Former Qin

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Former Qin
351–394
Former Qin 376 CE
Former Qin 376 CE
Sixteen Kingdoms 376 AD.jpg
CapitalChang'an (351–385)
Jinyang (385–386)
Nan'an (386–394)
Huangzhong (394)
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 351–355
Fu Jian (317–355)
• 355–357
Fu Sheng
• 357–385
Fu Jian (337–385)
• 385–386
Fu Pi
• 386–394
Fu Deng
• 394
Fu Chong
History 
• Fu Jian (317–355)'s entry into Chang'an
350
• Established
4 March[1][2] 351
• Fu Jian (317–355)'s claim of imperial title
352
• Fu Jian (337–385)'s destruction of Former Yan
370
383
• Fu Jian (337–385)'s death
16 October 385[1][3]
• Disestablished
394
• Fu Hong's death
405
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Zhao
Former Yan
Former Liang
Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms)
Later Yan
Later Qin
Later Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)
Jin dynasty (266–420)
Northern Wei
Western Qin
Western Yan
Today part ofChina
Vietnam
Laos
Mongolia
Former Qin
Chinese前秦

The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦),[4] (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in Chinese history ruled by the Di ethnicity. Founded by Fu Jian (posthumously Emperor Jingming) who originally served under the Later Zhao dynasty, it completed the unification of northern China in 376.[5] Its capital was Xi'an up to the death of the Emperor Xuanzhao in 385. Despite its name, the Former Qin was much later and less powerful than the Qin dynasty which had ruled all of China proper during the 3rd century BC. The adjectival prefix "former" is used to distinguish it from the "Later Qin dynasty" (384-417).

In 383, the severe defeat of the Former Qin by the Jin dynasty at the Battle of Fei River encouraged uprisings, splitting Former Qin territory into two noncontiguous pieces after the death of Fu Jian. One fragment, at present-day Taiyuan, Shanxi was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling. The other struggled in greatly reduced territories around the border of present-day Shaanxi and Gansu until disintegration in 394 following years of invasions by Western Qin and Later Qin.

In 327, the Gaochang commandery was created by the Former Liang dynasty under Zhang Gui. After this, significant ethnic Han settlement occurred, meaning that a major part of the population became Han. In 383, the General Lu Guang of Former Qin seized control of the region.[6]

All rulers of Former Qin proclaimed themselves "Emperor", except for Fu Jian (苻堅) (357–385) who instead claimed the title "Heavenly King" (Tian Wang). He was nonetheless posthumously considered an emperor by the Former Qin imperial court.

Rulers of the Former Qin[edit]

Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Durations of reigns Era names
Gaozu Jingming Fu Jian (苻健) 351–355 Huangshi (皇始) 351–355
King Li¹ Fu Sheng 355–357 Shouguang (壽光) 355–357
Shizu Xuanzhao Fu Jian (苻堅) 357–385 Yongxing (永興) 357–359

Ganlu (甘露) 359–364
Jianyuan (建元) 365–385

Aiping Fu Pi 385–386 Taian (太安) 385–386
Taizong Gao Fu Deng 386–394 Taichu (太初) 386–394
Fu Chong several months in 394 Yanchu (延初) 394

¹ Fu Sheng was posthumously given the title "wang" even though he had reigned as emperor.

Rulers family tree[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "中央研究院". 中央研究院.
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 99.
  3. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 106.
  4. ^ 徐俊 (November 2000). 中国古代王朝和政权名号探源. Wuchang, Hubei: 华中师范大学出版社. pp. 107–109. ISBN 7-5622-2277-0.
  5. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  6. ^ Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)