Pact by France and Germany in 2004 and 2005.

Involvement in Developing Countries[edit]

The Netherlands is among the world's leading aid donors, giving almost $8 billion, about 0.8% of its gross national income (GNI) in official development assistance (ODA). It is one of five countries worldwide that meets the longstanding UN ODA target of 0.7% ODA/GNI. The country consistently contributes large amounts of aid through multilateral channels, especially the United Nations Development Programme, the international financial institutions, and EU programs. A large portion of Dutch aid funds also are channeled through private ("co-financing") organizations that have almost total autonomy in choice of projects.

The Netherlands is a member of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which recently initiated economic reforms in central Europe. The Dutch strongly support the Middle East peace process and in 1998 earmarked $29 million in contributions to international donor-coordinated activities for the occupied territories and also for projects in which they worked directly with Palestinian authorities. These projects included improving environmental conditions and support for multilateral programs in cooperation with local non-governmental organizations. In 1998, the Dutch provided significant amounts of aid to the former Yugoslavia and Africa. The Dutch consistently provide significant amounts of humanitarian relief aid to the victims of the worst natural disasters, such as the Hurricane Mitch in Central America in 1998, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami in South and Southeast Asia, the Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, 2010 Haiti earthquake, and more recent catastrophes in Pakistan and Burma including the Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in 2013, and 2015 Nepal earthquake.

Export assistance grants[edit]

"Developing countries aspiring to purchase foreign goods and services to invest in, inter alia, port facilities, roads, public transport, health care, or drinking water facilities may be eligible for a special Dutch grant facility. The grant facility, known as ORET (a Dutch acronym for Ontwikkelingsrelevante Exporttransacties, or Development-Related Export) serves to award grants to governments of developing countries for making payments to foreign suppliers."[2]

International law[edit]

UN vote on adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons on 7 July 2017
     Yes      No     Did not vote

A centuries-old tradition of legal scholarship has made the Netherlands the home of the International Court of Justice; the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal; the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia; the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; and the International Criminal Court (ICC). In addition it hosts the European police organization, Europol; and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

International organizations[edit]

As a relatively small country, the Netherlands generally pursues its foreign policy interests within the framework of multilateral organizations. The Netherlands is an active and responsible participant in the United Nations system as well as other multilateral organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), and International Monetary Fund.

The Netherlands is one of the founding members of what today is the European Union. It was one of the first countries to start European integration, through the Benelux in 1944 and the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. Being a small country with a history of neutrality it was the host country for the important Maastricht Treaty and Amsterdam Treaty and is the seat of the International Court of Justice.

International issues[edit]

Nord Stream opening ceremony on 8 November 2011 with Angela Merkel, Dmitry Medvedev, Mark Rutte and François Fillon.

The country is one of the major producers of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs. It also functions as an important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe. A large portion of the world's XTC consumption is supplied by illegal laboratories from the Netherlands.[citation needed]

The Dutch also work with the U.S. and other countries on international programs against drug trafficking and organized crime. The Dutch-U.S. cooperation focuses on joint anti-drug operations in the Caribbean, including an agreement establishing Forward Operating Locations on the Dutch Kingdom islands of Curaçao and Aruba. The Netherlands is a signatory to international counter-narcotics agreements, a member of the United Nations International Drug Control Program, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs, and is a contributor to international counter-narcotics.

From June 26 until December 22, 2006, two children, Ammar (12–13) and Sara (10–11), lived in the Dutch embassy in Damascus because of a child custody dispute between the Dutch mother, supported by Dutch law and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, and the Syrian father, supported by Syrian law (Syria is no participant of this convention). The children had been living in Syria since 2004, after an alleged international child abduction by the father from the Netherlands to Syria, during a family contact in which he supposedly would visit Paris with them. The children fled to the embassy because they would like to live with their mother in the Netherlands. Minister of Foreign Affairs Ben Bot travelled to Damascus, negotiated and on December 22 the children finally could return to the Netherlands.

