Formula One regulations
The numerous Formula One regulations, made and enforced by the FIA and later the FISA, have changed dramatically since the first Formula One World Championship in 1950. This article covers the current state of F1 technical and sporting regulations, as well as the history of the technical regulations since 1950.
Current rules and regulations
An F1 car can be no more than 180 cm wide and 95 cm tall. Though there is no maximum length, other rules set indirect limits on these dimensions, and nearly every aspect of the car carries size regulations; consequently the various cars tend to be very close to the same size.
The car must only have four wheels mounted externally of the body work with only the front two steered and only the back two driven. There are minimum distances allowed between the wheels and the rear and front body work.
The main chassis contains a "safety cell" which includes the cockpit, a structure designed to reduce impact directly in front of the cockpit, and the fuel cell directly behind the cockpit. Additionally, the car must contain roll structures behind and ahead of the driver. The driver must be able to enter and exit the cockpit without any adjustments other than removing the steering wheel.
There are also mandatory crash test standards. There is a 30 mph (48 km/h) head-on impact into a steel barrier; "average deceleration must not exceed 25g", with a maximum 60g for a minimum 3 milliseconds, with no damage to the chassis beyond the nose section. The same chassis must then sustain a rear impact from a sled travelling at 30 mph (48 km/h), with no damage in front of the rear axle. The roll hoop is not permitted to crush beyond 50 mm (2.0 in), and structural failure is only permitted in the top 100 mm (3.9 in) of the body. Side impacts by a 780 kg (1,720 lb) object at 10 m/s (22 mph) must be decelerated at less than 20g, and absorb no less than 15% and no more than 35% of the total energy; 80 kN (18,000 lbf) can not be exceeded more than 3 milliseconds. The steering wheel must survive the impact of an 8 kg (18 lb) 165 mm (6.5 in)-diameter object at 7 m/s (16 mph) with no deformation of the wheel or damage to the quick-release mechanism.
In addition, there are "squeeze tests" on the cockpit sides, fuel tank, and nosebox. The cockpit must survive a 25 kN (5,600 lbf) pressure with no failure; for the fuel tank, 12.5 kN (2,800 lbf) is applied. A maximum 3 mm (0.12 in) deformation is allowed. For the cockpit rim, the figures are 10 kN (2,200 lbf) and 20 mm (0.79 in). The nosebox must withstand 40 kN (9,000 lbf) for 30 seconds without failing.
Onboard electrical and computer systems, once inspected at the start of the season, may not be changed without prior approval. Electronic starters and launch control are forbidden. The computers must contain a telemetric accident data reporting system.
2.4 litre V8 engines were used in 2013 season. However, the 2014 season brought a major change in engine technology by introducing the 1.6 litre turbocharged V6 engine.
|2014 Engine Restrictions||2013 Engine Restrictions|
|Size||1.6 Litre||2.4 Litre|
|Type of Engine||V6 (Turbocharged)||V8|
|Fuel limit per race||100 kg||No limit (around 160 kg)|
|Fuel flow rate||100 kg per hour above 10,500 RPM||No flow rate|
|Fuel injection pressure limit||500bar||No Limit|
|Maximum engine RPM limit||15,000||18,000|
The power outputs of F1 engines have not been disclosed since the 1990s, however the consensus view is that today's 1.6 L turbocharged V-6 engines produce about 600 bhp.
Another radical change in 2014 was the introduction of ERS(Energy Recovery System). This system works similar to KERS, with drivers getting full-time boost of about 150 bhp from electric motors used in conjunction with the internal combustion engine (generating around 750 bhp in total) instead of a 6-second bank of extra power per lap. The combination of these systems led to the term power unit being used in lieu of engine.
Separate starting devices may be used to start engines in the pits and on the grid. If the engine is fitted with an anti-stall device, this must be set to cut the engine within ten seconds in the event of an accident.
The engines, now referred to as power units, are divided into 6 components: the internal combustion engine (ICE); turbocharger (TC); Motor Generator Unit-Kinetic (MGU-K), which harvested energy that would normally be wasted under braking; Motor Generator Unit-Heat (MGU-H), which collected energy in the form of heat as it was expelled through the exhaust; Energy Store (ES), which functioned as batteries, holding the energy gathered by the Motor Generator Units; and Control Electronics (CE), which included the Electronic Control Unit and software used to manage the entire power unit. In 2015, each driver is allowed to use up to four of each component during a season that is up to 20 scheduled races in length; a fifth power unit (and its components) may be used without penalty if more than 20 races are scheduled to take place. A ten place starting grid penalty will be applied for the use of a power unit component used beyond the established allocation; a pit lane start for entire unit changes beyond the limit.
