Foreign relations of the Philippines

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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Foreign relations of the Philippines are administered by the President of the Philippines and the Department of Foreign Affairs. Philippine international affairs are influenced by ties to Southeast Asian neighbors, United States, and the Middle East.

The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations;[1] an elected member of the Security Council[2] and participant in the FAO, International Labor Organization (ILO), UNESCO and World Health Organization. Like most nations, the Philippines is a signatory of Interpol. The Philippines is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, and the Latin Union. It was formerly a member of the now-defunct SEATO. Declaring itself as independent of any major power block of nations, the Philippines is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Economically, the Philippines is a participant in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Development Bank, the Colombo Plan, Group of 24, G-20, G-77, the World Bank, Next Eleven and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Foreign policy[edit]

The Philippines (in red) has embassies in various nations (in blue).

Philippine foreign policy is based on the advancement of Filipino ideals and values, which include the advancement of democracy and advocacy for human rights worldwide.

The nation is currently actively engaging with regional neighbors in Southeast Asia through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (as a founding member) with the intention of strengthening regional harmony, stability, and prosperity. It has been a supporter of East Timor since the latter's independence and has expanded trade links with its traditional allies Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Relations with Vietnam and Cambodia have thawed in the 1990s after their entry into the ASEAN.

Ties to the United States have affected Filipino international relations. The Republic of the Philippines considers itself a staunch ally of the United States and has supported many points of American foreign policy. This is evident in the Philippines' participation in the Iraq War and the War on Terror. Speaking to this support, U.S. President George W. Bush praised the Philippines as a bastion of democracy in the East and called the Philippines America's oldest ally in Asia. President Bush's speech on October 18, 2003 was only the second U.S. Presidential address to the Philippine Congress; U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivered the first.

With a robust relationship to the United States, the administration of former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo sought to establish closer ties to its earlier colonizer, Spain. This was inspired by the attendance of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía at the June 12, 1998 celebration honoring the centennial of the Philippines' independence from Spain. President Macapagal-Arroyo made two official visits to Spain during her presidency.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines has been a participant in various regional conflicts, including the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Recently, the Philippines sent peacekeeping forces to Iraq, in addition to civilian doctors, nurses and police. However, the Filipino mission was later recalled as collateral for the release of a Filipino hostage. As part of a UN Peacekeeping Operation, Philippine Army General Jaime de los Santos became the first commander of troops responsible for maintaining order in East Timor.

The Philippines is in tension with rival international claimants to various land and water territories in the South China Sea. The Philippines is currently in dispute with the People's Republic of China over the Camago and Malampaya gas fields. The two countries are also in dispute over the Scarborough Shoal. Additionally, the Philippines has a disputed claim over the Spratly Islands.

Relations with other Asian nations have been strong. Japan, which has been an active donor of aid, has close ties with the country. Relations with China have recently been expanded, especially with regards to the economy. The presence of a large South Korean expatriate community has led to the expansion of relations between the two nations. India has also been an important partner, as have countries outside of Asia such as Australia, Mexico, New Zealand, and Saudi Arabia.

In recent years, the Philippines has been distancing itself from the West due to its active role in the Non-Aligned Movement and the G-77. This trend is reflected in its recent positions on Kosovo, Iran and Israel.

Relations with specific countries and regions[edit]

Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia 1992-05-20[3]
  • The Philippines and Armenia established bilateral relations in 1992.
  • Foreign Minister Eduard Nalbandyan visited the Philippines in 2012, the highest government official of Armenia to ever visit the Philippines.
  • Armenia has a consulate in Manila.
  • Philipinnes has a consulate in Yerevan.
 Azerbaijan 1992-03-27[3]

President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev has received the credentials of incoming ambassador of the Philippines Marilyn Jusayan Alarilla. During a meeting following the ceremony, the ambassador conveyed greetings of the Philippine President Benigno Aquino III to the Azerbaijani leader. She noted the Philippines was interested in developing the cooperation with Azerbaijan in different areas, including energy, science and technologies. President Ilham Aliyev said there was good potential for developing Azerbaijan–Philippines relations in many fields, particularly economic one.