The father claims that the Dutch government has promised not to prosecute him for the abduction. However, a Dutch prosecutor claims that he is free to prosecute the father and may well do that, and that the Dutch have only retracted the international request to arrest him outside the Netherlands.[3]

Mark Rutte's government provided materials to the Levant Front rebel group in Syria.[4] In September 2018, the Dutch public prosecution department declared the Levant Front to be a "criminal organisation of terrorist intent", describing it as a "salafist and jihadistic" group that "strives for the setting up of the caliphate".[5]

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Netherlands, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China’s mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[6][7]

Former colonies[edit]

The Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba are dependencies of the Netherlands. The latter three are part of the Netherlands proper and are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Suriname and Indonesia became independent of the Netherlands in the period of decolonization: Suriname in 1975 and Indonesia in 1945 (it was not until August 16, 2005 that the Dutch government recognized 1945 and not 1949 as the latter's year of independence).

Bilateral relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Foreign relations of Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola See Foreign relations of Angola
  • Angola has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Rotterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luanda.
 Benin See Foreign relations of Benin
  • Benin is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Cotonou.
 Burkina Faso
  • Burkina Faso is represented in the Netherlands by its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and an honorary consulate in Rotterdam[8].
  • The Netherlands are represented in Burkina Faso by their embassy in Bamako, Mali[9].
 Burundi See Foreign relations of Burundi
  • Burundi is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Bujumbura.
 Comoros
 Egypt See Foreign relations of Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia See Foreign relations of Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Ghana See Foreign relations of Ghana
  • Ghana has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Accra.
 Ivory Coast See Foreign relations of Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abidjan.
 Kenya See Kenya–Netherlands relations
  • Kenya has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Mauritania
 Morocco See Morocco–Netherlands relations
 Mozambique See Foreign relations of Mozambique
  • Mozambique is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Paris.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Maputo.
 Nigeria See Foreign relations of Nigeria
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in The Hague.
 Rwanda See Foreign relations of Rwanda
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kigali.
  • Rwanda has an embassy in The Hague.
 Senegal See Foreign relations of Senegal
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in The Hague.
 South Africa See Netherlands–South Africa relations
 Sudan See Foreign relations of Sudan
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in The Hague.
 Tanzania See Foreign relations of Tanzania
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania has an embassy in The Hague.
 Tunisia See Foreign relations of Tunisia
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in The Hague.
 Uganda See Foreign relations of Uganda
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kampala.
  • Uganda is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Paris.
 Zimbabwe See Foreign relations of Zimbabwe
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Paris.

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina See Foreign relations of Argentina
 Belize 1987-13-04

Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 13, 1987[18].

 Bolivia See Foreign relations of Bolivia
  • Bolivia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 Brazil See Foreign relations of Brazil
 Canada 1939-01 See Canada–Netherlands relations

Canada has an embassy in The Hague and the Netherlands has one in Ottawa, and three Consulates-General in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada and the Netherlands have worked closely together on many foreign issues and enjoy an especially close relationship. To fostering business and commercial relations between the Netherlands and Canada the Dutch business community set up the Netherlands-Canadian Chamber of Commerce.[21] They are both members of the United Nations (and its Specialized Agencies) the World Trade Organization, Interpol, they are both founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. Canada and the Netherlands also work together on such issues as the prohibition and elimination of anti-personnel mines, the control of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, eradicating the worst forms of child labour, the provision of rapid reaction peacekeeping forces to the United Nations (SHIRBRIG) and regional security issues such as Bosnia (SFOR) and Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE).

 Chile See Foreign relations of Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Amsterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 1829 See Foreign relations of Colombia

Relations between Colombia and the Netherlands were established in 1829.

 Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in San José.
 Cuba See Foreign relations of Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in The Hague and two consulates-general in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominica
 Dominican Republic
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in San José, Costa Rica.
 Guyana 1970-15-05

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 May 1970.[28] Guyana was made up of three former Dutch colonies: (Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo (colony)) which were brought together by the British and renamed collectively British Guiana.

