Formate dehydrogenase

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Formate dehydrogenase N, transmembrane
OPM superfamily3
OPM protein1kqf

Formate dehydrogenases are a set of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, donating the electrons to a second substrate, such as NAD+ in formate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (EC or to a cytochrome in formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase (EC[1][2]


NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenases are important in methylotrophic yeast and bacteria and are vital in the catabolism of C1 compounds such as methanol.[3] The cytochrome-dependent enzymes are more important in anaerobic metabolism in prokaryotes.[4] For example, in E. coli, the formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase is an intrinsic membrane protein with two subunits and is involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration.[5][6]

NAD-dependent reaction

Formate + NAD+ ⇌ CO2 + NADH + H+

Cytochrome-dependent reaction

Formate + 2 ferricytochrome b1 ⇌ CO2 + 2 ferrocytochrome b1 + 2 H+

Molybdopterin, molybdenum and selenium dependence[edit]

One of the enzymes in the oxidoreductase family that sometimes employ tungsten (bacterial formate dehydrogenase H) is known to use a selenium-molybdenum version of molybdopterin.[7]

Transmembrane domain[edit]

The transmembrane domain of the beta subunit of formate dehydrogenase consists of a single transmembrane helix. This domain acts as a transmembrane anchor, allowing the conduction of electrons within the protein.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ferry JG (1990). "Formate dehydrogenase". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 7 (3–4): 377–82. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1990.tb04940.x. PMID 2094290.
  2. ^ Hille, Russ; Hall, James; Basu, Partha (2014). "The Mononuclear Molybdenum Enzymes". Chemical Reviews. 114 (7): 3963–4038. doi:10.1021/cr400443z. PMC 4080432. PMID 24467397.
  3. ^ Popov VO, Lamzin VS (1994). "NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase". Biochem. J. 301 (3): 625–43. doi:10.1042/bj3010625. PMC 1137035. PMID 8053888.
  4. ^ Jormakka M, Byrne B, Iwata S (2003). "Formate dehydrogenase--a versatile enzyme in changing environments". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13 (4): 418–23. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(03)00098-8. PMID 12948771.
  5. ^ Graham A, Boxer DH (1981). "The organization of formate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli". Biochem. J. 195 (3): 627–37. doi:10.1042/bj1950627. PMC 1162934. PMID 7032506.
  6. ^ Ruiz-Herrera J, DeMoss JA (1969). "Nitrate reductase complex of Escherichia coli K-12: participation of specific formate dehydrogenase and cytochrome b1 components in nitrate reduction". J. Bacteriol. 99 (3): 720–9. doi:10.1128/JB.99.3.720-729.1969. PMC 250087. PMID 4905536.
  7. ^ Khangulov SV, Gladyshev VN, Dismukes GC, Stadtman TC (1998). "Selenium-Containing Formate Dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli: A Molybdopterin Enzyme That Catalyzes Formate Oxidation without Oxygen Transfer". Biochemistry. 37 (10): 3518–3528. doi:10.1021/bi972177k. PMID 9521673.
  8. ^ Jormakka M, Törnroth S, Byrne B, Iwata S (2002). "Molecular basis of proton motive force generation: structure of formate dehydrogenase-N". Science. 295 (5561): 1863–1868. Bibcode:2002Sci...295.1863J. doi:10.1126/science.1068186. PMID 11884747. S2CID 30645871.

External links[edit]