 Bahrain
 Bangladesh 1972-02-24

Bangladesh and the Philippines have had a very close and friendly relations since the birth of Bangladesh. The Philippines supported the liberation of Bangladesh and recognized it on February 24, 1972. The Philippine Ambassador to the United Nations spoke in favor of the nation during its liberation struggle and also during Bangladesh’s admission to the United Nations in 1974.

 Brunei 1984-01-01

In April 2009, The Philippines and Brunei signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that seeks to strengthen the bilateral cooperation of the two countries in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investments.[4] The MOU further strengthening bilateral cooperation between the two Southeast Asian countries, particularly in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investments.[5] The two countries have agreed to cooperate in plant science, crops technology, vegetable and fruit preservation, biotechnology, post-harvest technology, livestock, organic agriculture, irrigation and water resources and halal industry.[6]

 Burma 1956-09-29
 Cambodia 1957
 China 1975-06-09
 East Timor 2002-05-20[7]
 Georgia 1992-09-21[3]
 India 1949-11-16
 Indonesia 1951-06-21
 Iran 1964-02
 Iraq 1975-01-12
 Israel 1958-02-26
 Japan 1943-07
 Kazakhstan 1992-03-19[3]

Diplomatic relations between the Kazakhstan and the Philippines were formally established on March 19, 1992. The Philippines maintains relations with Kazakhstan through its embassy in Moscow in Russia. Kazakhstan has an honorary consulate in Manila.[8][9]

Trade between Kazakhstan and the Philippines amounted to 7.3 million during January to November 2010. In 2009, about 1,500 Kazakh tourists visited the Philippines. As of 2009, there are about 7,000 Overseas Filipino Workers are working in Western Kazakhstan, mostly in the oil and gas sector. Kazakhstan is attracting Philippine companies to invest in the country.[10]

On 2011, Kazakhstan is planning to put up a Kazakhstan house in the Philippines either in the Bonifacio Global City or Makati to showcase Kazakh products and promote its tourist destinations. There is also plans to put up a Philippine House in Kazakhstan for the same purpose and there is also plans to put Filipino art exhibits in Kazakhstan[11]

Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, and his 27 delegates arrived in the Philippines for a three-day state visit on November 10, 2003 at the Villamor Airbase in Pasay City. The Kazakh officials met with their Filipino counterparts and conducted meetings. Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo met with Nazarbayev to finalize the Philippine's intent to import oil and coal from Kazakhstan and discussed possible infrastructure projects in the Central Asian country.[8]

The Philippines also supported Kazakhstan bid to become a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum on security.[10]

 Kyrgyzstan 1992-04-24[3]
 Laos 1955-01-14
 Malaysia 1959
 Mongolia 1973-10-11
   Nepal 1960-02-12

The Philippines and Nepal established diplomatic relations on February 12, 1960. Both countries are members of the Non-Aligned Movement. There are about 300 Filipinos living in Nepal, who were either missionaries, professionals, skilled workers, volunteers or spouses of Nepalese or other nationals as of March 2011. Approximately 500 Nepalese students are studying in the Philippines for their higher-level education.[12][13]

 North Korea 2000-07-12[14]
 Oman 1980-10-06
 Pakistan 1949-09
 Palestine
 Qatar 1975-04-12
 Saudi Arabia 1969
 South Korea 1949-03-03
 Sri Lanka 1951-01
 Thailand 1949-06-14
 Taiwan

The Philippines recognize the One-China policy but has informal relations to the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan) through the Manila Economic and Cultural Office in Taipei and Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Manila.