From 2010, refuelling is no longer permitted during the race meaning every car starts with a full fuel load. The 2010 season cars are about 22 cm longer than 2009 cars to accommodate the enlarged fuel tank this necessitates. Refueling is set to return for the 2017 season.
Formula 1 has contracted a single supplier of tyres since the 2007 season. The supplier (currently Pirelli) supplies four specifications of slick dry-weather tyres (super soft, soft, medium and hard), of which two compounds are provided at each race; these are referred to as the "Prime" and "Option" tyres. Generally, the Prime tyre is harder and therefore more durable than the Option tyre, while the Option tyre provides more grip and therefore allows faster lap times on fresh tyres. The combination of longer lasting and faster tyres adds an element to each car's race strategy. At some events however the selection is reversed; with the Option tyre being harder than the Prime. The distinction between Prime and Option lies in the fact that the teams are supplied with more sets of the Prime tyre than the Option tyre for use throughout the weekend. Additionally, two wet-weather compounds are provided by the supplier; intermediate and full wet. Each compound is differentiated by a colour-coded band painted around the tyre's sidewall and including the Pirelli logo; red for super-soft, yellow for soft, white for medium, orange for hard, green for intermediate and blue for full wet.
Competitors are allowed only a limited number of tyre sets during a race event: eleven dry, four intermediate, three wet. Each tyre must be marked with a unique identifier for tracking and scrutineering purposes during a race event. During the practice sessions drivers are limited to the use of three sets of dry tyres, and certain sets must be returned to the supplier before the second and third sessions. If qualifying and starting the race on dry tyres, drivers who complete a lap during the third period of qualifying (the top ten) must start the race on the tyre set with which they recorded their fastest time during the second period. Any cars that qualified outside the top ten may start the race on any remaining set of tyres. Cars must race on both the Prime and Option dry compounds during a race unless intermediate or wet tyres have been used by that car in that race.
Prior to qualifying, wet and intermediate tyres may only be used if the track is judged wet by the race director. Starting the race behind the safety car due to heavy rain requires cars to be fitted with wet tyres until they pit.
Heaters may be applied only to the outside of tyres.
After weighing during each qualifying session, teams are required to take their cars to a place in the paddock, sectioned off by the FIA, known as parc fermé; they may not do work on the cars, other than routine maintenance, until they are released from parc fermé for the race the next morning.
- See Formula One racing for a detailed schedule of a complete race weekend and further race information.
The pit lane opens thirty minutes before the start of a race (t-30:00), during which time drivers may drive around the track as much as they like, driving through the pitlane each time around in order to avoid the grid. Drivers must be in their cars and in place on the grid by time the pit lane closes at t-15:00; otherwise they must start the race from the pits. Meanwhile, teams may work on their cars on the grid.
At t-10:00 the grid is cleared of everyone except team mechanics, race marshals, and drivers. A team will generally want to keep its tyres off their cars and heated in their tyre-warmers for as long as possible, but they must be attached to the cars by t-3:00.
Engines must be running by t-1:00; at fifteen seconds to the start all personnel must be clear of the track. Green lights signify the start of the formation lap, also known as the parade lap, during which drivers must remain in the same order (no passing) except if a car ahead has stopped due to a technical problem, or has had an accident. The cars circle the track once, usually weaving from side to side to warm up their tyres, and form up again in their starting positions on the grid. A series of short, controlled burnouts is usually performed as each driver approaches their grid box in order to maximize rear tyre temperature and clean off any debris from the parade lap.
If, for some reason, a car cannot start the race (engine failure during qualifying or practice, suspension fails, etc.), the car can still join the race, but will take a 10-position penalty at the start. For example, if the car qualifies in 3rd, but has to change an engine at any point during the race weekend prior to the actual race, the car will start from 13th position. For strategy's sake, teams will sometimes opt to start a car affected in this way from the pit lane. This means they start at the tail end of the grid; however, they can not only change an engine, but also start the race with fresh tyres.
