Former countries in Europe after 1815

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day. Each country has information separated into columns: name of the distinct country, its lifespan, the country or countries that hold all or some of the territory it once did, and further information about it.[1][2]

Article scope[edit]

The scope of this article begins in 1815, after a round of negotiations about European borders and spheres of influence were agreed upon at the Congress of Vienna.[3] The Congress of Vienna was a nine-month, pan-European meeting of statesmen who met to settle the many issues arising from the destabilising impact of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.[4]

The immediate background was Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814, which brought an end to twenty-five years of nearly continuous war during which France had caused the annexation or geopolitical reorganisation of myriad European microstates as well as some larger ones. The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe,[5] including restoring or reorganising many of the states which had previously been removed from Europe's political map.

Sovereign countries[edit]

This is a list of all the independent countries or puppet states that existed between 1815 and the present day that no longer exist. (Lifespan of each is based on that country's sovereignty. This means that those countries may have existed outside of those dates as well but not under full independence.)

Former countries Lifespan of sovereignty Today part of Notes Flag
Anhalt (Duchy) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State. Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg
Armenia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1920 Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Armenia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922. Flag of Armenia (1918–1922).svg
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia This entity founded on the domains of the Habsburg Monarchy can be regarded in constitutional law as a unitary monarchy on a differentiated federalistic basis, whereby the special position of Hungary within the framework of this federal entity was a separate realm ruled in a personal union that was not annexed or incorporated into the Empire. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg
Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867–1918 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina By the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary formed a joint monarchy with a Habsburg Monarch having some common institutions though leaving the status and internal affairs of the two countries separate. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svgFlag of Hungary (1896-1915; angels; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Avar Khanate 13th century–1864 Russia Comprised Circassia and Dagestan; it was the last country in the Caucasus to be annexed by the Russian Empire: Dagestan in 1859 and Circassia in 1864.
Azerbaijan (Democratic Republic) 1918–1920 Azerbaijan The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922. Flag of Azerbaijan 1918.svg
Baden (Grand Duchy) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members. Flag of Baden 1862.svg
Bavaria (Kingdom) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members. Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg
Belarus (People's Republic) 1918–1919 Belarus Gained independence from the Russian SFSR and quickly was swallowed by the Russian Soviets. Currently, its Rada (Council) is the oldest government in exile still functioning. Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991–1995).svg
Bremen (Free City) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of Bremen.svg
Brunswick (Duchy) 1815–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg
Carpatho-Ukraine 1938–1939 Ukraine It was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939. It declared itself an independent republic on March 15, 1939, but was annexed by Hungary between March 15 and March 16, 1939, remaining under Hungarian control until the end of World War II, when it was ceded to the Soviet Union. Flag of Ukraine.svg
Cospaia 1440–1826 Italy By error, a small strip of land went unmentioned in a sale treaty, and its inhabitants promptly declared independence; nearly 400 years later it was absorbed into the Papal States and Tuscany equally. Flag of Cospaia.svg
Couto Misto 10th century–1864 Spain and Portugal Neutral territory between Portugal and Spain which was divided between Portugal and Spain in 1864. Flag of the Couto Misto.svg
Cretan State 1898–1913 Greece Gained independence after several rebellions against the Ottoman Empire and after only 15 years of independence joined the Kingdom of Greece. Flag of Cretan State.svg
Crimea (Republic) 2014 Ukraine (disputed with Russia) Unrecognized state which gained independence after a referendum and then joined Russia a day later. Flag of Crimea.svg
Croatia (puppet state of Nazi Germany) 1941–1945 Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II. Flag of Croatia (1941–1945).svg
Czechoslovakia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1938
1938–1939
1945–1948
Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine Democratic unified government of the Czechs and Slovaks after World War I . Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (People's Republic) 1948–1992 Czech Republic, Slovakia Communist government of the Czechs and Slovaks after World War II behind the Iron Curtain. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Danzig (League of Nations) 1920–1939 Poland Protectorate of the League of Nations; annexed by Nazi Germany during the invasion of Poland in World War II. Flag of the Free City of Danzig.svg
Gurian Republic 1905-06 Georgia Part of the Russian Empire.
German Democratic Republic 1949–1990 Germany Also known as East Germany; was the Soviet-controlled government of Germany after World War II. Flag of the German Democratic Republic.svg
Finnish Democratic Republic 1939–1940 Russia A puppet state of the Soviet Union during World War II created from southern Finland which was quickly annexed into the Soviet Union
Fiume (Free State) 1920–1924 Croatia Formed from Austro-Hungarian territory at the end of World War I, it was later divided between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the Kingdom of Italy. Flag of the Free State of Fiume.svg
Frankfurt (Free City) 1816–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866 Flag of the Free City of Frankfurt.svg
Georgia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1921 Georgia The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Georgia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922 Flag of Georgia (1918–1921, 4-5).svg
Greece (Kingdom) 1832–1924
1935–1941
1944–1974
Greece, Turkey Wavering between monarchy and dictatorship the Kingdom of Greece existed three times in history always on rocky foundations State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg
Hamburg (Free City) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of Hamburg.svg
Hanover (Kingdom) 1814–1866 Germany In personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until the ascension of Queen Victoria in 1837; annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg
Hesse (Grand Duchy) 1806–1867/1871 Germany Northern part became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State and then the German Empire, with the southern part joining the German Empire as well. Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen mit Wappen.svg
Hesse-Homburg 1622–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866 Hessen HG flag.svg
Hesse-Kassel 1813–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866 Flag of Hesse.svg
Hohenzollern-Hechingen 1576–1850 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1850 Flag of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Sigmaringen.png
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 1576–1850 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1850 Flag of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Sigmaringen.png
Italian Social Republic 1943–1945 Italy A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II Flag of Italy.svg
Irish Republic 1919–1922 United Kingdom, Ireland Partly recognized, revolutionary state. Declared its independence after the 1918 election during the Irish War of Independence. Partitioned into the Irish Free State and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty. Flag of Ireland.svg
Kraków (Free City) 1815–1846 Poland Protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Empire of Austria, later annexed into the Austrian Empire Flag of Krakow.svg
Kuban People's Republic 1917–1920 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until it was annexed by the Russian SFSR it existed as a small short-lived country in the Northern Caucasus and has never regained its independence Flag of Kuban People's Republic.svg
Kingdom of Hungary 1000–1918
1920–1946
Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, Poland The historical kingdom's territorial continuity has been altered more times during its lifespan, however was permanently restored after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. After WWI, in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon the classic Kingdom of Hungary with its borders ended and 2/3 of her territory was repartitioned and assigned to other countries. Afterwards, a kingdom without a king, a Regency was established and since 1938 until its lifespan part of her former territories were restored. Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg
Lichtenberg (Principality) 1815–1834 Germany Owned by a branch of the Saxe-Coburgs; sold to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1834
Lippe (Principality) 1123–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of Lippe (1815-1880).svg
Lübeck (Free City) 1815–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of the Free City of Lübeck.svg
Lucca (Duchy) 1815–1847 Italy Annexed by Tuscany in 1847 Third Flag of the Duchy of Lucca.svg
Massa and Carrara (Duchy) 1473–1829 Italy Annexed by Modena and Reggio in 1829 Flag of Massa and Carrara.png
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1352–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg
Free Cities of Menton and Roquebrune 1848-1849 France The Free Cities of Menton and Roquebrune seceded from Monaco in 1848. In November 1849 they were annexed by Sardinia, and in 1861 were annexed by France. Flag of the Free Cities of Menton and Roquebrune (1848-1849).svg
Modena and Reggio (Duchy) 1814–1859 Italy Joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy) State Flag of the Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1830-1859).svg
Moldavian Democratic Republic 1918 Moldova From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1918 and the Versailles Treaty which added this territory to the Kingdom of Romania the Moldavian Democratic Republic existed as one of the Imperial Russian successor countries in Europe Flag of Sfatul Tarii reverse (1918).svg
Montenegro (Kingdom) 1910–1918 Montenegro A kingdom which was annexed by Serbia during the Serbian Expansion after World War I to create Yugoslavia Flag of Montenegro (1905–1918).svg
Montenegro (Principality) 1878–1910 Montenegro Predecessor of the Kingdom of Montenegro Flag of Montenegro (1905–1918).svg
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1917–1920 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1920 this country existed for a short time before annexation by the Russian SFSR and never has regained independence Flag of the Mountain Republic.svg
Nassau (Duchy) 1806–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866 Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg
North German Confederation Federal State 1867–1871 Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia First federal German state and predecessor of the German Empire Flag of Germany (1867–1918).svg
Oldenburg (Grand Duchy) 1180–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of Oldenburg (Scandinavian Cross).svg
Ottoman Empire 1299–1923 Turkey, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Albania, North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Moldova, Ukraine, Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria One of the longest lasting empires of all time this empire rose out of the Near East and fluctuated drastically in territory and economic status throughout its history; it was dissolved after its defeat in World War 1. Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844–1922).svg
Papal States 752–1870 Italy The entire eastern region joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy); however, the remaining strip of land along the west coast did not join Italy until it was annexed in 1870 Flag of the Papal States (1825-1870).svg
Parma (Duchy) 1814–1859 Italy joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy) Flag of the Duchy of Parma (1851-1859).svg
Prussia (Kingdom) 1701–1867 Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg
Reuss Junior Line 1806–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a region of Anhalt) Flagge Fürstentum Reuß jüngere Linie.svg
Reuss Elder Line 1778–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a region of Anhalt) Flagge Fürstentum Reuß ältere Linie.svg
Russian SFSR 1917–1922 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1922 the Russian SFSR was an independent communist state comprising almost all of the territory the Russian Empire had possessed in its final years; in 1922 it became the leading and dominating state in the Soviet Union until the union’s end in 1991 Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1918–1937).svg
Saar (League of Nations) 1920–1935 Germany League of Nations mandate within Weimar Germany Flag of Saar 1920-1935.svg
Saar (French protectorate) 1947–1956 Germany French-administered region which was later given to West Germany Flag of Saar (1947–1956).svg