 Tajikistan 1992-03-25[3]
 United Arab Emirates 1980-06-17
 Uzbekistan 1992-04-13[3]

First round of political consultations were held in Tashkent on March 3, 2011 between the Philippines and Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan expressed support for the Philippines bid to gain observer status in the OIC and hopes for the resolution of the Muslim insurgency mainly affecting the southern part of the Philippines. The Philippines highlighted untapped potentials, despite remote geographical position, for developing trade-economic cooperation and expanding interactions between financial institutions.[15]

 Vietnam 1976-07-12
 Yemen 1977-05-04[16]

In 2011, there were about 1,600 Filipinos working in Yemen with about a thousand of them staying in the Yemeni capital of Sana'a. Majority of them work in the health and petroleum industry. Yemen supports the Philippines' observer status bid to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and a peaceful resolution to the Islamic insurgency in the Philippines.[17]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Angola 2001-09-14[18]
 Burkina Faso 2002-10-10[19]
 Cape Verde 2000-03-21[20][21]
 Republic of the Congo 2000-01-19[20][22]
 Djibouti 1977-06-27

The Philippines supported the independence of Djibouti and recognized it on June 27, 1977. Djibouti has opened its consulate in the Philippines to maintain relations between the two countries.

 Egypt 1955-01-18[23]
 Equatorial Guinea

Both the Philippines and Equatorial Guinea were former Spanish colonies. There are about 4,000 Filipino workers in Equatorial Guinea. There has been cordial ties especially in the fields of trade and investments, agriculture, education, cultural and technical cooperation. The Philippines is interested in partnering with Equatorial Guinean entities to conduct oil exploration and the possibility of importing oil from Equatorial Guinea. The Philippines is also interested in developing infrastructure for seaports to improve cargo handling and delivery. He likewise expressed Philippine interest in developing facilities for seaports to improve cargo handling and delivery.[24]

 Ghana 1957-03-06

The Philippines has recognized the independence of Ghana on 6 March 1957. Diplomatic relations were established during the recognition of the state. The Republic of Ghana has opened its consulate in the Philippines to extend and render assistance to Ghanaians and help maintain relations between the two countries.[25]

 Gambia 1996-06-26[26]
 Guinea-Bissau 1976-10-26[16]
 Ivory Coast 1960-08-07

The Philippines and Côte d'Ivoire established diplomatic relation and recognized a state on August 7, 1960. There were some 100 Filipinos in Côte d'Ivoire, mostly professional and skilled workers and some permanent residents, and the Philippine government had repatriated 10 Filipinos after tensions in the country started following the second round of the 2010 presidential elections.[27]

 Kenya 1975
 Lesotho 1998-04-15[28]
 Libya 1976-11-17
 Mauritania 2013-09-30[29]
 Malawi 2001-05-03[30]
 Morocco 1975-12-27[16]
 Mozambique 1997-03-27[31]
 Nigeria 1962
 São Tomé and Príncipe 2000-11-08[20][32]
 Senegal 1976-03-15[16]
 Sierra Leone 1991

Sierra Leone and the Philippines have pledged to strengthen bilateral relations to the mutual benefit of both countries. The two countries, which are celebrating 20 years of diplomatic relations this week, vow to work further to expand their relations in the socio-economic, political and cultural fields.[33]

 South Africa 1993-11-01
 South Sudan 2013-03-13
 Togo 2000-08-24[20]
 Tunisia 1975-12-12[16]

Americas[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 2010-07-16[34]
 Argentina 1948
 Bolivia 1970-01-07

Bolivia and Philippines were both Spanish colonies, diplomatic relations between the two countries began in 1970. The Philippine Embassy in Buenos Aires exercised jurisdiction over Bolivia. Furthermore, the Embassy of Bolivia in Tokyo has jurisdiction over the Philippines. Philippine general has two honorary consulates in Bolivia in the cities of La Paz and Santa Cruz de la Sierra. There are about 15 Filipinos in Bolivia most of them are religious missionaries and others are married with Bolivians.[35]

 Brazil 1946-07-04
 Bahamas 1976[36]
 Barbados 2009-06-22

Barbados established formal relations with the Philippines with the signing of a Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations in New York on June 22, 2009. The establishment of relations was proposed by Barbados the year before through the Philippines' embassy in Caracas in Venezuela. Barbados is currently under the jurisdiction of the Philippine embassy in Caracas.[37]

 Canada 1949
 Chile 1946-07-04
 Colombia 1946-07-05[38]
 Cuba 1952-09-03[39]
 Dominica 2011-05-03[40]
 Grenada

Grenada has a consulate in Makati City.