Gearboxes must be used for 5 consecutive events (counted as P3, the qualifying practice session and the race). A five place grid penalty will be incurred if a replacement gearbox is used.
The race is started by ten red lights in two rows of five (i.e. five columns of two), controlled by FIA Race Director Charlie Whiting. The red lights in each column operate as a pair i.e. both go on and off together. The lights illuminate one pair at a time, left to right, in one-second intervals, and then go out simultaneously after an interval of between four and seven seconds. When the lights go out, the race begins. Should the start need to be aborted for any reason, all five pairs of red lights will come on as normal, but instead of going out, the orange lights will flash. All engines are stopped and the start resumes from the five-minute point. If a single driver raises his hand to indicate that he can't start, the marshall for that row will wave a yellow flag, then after a few seconds, both the red and orange lights will extinguish and the green lights will come on to indicate another formation lap.
The Driver's and Constructor's Championships are decided by points, which are awarded according to the place in which a driver classifies at each grand prix. To receive points a racer need not finish the race, but at least 90% of the winner's race distance must be completed. Therefore, it is possible for a driver to receive some points even though he retired before the end of the race. In that case the scoring is based on the distance completed in comparison to other drivers. It is also possible for the lower points not to be awarded (as at the 2005 United States Grand Prix) because insufficient drivers completed 90% of the winner's distance. The system was revised in 2003 and later amended for the 2010 season because of 2 new teams entering the sport. The scoring system from 2010 is:
|Driver completed 90% of winner's race distance|
|1st place||25 points|
|2nd place||18 points|
|3rd place||15 points|
|4th place||12 points|
|5th place||10 points|
|6th place||8 points|
|7th place||6 points|
|8th place||4 points|
|9th place||2 points|
|10th place||1 point|
|11th place onwards||No points|
For scoring systems prior to 2010, refer to the List of Formula One World Championship points scoring systems.
Drivers finishing lower than tenth place receive no points.
If the race had for some reason to be abandoned before 75% of the planned distance (rounded up to the nearest lap) had been completed, then the points awarded are halved: 12.5, 9, 7.5, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0.5.
Points are awarded equally to the driver and his constructor; for example, if a driver for one team comes second, eighteen points are added to his season total; if his teammate finished third in the same race, he adds fifteen to his total and the team adds 33 (the sum of the drivers' points) to its total. The championships are awarded to whichever driver and constructor have the most points at the end of the season. In case of a tie, the FIA compares the number of times each driver has finished in each position. The championship goes to whichever had the greater number of wins; if they have the same number of wins, it goes to the driver with the greater number of second places, and so on. For example, if Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost are tied at the end of a season, and Prost had six wins and three second-place finishes, but Senna had six wins and four second-place finishes (even if he had fewer third places than Prost, etc.), Senna would be champion.
On 10 December 2013, it was confirmed that drivers and constructors will score double points in the final Grand Prix from 2014 onwards, but this was abandoned in the weeks following the 2014 season.
Many venues make use of electronic displays to indicate flags to give various messages to drivers. However, race marshals continue to use physical flags as a redundancy mechanism in the event of electronic display failure. Marshals are positioned at numerous points around the track during every race. Flags have different meanings depending on their colour; the colours (with Pantone values as specified by the FIA) signify as follows:
|348C||Green||A green flag indicates that any previous danger has been attended to. The track is now clear, and drivers may proceed at racing speed and may again overtake. When the race director so directs, this may be displayed during the parade lap or at the beginning of a practice session; in this case all marshals positions will signal green flags.|
|186C||Red||A red flag indicates that the race, practice session, or qualifying session has been suspended. All marshal stations will signal this. Drivers may not leave the pits. All drivers on the track must proceed cautiously to the pit lane and stop. There they will be reordered in their correct racing order. Sessions may be resumed or abandoned as the race director indicates. If the safety car is deployed, the racing cars should follow it and provisions allow for the safety car to divert the field into the pit lane and wait there.|
|BlackC||Black||A black flag orders a particular driver to return to his pit within the next lap and report immediately to the Clerk of the Course, usually because he has been disqualified from the race. The flag is accompanied by a board with the car number of the driver on it so no mistake is made.|
|BlackC/White||Chequered||A black and white chequered flag signals the end of the race, practice session, or qualifying session. During the race it is shown first to the winner and then to the rest of the field as they finish; otherwise it is shown at a predetermined time.|
|BlackC/White||Half black||A half black and half white flag informs a driver that his behaviour has been deemed unsporting and if he does not begin acting in a sporting manner immediately he will be disqualified. A sign with the car number accompanies the flag.|
|BlackC/151C||Black with orange circle||A black flag with an orange circle (40 cm in diameter) in the centre informs a driver that his car has a mechanical problem that has the potential to harm him or other drivers and that he must return to his pit. Shown with car number.|
|YellowC/186C||Yellow and red stripes||A yellow flag with red stripes warns drivers that the track surface ahead is slippery, or there is debris present. This could be as a result of a car spilling oil (or some other engine fluid), or because rain is starting to fall. Slippery runway in an area, either by water or oil. Drivers must slow down at that point.|
Flags, whose specifications and usage are prescribed by Appendix H (PDF) of the FIA's International Sporting Code, must measure at least 60 cm by 80 cm, excepting the red and chequered flags, which must measure at least 80 cm by 100 cm.
