Forlorn hope

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For the community formerly with this name, see Hopeton, California.
Colin Campbell leading the 'forlorn hope' at the Siege of San Sebastián, 1813. Painting by William Barnes Wollen

A forlorn hope is a band of soldiers or other combatants chosen to take the leading part in a military operation, such as an assault on a defended position, where the risk of casualties is high.[1] Such a band is also known as the "enfants perdus".[2]

Etymology[edit]

The term comes from the Dutch verloren hoop, literally "lost troop". The Dutch word "hoop" usually means "hope" but is in this context cognate to the English word "heap". The term was used in military contexts to denote a troop formation.[3][4][5] The Dutch word hoop (in its sense of heap in English) is not cognate with English hope: this is an example of false folk etymology.[6][7][8] The mistranslation of "verloren hoop" as "forlorn hope" is "a quaint misunderstanding" using the nearest-sounding English words.[9]

This false etymology is further entrenched by the fact that in Dutch the word hoop is a homograph meaning "hope" as well as "heap", though the two senses have different etymologies. While the word hoop has many equivalents in English, including 'pile' and 'accumulation' perhaps the nearest English translation that most accurately captures the sentiment, at least in military affairs, is 'lost bunch' or 'lost crowd', given the slender expectations of those given such a high-risk assignment.

History[edit]

In the German mercenary armies of the Landsknechts, these troops were called the "Verlorene Haufen", which has the same meaning as the German term, the word Haufen itself being a general term for a loosely organised group of men. The men of the "Verlorene Haufen" carried long double-handed swords, with which they had to hew their way through the massive pike formations opposing them. They also had to withstand the first wave of attacks when defending a breastwork. Members of the "Verlorene Haufen" earned double pay, thus giving them the name of "Doppelsöldner" ('Double-wagers'), but since there were not enough volunteers to serve in the "Verlorene Haufen", criminals that had been sentenced to death were taken into the ranks as well. As a field sign, the "Verlorene Haufen" carried a red "Blutfahne" ('Blood Banner').

By extension, the term forlorn hope became used for any body of troops placed in a hazardous position, e.g., an exposed outpost, or the defenders of an outwork in advance of the main defensive position.[1] This usage was especially common in accounts of the English Civil War, as well as in the British Army in the Peninsular War of 1808–1814, and in the days of muzzle-loading muskets, the term was most frequently used to refer to the first wave of soldiers attacking a breach in defences during a siege.

While it was likely that most members of the forlorn hope would be killed or wounded the intention was that some would survive long enough to seize a foothold that could be reinforced, or at least that a second wave with better prospects could be sent in while the defenders were reloading or engaged in mopping up the remnants of the first wave.[1] That said such soldiers were rarely suicidal or foolhardy: British troops of the forlorn hope at the 1812 Siege of Badajoz carried a large bag (5–6 feet (1.5–1.8 m) by 2 feet (0.61 m) in diameter) stuffed with hay or straw, which was thrown down into the enemy trenches to create a cushion and prevent injury as they jumped down.[10]

A forlorn hope may have been composed of volunteers (rather than condemned criminals or randomly-selected soldiers) and were frequently led by ambitious junior officers with hopes of personal advancement: if the volunteers survived, and performed courageously, they would be expected to benefit in the form of promotions, cash gifts and adding glory to their name (a military tradition at least as old as the Roman Republic[11]) while the commanding officer himself was virtually guaranteed both a promotion and a long-term boost to his career prospects.

In consequence, despite the grave risks involved for all concerned, there was often serious competition for the opportunity to lead such an assault and to display conspicuous valour.

The French equivalent of the forlorn hope, called Les Enfants Perdus or The Lost Children, were all guaranteed promotion to officer rank should they survive, with the effect that both enlisted men and officers joined the dangerous mission as an opportunity to raise themselves in the army.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Forlorn Hope". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  2. ^ "efants perdus", Merriam-Webster.com
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "forlorn hope"
  4. ^ Kilian, Cornelius (1593). Etymologicum Teutonicæ Linguæ. Antwerp: Jan Moretus (cited in Oxford English Dictionary). 
  5. ^ Merriam Webster: forlorn hope
  6. ^ Newman, John B (1984). Lawrence J Raphael; Carolyn B Raphael; Miriam R Valdodinos, eds. Language and Cognition: Essays in Honor of Arthur J. Bronstein. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 203–4. ISBN 0-306-41433-3. 
  7. ^ Todd, Loreto; Ian Hancock (1990). International English Usage. London: Routledge. p. 233. ISBN 0-415-05102-9. 
  8. ^ Attridge, Derek (1988). Peculiar Language: Literature as Difference from the Renaissance to James Joyce. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-415-34057-8. the Dutch phrase verloren hoop, the "lost heap"…became naturalized—and generalized—as forlorn hope…a quaint misunderstanding [from] folk etymology. 
  9. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language". Bartleby. 2000. Archived from the original on March 6, 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  10. ^ The London Journal, and Weekly Record of Literature, Science, and Art. G. Vickers. 1847. p. 155. 
  11. ^ Crowns were bestowed after a Roman triumph by generals to soldiers who won personal victories in battle... [such as being] first to scale a wall. Dio Cassius Roman History 6.21