 Guyana 2008-09-22[41]
 Jamaica 1980-05-28[16]
 Mexico 1953-04-14
 Peru 1974-11-30[16]

In 2008, Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and Former Peruvian President Alan García held bilateral talks and shared commonalities talking about the kinship between their two countries. The Philippines and Peru are both predominantly Roman Catholic countries and were ruled by the Spanish Empire for hundreds of years. Following on the meeting of the two Presidents, it was announced in 2008 that the re-introduction of the Spanish language in Philippine schools in 2009 would be a very timely move as the Philippines and Peru had agreed to expand their diplomatic, bilateral and trade relations.[42] In 2009, a Philippines Department of Education order titled a Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MLE) detailed a planned educational methodology which did not involve the Spanish language.[43]

 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2000-08-11[44]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2000-10-11[45]
 Trinidad and Tobago 2000-04-18[46]
 United States 1946-07-04
 Venezuela 1968-08-27

Both Venezuela and the Philippines share a Hispanic heritage and relations between the two countries has been warm and friendly since it formal establishment of ties on August 27, 1968. Venezuela has an embassy in Manila and the Philippines has an embassy in Caracas.[47]

Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez made a state visit in the Philippines in 1999 and signed the RP-Venezuela Memorandum of Understanding on Tourism Cooperation and a Memorandum of Understanding on Trade and Investment.[48]

Venezuela is the Philippine's 5th largest trading partner in South America with Philippine exports increasing to 38 million dollars in 2004, compared to just 1.6 million dollars of 2003. The Philippines is willing to work with Venezuela in both energy and power industries.[47]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Andorra 2000-02-22[49]
 Austria
 Belarus 1996-05-22[50]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001-01-12[51]
 Croatia 1993-02-25
 Czech Republic 1973
 Cyprus 1980-03-06[52]
 Denmark 1946-09-28
 Estonia 1991-09-17[53]
 Finland 1955-07-14

The Philippines and Finland share bilateral diplomatic relations established in July 14, 1955. The Philippines has an embassy in Helsinki and Finland has an embassy in Manila. The Embassy in Manila is also the Finland's representative in some Pacific Island nations such as Palau, Micronesia and Marshall Islands.

 France 1947-06-26
 Germany 1955-04-25
 Greece 1947
 Holy See 1951-04-09
 Iceland 1999-02-24
 Ireland 1984
 Italy 1947-07-09[54]
 Latvia 1991-12-17[55]
 Liechtenstein 1995-11-24[56]
 Netherlands
 Norway 1948-03-02
 Poland 1973-09-22[16]
 Romania 1975-04-12
 Russia 1976-06-02
 San Marino 2003-04-03[57]
 Spain 1947-09-27
 Sweden 1947

Diplomatic relations between the Philippines and Sweden were established in 1947, and have steadily intensified during the years. Sweden has long been a development partner of the Philippines. Sweden’s cooperation with the Philippines focuses on issues concerning the environment, human rights, good governance, training, and assistance to non-government organizations (NGOs).

  Switzerland 1956-08-30
 Turkey 1949-06-13[58]
 Ukraine 1992-04-07[3]
 United Kingdom 1946-07-04

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 1946-07-04
 Cook Islands 2011-12-12[59]
 Fiji 1973[60]
 Nauru[61]
 New Zealand
 Palau
 Papua New Guinea
 Samoa 1981[62]
 Solomon Islands 2004-09-27[63]

Relations with former states[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Soviet Union 1976-06-02

The Philippines and Soviet Union had mutual distrust due to ideological difference even though the later began to soften ties with the Soviet Union and its allies.

 South Vietnam

The Philippines recognized South Vietnam on July 1955. South Vietnam requested the Philippines to aid them in the Vietnam War. The Philippine embassy in Saigon ceased operations on April 29, 1975

 South Yemen 1977-10-21[16]
 Yugoslavia 1972-03-01[16]

Multilateral relations[edit]

Organizations Formal Relations Began Notes
 Association of Southeast Asian Nations

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on August 8, 1967 in Bangkok, with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration together with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The Philippines was one of the Founding nations.

