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Forests of Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Forest cover percentage of Canadian provinces and territories.

The forests of Canada are located across much of the country. Approximately half of Canada is covered by forest, totaling around 2.4 million km2 (0.93 million sq mi).[1] Over 90% of Canada's forests are owned by the public (Crown land and Provincial forest). About half of the forests are allocated for logging.

Named forests are found within eight distinct regions. These forests may also be part of ecosystems, a number of which extend south into the United States. For example, the Northern hardwood forest is an ecosystem located in large areas of southeastern and south central Canada as well as in Ontario and Quebec. This system extends south to west and even into the United States.

Canada had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.99/10, ranking it 11th globally out of 172 countries.[2]

Ontario alone, makes up for 20% of Canada's Forests, which makes roughly 2% of the forests in the world.[3] Ontario follows strict laws and regulations to manage its forests in a sustainable way. Ontario Forests are mainly managed by the Ministry of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry (NDMNRF).[4] They ensure a fair trade between sustaining the forest, while protecting the biodiversity of the ecosystem and providing legal methods for harvesting to benefit the economy.[3]


Taiga forest in the Boreal Forest Region in Quebec

The forests of Canada are located within eight regions:[5][6]

By Province


The following is a list of forests, ecoregions, ecozones, forested parklands and provincial parks.


Alberta's North Central Rockies forest

British Columbia

British Columbia mainland coastal forests


Ben Eoin Provincial Park



Nova Scotia



Ontario's Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests

Prince Edward Island



Quebec's Laurentian Mixed Forest Province


Saskatchewan's Aspen parkland



Other forest areas

Northern hardwood forest

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

View of Niagara River from Niagara Glen Nature Reserve
A view of the Niagara River from Niagara Glen Nature Reserve, surrounded by forest

See also



  1. ^ "Total forest coverage by country". the Guardian. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  2. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  3. ^ a b "State of Ontario's Natural Resources - Forest 2021".
  4. ^ "Ministry of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry".
  5. ^ "Forest classification". Natural Resources Canada. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  6. ^ "Forest Regions - The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca.
  7. ^ "New England/Acadian Forests". www.cas.vanderbilt.edu.
  8. ^ a b c d "Canada's Forests - Sustainability and Management - CCFM". www.sfmcanada.org. Archived from the original on 2021-03-01. Retrieved 2018-09-23.
  9. ^ "Natural Areas". 11 January 2018.
  10. ^ "Eco Succession". Archived from the original on 2008-12-26. Retrieved 2018-09-23.