San Marco Republic 1848–1849 Italy Revolutionary state, existing for 17 months in 1848–49. Based on the Venetian Lagoon, it extended into most of Venetia, or the Terraferma territory of the Venetian Republic. Flag of the Republic of Venice 1848–49.svg
Sardinia (Kingdom) 1720–1861 Italy, France Comprised the Italian regions of Sardinia and Piedmont; the leading state that unified the Italian Peninsula. Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg
Saxe-Altenburg 1826–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia) Flag of the Saxon Duchies (1815-1918).svg
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1826–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia) Flag of the Saxon Duchies (1815-1918).svg
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1699–1826 Germany Merged to form Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826 Flag of the Saxon Duchies (1815-1918).svg
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1680–1826 Germany Merged to form Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826 Flag of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg.svg
Saxe-Meiningen 1675–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia) Flag of the Saxon Duchies (1815-1918).svg
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 1809–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia) Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1813-1897).svg
Saxony (Kingdom) 1806–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg
Schaumburg-Lippe 1643–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of Sorbs.svg
Schleswig (Duchy) 1864–1866 Germany, Denmark Independence from Denmark in 1864; annexed by Prussia in 1866 Flag of Sorbs.svg
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 1599–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia) Flagge Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1815-1866).svg
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 1599–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia) Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg
Serbia (Kingdom) 1882–1918 Serbia, North Macedonia Predecessor of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was formed from the annexations of other states Flag of Serbia (1882–1918).svg
Serbia (Principality) 1815–1882 Serbia Predecessor of the Kingdom of Serbia Flag of Serbia (1835–1882).svg
Septinsular Republic 1800–1815 Greece An archipelagic republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under nominal Ottoman sovereignty in the Ionian Islands and then under the French Empire. Flag of the Septinsular Republic.svg
Slovak State 1939–1945 Slovakia A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II Flag of Slovakia (1939–1945).svg
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 1918 Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia A short-lived, independent country which was annexed by Serbia during the Serbian Expansion after World War I to create Yugoslavia Flag of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.svg
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic 1918 Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1918 and the temporary breakup of the Transcaucasian DFR, it was an independent state comprising Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan all three of which gained independence and then rejoined together in 1922 to form the Transcaucasian SSR.
Trieste (Free Territory) 1947–1975 Italy, Slovenia, Croatia De facto split in 1954 between neighbouring countries Italy and Yugoslavia, it was formally removed in 1975 with an agreement between these two countries Free Territory Trieste Flag.svg
Tuscany (Grand Duchy) 1815–1859 Italy Joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy) Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1840).svg
Two Sicilies (Kingdom) 1816–1860 Italy Comprised the Italian regions of Naples and Sicily; was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860 Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816).svg
Ukraine (People’s Republic) 1917–1921 Ukraine Gained independence from the Russian SFSR and quickly was swallowed by the Russian Soviets Flag of the Ukrainian State.svg
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922–1991 Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan One of the greatest superpowers in modern times comprising most of the territory that once was under the Russian Empire including some new territory after World War II in Europe annexed from Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
United Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815–1839 Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg Unified sovereign state of the Dutch lands after the crush of Napoleon; only the area of Luxembourg was part of the German Confederation Flag of the Netherlands.svg
United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860 Italy First step of Italian unification comprising Tuscany, Parma, Modena and Reggio, and the eastern region of the Papal States; was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860 Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg
United States of the Ionian Islands 1815–1864 Greece Was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom. It was the successor state of the Septinsular Republic Flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands.svg
Waldeck-Pyrmont 1180–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Weimar Germany 1919–1933 Germany, Poland, Russia First German democracy Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
West Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1919 Ukraine Unrecognized successor state of Ukrainians after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Flag of the Ukrainian State.svg
Württemberg (Kingdom) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg
Yugoslavia (Federal Republic) 1992–2006 Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina Democratic Yugoslavia after the fall of communism; Bosnia & Herzegovina gained independence between 1991 and 1993; Renamed to Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. Flag of Yugoslavia (1992–2003); Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006).svg
Yugoslavia (Kingdom) 1918–1941 Serbia, Slovenia, Kosovo, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia Unified Slavic country after World War I Flag of Yugoslavia (1918–1941).svg
Yugoslavia (Socialist/Peoples's Federal Republic) 1944–1992 Serbia, Slovenia, Kosovo, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia Communist government of the south Slavic ethnicities after World War II outside of the Iron Curtain Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia 1938–1945 Czech Republic A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II. Flag of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.svg
First Austrian Republic 1918–1934 Austria Flag of Austria.svg
Federal State of Austria 1934–1938 Austria State flag of Austria (1934–1938).svg