 Mexico 1827 See Mexico–Netherlands relations

On September 27, 1993 the Netherlands Ministry of Finance announced The Netherlands – Mexico Tax Treaty and Protocol. The regulations detail the formalities residents of the Netherlands must observe "in order to be exempt from, or obtain a refund of, the Mexican withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties."[29] In 2008 Mexico and the Netherlands modified their existing tax treaty, initially signed in 1993 to strength cooperation to curb tax evasion.[30][31]

 Panama
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Rotterdam.
 Peru See Foreign relations of Peru
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in The Hague.
 Suriname 1975-25-11 See Netherlands–Suriname relations
 United States 1781 See Netherlands–United States relations

The bilateral relations between the two nations are based on historical and cultural ties as well as a common dedication to individual freedom and human rights. The Netherlands shares with the United States a liberal economic outlook and is committed to free trade. The Netherlands is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the United States,[36] and Dutch holding companies employ more than 650,000 Americans.[37] The United States is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the Netherlands.

The United States and the Netherlands often have similar positions on issues and work together both bilaterally and multilaterally in such institutions as the United Nations and NATO. The Dutch have worked with the United States at the World Trade Organization, in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, as well as within the European Union to advance the shared U.S. goal of a more open and market-led global economy.

The United States and the Netherlands joined NATO as charter members in 1949. The Dutch were allies with the United States in the Korean War and the first Gulf War and have been active in global peacekeeping efforts in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq. Netherlands also support and participate in NATO and EU training efforts in Iraq. They are active participants in the International Security Assistance Force and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

 Uruguay See Netherlands–Uruguay relations
  • Netherlands is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires.[40]
  • Uruguay has an embassy in The Hague.[41]
 Venezuela

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kabul.
 Bangladesh 1971-01-04 See Bangladesh–Netherlands relations
  • Bangladesh has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dhaka.
 Bhutan See Foreign relations of Bhutan
  • Bhutan is represented to the Netherlands through embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands is represented to Bhutan through embassy in Delhi.
 Brunei See Foreign relations of Brunei
  • Brunei is represented in the Netherlands through embassy in London, UK.
  • Netherlands is represented in Brunei through embassy in Bangkok, Thailand.
 Cambodia See Foreign relations of Cambodia
  • Cambodia is represented in the Netherlands by its embassy in Paris.
  • Netherlands is represented in Cambodia by its embassy in Hanoi.
 China See China–Netherlands relations
 India 1947-15-8 See India–Netherlands relations
  • India has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Delhi and a consulate-general in Mumbai.
 Indonesia See Indonesia–Netherlands relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in The Hague.[42]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Jakarta.[43]
 Iran See Iran–Netherlands relations
  • Iran has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tehran.
 Israel 1949 See Israel–Netherlands relations

In 1947, the Netherlands voted in favor of the United Nations Resolution 181. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1949.[44]

 Japan 1609 See Japan–Netherlands relations

Relations between Japan and the Netherlands date back to 1609, when the first formal trade relations were established.[47][48] The relations between Japan and the Netherlands after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and occupation of the Netherlands East Indies during World War II, brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post war grip the Netherlands had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States of Indonesia).

  • Japan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate-general in Osaka.
 Jordan See Foreign relations of Jordan
  • Jordan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Amman.
 Kazakhstan 1992 See Kazakhstan–Netherlands relations

The Netherlands is Kazakhstan's largest foreign investor and the second largest European Union partner in terms of foreign trade turnover with Kazakhstan.[49]

  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Astana.
 Kuwait See Foreign relations of Kuwait
  • Kuwait has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kuwait City.
 Laos See Foreign relations of Laos
  • Laos is represented in the Netherlands through embassy in Paris.
  • Netherlands is represented in Laos through embassy in Hanoi.
 Lebanon
  • Lebanon has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Beirut.
 Malaysia 1957-31-08 See Malaysia–Netherlands relations
The graves of Dutch dignitaries in Melaka's ruined St. Paul's Church.