Penalties may be imposed on drivers for numerous offenses, including starting prematurely, speeding in the pitlane, causing an accident, blocking unfairly, or ignoring flags of any color. There are four types of penalty which a driver may incur for violation of on-track rules:
- The five-second penalty is a very flexible one. A driver may serve it the next time they are due to pit. If they don't need to pit, then five seconds will be added to their time at the end of the race.
- The drive-through penalty requires the driver to enter the pitlane, drive through it while obeying its speed limit, and exit without stopping. Drive-through penalties are normally imposed for minor offences, for example kerb-hopping at chicanes, ignoring yellow flags, or cutting corners. As a drive-through penalty does not require the driver to stop and pit, it is less costly to a driver's race times than a stop-go penalty.
- The ten-second (or "stop-go") penalty requires the driver to enter the pitlane, stop at his pit for ten seconds, and exit again. As the stop is designed to punish the driver for an offence, team mechanics are forbidden to work on the offending car at any time while the driver is serving the penalty. Stop-go penalties are generally imposed for more serious offences, such as jump starts, pit lane speeding, ignoring blue flags, or unfair blocking. The ten second halt makes a stop-go penalty much more costly to a driver's race time than a drive-through penalty.
- A more extreme penalty may be imposed for more severe infractions; adding ten places to the driver's grid position at the next grand prix, e.g. if he qualified in pole position he would start the race eleventh from the front.
- The most severe penalty in common use is a black flag, which may be imposed for ignoring penalties or for technical irregularities of any sort; it signifies that the driver has been disqualified from the race and his results for that race will not count toward the championship.
- If the black flag is not considered sufficient for the offense that the driver has committed, he may be banned for a number of races after the event.
- The most extreme punishment of all (used for seriously endangering the life of another driver) is to be excluded from the drivers' world championship that year. Such cases may, of course, also be taken to judicial court.
For the drive-through and stop-go penalties, a driver has two laps from the time his team hears of the penalty to enter the pits; if he does not pit within two laps, he will be black-flagged. The exception to this rule is if the Safety Car is deployed before a driver serves his penalty, in which case he is not allowed to serve his penalty until after the Safety Car comes back in. If he incurs a penalty within the last five laps of the race, he need not pit at all; instead, twenty seconds will be added to his total race time in case of a drive-through penalty, and thirty seconds in case of stop-go penalty.
- Noble and Hughes, p.50
- Noble and Hughes, p.51
- "Tyres". Formula1.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- This describes the lights seen by the drivers, which is very different to what TV viewers see from the other side of the start line
- "FIA Sporting Regulations – Race start procedure". Formula1.com. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
- "Flags". Formula1.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- "A History of Safety in Formula One". formulaone.com. Formula One Management. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Noble, Jonathan (12 December 2008). "FIA reveals radical cost-cutting measures". Autosport. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Noble, Jonathon; Hughes, Mark (2004). Formula One Racing for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-76457-049-0.
- "FIA International Sporting Code & Appendices, 2006". Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. Retrieved 20 December 2005.
- "FIA Formula One World Championship Regulations, 2006". Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. Retrieved 20 December 2005.
- "2008 Formula One Technical Regulations". Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. Retrieved 21 December 2005.