Autonomous countries or incorporated protectorates[edit]

This is a list of all the dependencies of countries that existed between 1815 and the present day that no longer exist. (Lifespan of each is based on that country’s autonomy. This means that those countries may have existed outside of those dates as well but as independent countries.)

Former dependencies Lifespan of dependency Within present-day countries Further information Flag
Abkhazia (Principality) 1810–1864 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 12th century and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1810 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1864 Flag of Abkhazia (18th century).svg
Bulgaria (Principality) 1878–1908 Bulgaria, Serbia during the Russian-Turkish Wars of 1878, and the independence of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania, Bulgaria gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire; the principality gained complete independence in 1908 Flag of Bulgaria.svg
Erivan (Khanate) 1604–1828 Armenia it was an autonomous region of the Persian Empire since 1604 and was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828
Finland (Grand Duchy) 1809–1918 Finland, Russia was an autonomous monarchy of the Russian Empire with the Russian Tsar as its grand duke Flag of Russia.svg
Guria (Principality) 1810–1829 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 15th century and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1810 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1829
Lombardy–Venetia (Kingdom) 1815–1866 Italy comprised the Italian regions of Lombardy and Venetia; an autonomous kingdom within the Austrian Empire
Montenegro (Principality) 1815–1878 Montenegro after being a puppet state of Napoleon’s Europe it regained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support Flag of Montenegro (1852–1905).svg
Moresnet 1816–1919 Belgium In 1816 Neutral Moresnet became a territory under common administration of the Netherlands and Prussia. The Netherlands were replaced by Belgium in 1830. After World War I in 1919 the territory was ceded to Belgium by Germany under Treaty of Versailles and formally annexed in 1920. Flag of Moresnet.svg
Nakhchevan (Khanate) 1747–1828 Azerbaijan, Armenia it was an autonomous region of the Persian Empire since 1747 and was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828
Poland (protectorate) 1815–1830 Poland, Lithuania was an autonomous monarchy of the Russian Empire with the Russian Tsar as its king; at home it was called the ‘Kingdom of Poland’ but internationally known as Congress Poland and functioned more like a protectorate Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg
Romania (Principality) 1859–1878 Romania in 1859 Moldovia and Wallachia unified into the United Principalities and gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support Flag of Romania.svg
Samegrelo (Principality) 1803–1857 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 4th century BC and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1803 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1857 Flag of The Principality of Mingrelia (Portolan 1560).svg
Serbia (Principality) 1817–1878 Serbia a rebellion broke out in 1804 and 1817 Serbia gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support Flag of Serbia (1835–1882).svg

Proposed states[edit]

This is a list of all the independent countries that could or would have existed between 1815 and the present day that for some reason or another never did.

Proposed states Proposed formation Current states Notes Flag
United Baltic Duchy 1918 Estonia and Latvia idea first brought forth by the Germans but was rejected after the Versailles Treaty and the Baltic Region became the three present day countries United Baltic Duchy flag.svg
United States of Greater Austria 1905 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia concept brought forth by the Habsburgs in reaction to tensions within the empire of autonomy; the autocratic empire would be changed into a united autonomous country where each nation governed itself with some support from a much weaker Habsburg monarchy
Intermarium 1918 Poland, Lithuania Latvia, Estonia, Finland Belarus Ukraine Hungary Romania Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. was a geopolitical project conceived by politicians in successor states of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in several iterations, some of which anticipated the inclusion as well of other, neighboring states. The proposed multinational polity would have extended across territories lying between the Baltic and Black Seas, hence the Latinate name Intermarium, meaning "Between-Seas".

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ This information is based on the main articles on these former countries.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2010-02-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

External links[edit]