The Dutch involvement in the Malay Peninsula used to be much more extensive than it is now. The Dutch established relations with the Sultanate of Johor in the early 17th century, and in 1641 they captured the Portuguese colony of Malacca (on the south-eastern coast of today's Peninsular Malaysia). With a long interruption during the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch Malacca era lasted until 1824. In the 20th century, the Netherlands established diplomatic relations with Malaysia soon after the Asian state became independent. The erudite Dutch Sinologist and author Robert van Gulik (who was raised in the former Dutch East Indies himself) served as the ambassador of the Netherlands in Kuala Lumpur in the early 1960s. During his diplomatic service there he became closely acquainted with Malaysia's gibbons (he kept a few in his ambassadorial residence) and became sufficiently interested in this ape species to start the study of its role in ancient Chinese culture, the results of which he later published in his last book (Gibbon in China).[50]

 Mongolia 1972-06-03 See Foreign relations of Mongolia
  • Both countries were establishment of diplomatic relations began on 06 March 1972.
 Myanmar See Foreign relations of Myanmar
  • Myanmar is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in London, UK.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Yangon.
   Nepal See Foreign relations of Nepal
  • Nepal is represented to the Netherlands by its embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands is represented to Nepal by its embassy in Delhi.
 North Korea 2001-01-15[51]
  • The establishment of diplomatic relations between the North Korea and the Netherlands was on January 15, 2001.[51]
 Oman See Foreign relations of Oman
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Muscat.
  • Oman has an embassy in The Hague.
 Pakistan 1947-15-8 See Netherlands–Pakistan relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Islamabad and a consulate-general in Karachi.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in The Hague.
 Philippines See Netherlands–Philippines relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in The Hague.
 Qatar See Foreign relations of Qatar
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in The Hague.
 Saudi Arabia See Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in The Hague.
 Singapore 1965-09-08 See Netherlands–Singapore relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore has an embassy in The Hague.
 South Korea 1961-01-04[52] See Netherlands–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Kingdom of the Netherlands began on April 1, 1961.

  • Relations between the Netherlands and South Korea are excellent. The Netherlands are known in the country, thanks to increasing trade and the investments made by Dutch businesses.
  • Political relations
    • South Koreans still appreciate the contribution made by Dutch troops, serving under the UN flag, during the Korean War of 1950–1953. The Netherlands was an ally to South Korea throughout the war, against communist North Korea (backed by the Soviet Union). The Netherlands still monitors developments between South Korea and North Korea with interest, and remain an ally. In 2011 the Netherlands and South Korea marked 50 years of diplomatic relations.
    • The Netherlands frequently serves as an example to South Korea, for example in the areas of development cooperation and water management. In 2011, for instance, a South Korean delegation visited parts of the Room for the River project – designed to make the Dutch river delta safer by 2015 – to gain inspiration for a South Korean water management plan.[53]
  • The Netherlands has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with South Korea. Citizens of both countries can live and work in the other for up to two years.
  • The number of the South Korean citizens living in the Netherlands in 2012 was about 2,602.
 Sri Lanka 1948 See Foreign relations of Sri Lanka
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in The Hague.
 Thailand See Foreign relations of Thailand
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in The Hague.
 United Arab Emirates See Foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in The Hague.
 Vietnam See Foreign relations of Vietnam
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in The Hague.
 Yemen
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Sana'a.
  • Yemen has an embassy in The Hague.

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1970[58] See Albania–Netherlands relations
  • Albania has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tirana.
 Armenia 1992-01-30 See Foreign relations of Armenia
 Austria See Foreign relations of Austria
 Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Baku.
 Belarus 1994 See Belarus–Netherlands relations
 Belgium See Belgium–Netherlands relations

Relations were established after the independence of Belgium. Both nations are allies and have cultural similarities.