 European Union 2013

The European Union and the Philippines shares diplomatic, economic, cultural and political relations. The European Union has provided €3 million to the Philippines to fight poverty and €6 million for counter-terrorism against terrorist groups in the Southern Philippines. The European Union is also the third largest trading partner of the Philippines. There are at least 31,961 Europeans (not including Spaniards) living in the Philippines.

 United Nations 1945-10-24

When the Philippines joined signing the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, United States. This partnership has progressed since then into a number of development initiatives, activities and programs. Technical, financial and other forms of assistance to the Philippines began in the late 1940, as the country recovered from the ravages of World War II. The partnership between the United Nations and the Philippines began in 1945.

Issues[edit]

International disputes[edit]

The Spanish Administration governed various Pacific island colonies from Manila. These include the present-day Guam, and parts of Micronesia, all of which were given separate administrations under American oversight after Spain transferred power to the United States in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. Spanish Manila also governed possessions in Borneo, Halmahera, Taiwan, Pulau Ternate and Pulau Tidore, all of which transferred to non-American entities after the Spanish–American War.

Sabah[edit]

See also: Sabah dispute

Sabah, the largest region which the Philippines claim, is now an integral part of Malaysia. On January 23, 1878, Sulu Sultan Jamalul Alam leased or ceded (depending on translation used) his territory in Borneo, in which is now Sabah, to Austrian Gustavus von Overbeck. The Sultan was paid 5000 Malayan Dollars per year for the agreement. In 1882, Sabah became a British Protectorate, became a British colony after World War II, and joined the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.[64]

Philippine Presidents Diosdado Macapagal and Ferdinand Marcos openly claimed Sabah. The latter even ordered Sabah to be put into the Philippine map. Despite challenges of the Philippine government to bring the matter of the dispute to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), Malaysia still rejects those calls. During 2002, violent mass deportations of illegal Filipinos residing in Sabah[65] resulted in more clamor for the Sabah claim. Up to this day, Malaysia still pays the annual cession payment of 5,300 Malaysian Ringgit to the Sultan's heirs.

Sulawesi Sea Islands[edit]

The case of Sipadan and Ligitan, which were in dispute between Malaysia and Indonesia, was taken into the ICJ, in which the former won. Sipadan and Ligitan are technically part of Sabah state, and thus would be part of the claim of the Sulu Sultanate's heir, the Philippines.

Macclesfield Bank[edit]

Macclesfield Bank, located east of the Paracel Islands, distantly southwest of the Pratas Islands and north of the Spratly Islands, is claimed by China[66] and Taiwan (Republic of China).[67][68]

Some sources[68][69] state that the Philippines claims this underwater feature. However, Jose Zaide, a Philippine diplomat of ambassadorial rank, has written that the Philippines does not claim the Macclesfield Bank.[70]

Scarborough Shoal[edit]

The Scarborough Shoal (Panatag Shoal), located west of Palauig, Zambales, are claimed by the Philippines, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. The Philippines bases its claim on its close proximity of the Scarborough Shoal to the Philippines. It also says that the Scarborough Shoal is within the Filipino Exclusive Economic Zone and argues terra nullius. A Yuan dynasty map dated as early as 1279 is the basis for the claim of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. They argue that the area was historically used by their fishermen.

Spratly Islands[edit]

The Spratly Islands are a group of islands, reefs, and rocks located about 300 kilometers West of Aborlan, Palawan. The Philippines, along with the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Brunei expressed claims. The Philippines officially staked a claim to some of the islands during the United Nations convention[when?], although it was first expressed in 1956, when Tomás Cloma, a Philippine mariner, declared some of the eastern Spratlys as a protectorate of the Philippines. Based on proximity and on the United Nations Archipelagic Doctrine, the Philippines can claim some of the Spratlys as an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Whether these arguments (or any other used by the Philippines) would hold up in court is debatable but possibly moot, as the PRC and Vietnam seem unwilling to legally substantiate their claims and have rejected Philippine challenges to take the dispute to the World Maritime Tribunal in Hamburg.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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