Former Qin

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Former Qin (前秦)
351–394
Former Qin 376 CE
Former Qin 376 CE
Sixteen Kingdoms 376 AD.jpg
Status Empire
Capital Chang'an (351-385)
Jinyang (385-386)
Nan'an (386-394)
Huangzhong (394)
Government Monarchy
Emperor  
• 351-355
Fú Jiàn
• 355-357
Fu Sheng
• 357-385
Fú Jiān
• 385-386
Fu Pi
• 386-394
Fu Deng
• 394
Fu Chong
Establishment
• Fú Jiàn's entry into Chang'an
350
• 
4 March 351[1][2] 351
• Fú Jiàn's claim of imperial title
352
• Fú Jiān's destruction of Former Yan
370
383
• Fú Jiān's death
16 October 385[3][4]
• 
394
• Fu Hong's death
405
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Zhao
Former Yan
Former Liang
Later Yan
Later Qin
Later Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Former Qin
Chinese 前秦

The Former Qin (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in eastern Asia, mainly China. Founded by an officer in Shi Le's dynasty, it completed the unification of North China in 376.[5] Its capital was Xi'an up to the death of the ruler Fu Jiān in 385. Despite its name, the Former Qin was much later and less powerful than the Qin Dynasty which had ruled all of China during the 3rd century BC. The adjective "former" is used to distinguish it from the "Later Qin" state (384-417).

The severe defeat of the Former Qin in the Battle of Fei River in 383 encouraged uprisings, which split the Former Qin territory into two noncontiguous pieces after the death of Fu Jiān. One fragment, at present-day Taiyuan, Shanxi was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling. The other struggled in greatly reduced territories around the border of present-day Shaanxi and Gansu until disintegration in 394 following years of invasions by Western Qin and Later Qin.

In 327, the Gaochang commandery was created by the Former Liang under the Han Chinese ruler Zhang Gui. After this, significant Han Chinese settlement occurred, meaning that a major part of the population becoming Chinese. In 383, the General Lu Guang of Former Qin seized control of the region.[6]

All rulers of Former Qin proclaimed themselves "Emperor", except for Fu Jiān who claimed the title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang) but was posthumoustly considered an emperor.

Rulers of the Former Qin[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Gaozu (高祖 Gāozǔ) Jingming (景明 Jǐngmíng) Fu Jiàn (苻健 Fú Jiàn) 351-355 Huangshi (皇始 Huángshǐ) 351-355
None King Li (厲王 Lìwáng) ¹ Fu Sheng (苻生 Fú Shēng) 355-357 Shouguang (壽光 Shòuguāng) 355-357
Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Xuanzhao (宣昭 Xuānzhāo) Fu Jiān (苻堅 Fú Jiān) 357-385 Yongxing (永興 Yǒngxīng) 357-359

Ganlu (甘露 Gānlù) 359-364
Jianyuan (建元 Jiànyuán) 365-385

None Aiping (哀平 āipíng) Fu Pi (苻丕 Fú Pī) 385-386 Taian (太安 Tàiān) 385-386
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Gao (高 Gāo) Fu Deng (苻登 Fú Dēng) 386-394 Taichu (太初 Tàichū) 386-394
None Houzhu (後主 Hòuzhǔ) Fu Chong (苻崇 Fú Chóng) several months in 394 Yanchu (延初 Yán Chū) 394

¹ Fu Sheng was posthumously given the title "wang" even though he had reigned as emperor.

Rulers family tree[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%BFp%AB%D2&reign=%A5%C3%A9M&yy=7&ycanzi=&mm=1&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%FE%A8%B0
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 99.
  3. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%A7%B5%AAZ%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%A4%B8&yy=10&ycanzi=&mm=8&dd=&dcanzi=%A8%AF%A4%A1
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 106.
  5. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9. 
  6. ^ Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
    Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011.