  • Belgium has an embassy in The Hague.[64]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Brussels and a consulate-general in Antwerp.[65]
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Bosnia & Herzegovina
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Bulgaria See Foreign relations of Bulgaria
 Croatia See Foreign relations of Croatia
  • Croatia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Cyprus See Foreign relations of Cyprus
  • Cyprus has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Czech Republic See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark 1645[68] See Denmark – Netherlands relations
 Estonia
  • Estonia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland See Foreign relations of Finland
  • Finland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union.
 France See France–Netherlands relations
 Georgia
  • Georgia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tbilisi.
 Germany 1871 See Germany–Netherlands relations
 Greece See Greece–Netherlands relations
  • Greece has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Holy See
  • Holy See has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy to the Holy See is located outside Vatican territory in Rome.
 Hungary See Foreign relations of Hungary
 Iceland
 Ireland See Foreign relations of Ireland
 Italy See Foreign relations of Italy
  • Italy has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Latvia
  • Latvia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Riga.
 Lithuania
  • Lithuania has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Vilnius.
 Luxembourg
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
 North Macedonia
  • Macedonia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Skopje.
 Malta See Foreign relations of Malta
  • Malta has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Moldova 1992-07-10
  • Moldova has an embassy in The Hague and an honorary consulate in Amsterdam.
  • The Netherlands is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Chisinau.
 Norway See Foreign relations of Norway
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in The Hague and two consulates-general in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland See Foreign relations of Poland
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal See Foreign relations of Portugal
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Romania 1880-02-13 See Netherlands–Romania relations
 Russia 1991 See Foreign relations of Russia

Both countries were establishment of diplomatic relations in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. Peter the Great studied in Holland. During the Cold War, all the Dutch consecutive governments perceived the Warsaw pact including the Soviet Union and Russia as a threat to its safety.

 Serbia 1899-04-26
 Slovakia 1993-01-01 See Netherlands–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia 1991-06-25 See Netherlands–Slovenia relations
 Spain See Foreign relations of Spain
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sweden See Foreign relations of Sweden
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  Switzerland See Foreign relations of Switzerland
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in The Hague.
 Turkey 1612 See Netherlands–Turkey relations
 Ukraine 1992 See Foreign relations of Ukraine
 United Kingdom See Netherlands–United Kingdom relations

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia See Australia–Netherlands relations
  • Australia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
 New Zealand See Netherlands–New Zealand relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Wellington and a consulate-general in Auckland.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in The Hague.
 Solomon Islands
 Vanuatu

Vanuatu has an honorary consulate in Gravenhage[96].

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A. Vandenbosch, Dutch Foreign Policy since 1815 (1959).
  2. ^ ORET flyer, via Google Docs. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Collet, Steven. "Modernizing the Dutch Diplomatic Service: A Work in Progress." The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 10.4 (2015): 440–451.
  • Israel, Jonathan. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806 (1995) a major synthesis; complete online edition; also excerpt and text search
  • Koopmans, Joop W., and Arend H. Huussen Jr. Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands (2nd ed. 2007)excerpt and text search
  • Kossmann, E. H. The Low Countries 1780–1940 (1978) 790pp.
  • Krabbendam, Hans, et al. eds. Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations 1609–2009 (Amsterdam: Boom, 2009, 1190 pp., isbn 978-9085066538; excerpt
  • Leurdijk, J.H. ed. The Foreign Policy of the Netherlands (Alphen aan den Rijn, 1978).
  • Nordholt, Jan Willem Schulte, and Robert P. Swierenga. Bilateral Bicentennial: A History of Dutch-American Relations, 1782–1982 (1982) 279pp
  • Bhawan Ruangsilp (2007). Dutch East India Company Merchants at the Court of Ayutthaya: Dutch Perceptions of the Thai Kingdom, Ca. 1604–1765. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-15600-3.
  • Scott, Cynthia. "Renewing the ‘Special Relationship’and Rethinking the Return of Cultural Property: The Netherlands and Indonesia, 1949–79." Journal of Contemporary History 52.3 (2017): 646-668.
  • Tuyll van Serooskerken, Hubert P. van. Netherlands & World War I: Espionage, Diplomacy & Survival (2001) 381p.
  • van Willigen, Niels. "A Dutch return to UN peacekeeping?." International Peacekeeping 23.5 (2016): 702–720.
  • Vandenbosch, Amry. Dutch Foreign Policy since 1815 (1959). online; full text at Questia
  • Vandenbosch, Amry. The neutrality of the Netherlands during the world war (1927).
  • Vandenbosch, Amry. Dutch in the Far East (1943) online
  • Veer, Lionel. "On the road for human rights: Experiences and reflections of the Dutch human rights ambassador 2010–2014." Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 35.1 (2017): 4–10.