Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Robert Zemeckis|
|Screenplay by||Eric Roth|
|Based on||Forrest Gump
by Winston Groom
|Music by||Alan Silvestri|
|Edited by||Arthur Schmidt|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
|Box office||$677.9 million|
Forrest Gump is a 1994 American comedy-drama film based on the 1986 novel of the same name by Winston Groom. The film was directed by Robert Zemeckis and stars Tom Hanks, Robin Wright, Gary Sinise, Mykelti Williamson, and Sally Field. The story depicts several decades in the life of Forrest Gump, a slow-witted but kind-hearted, good-natured and athletically prodigious man from Alabama who witnesses, and in some cases influences, some of the defining events of the latter half of the 20th century in the United States; more specifically, the period between Forrest's birth in 1944 and 1982. The film differs substantially from Winston Groom's novel, including Gump's personality and several events that were depicted.
Principal photography took place in late 1993, mainly in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Extensive visual effects were used to incorporate the protagonist into archived footage and to develop other scenes. A comprehensive soundtrack was featured in the film, using music intended to pinpoint specific time periods portrayed on screen. Its commercial release made it a top-selling soundtrack, selling over twelve million copies worldwide.
Released in the United States on July 6, 1994, Forrest Gump became a commercial success as the top-grossing film in North America released in that year, being the first major success for Paramount Pictures since the studio's merger with Viacom, earning over US$677 million worldwide during its theatrical run. In 1995 it won the Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director for Robert Zemeckis, Best Actor for Tom Hanks, Best Adapted Screenplay for Eric Roth, Best Visual Effects, and Best Film Editing. It also garnered multiple other awards and nominations, including Golden Globes, People's Choice Awards, and Young Artist Awards, among others. Since the film's release varying interpretations have been made of the film's protagonist and its political symbolism. In 1996, a themed restaurant, Bubba Gump Shrimp Company, opened based on the film and has since expanded to multiple locations worldwide. The scene of Gump running across the country is often referred to when real-life people attempt the feat. In 2011, the Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
The plot is delivered in a number of lengthy flashbacks in the narrative of Forrest Gump (Tom Hanks) as he sits at a bus stop with a suitcase full of mementos in Savannah, Georgia in 1981. He initiates conversation with a stranger and recalls his childhood in Greenbow, Alabama during the 1950s.
Forrest is raised by a single mother (Sally Field) who runs a bed and breakfast for travelling folk including at one point a young Elvis Presley, and has to wear leg braces to fix a crooked back. Despite having a diminished intellect, Forrest is admitted to public school after his mother agrees to have sex with the principal. On his first day of school, Forrest meets Jenny Curran, a girl his age who becomes his best friend and is a victim of child molestation by her father. The children bond, finding in each other a confidante and kindred spirit. With Jenny's encouragement, Forrest runs away from a group of bullies, struggling until his leg braces break off and he finds that he is able to run very fast. Years later, while fleeing the same group of bullies, he runs onto a football field during a practice observed by legendary coach Paul "Bear" Bryant, which gets him into the University of Alabama on a football scholarship. He features in the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door and listens to George Wallace. He then meets President John F. Kennedy as a member of the NCAA "All-American" team.
After graduation, he enlists in the army, where he excels at drill exercises and befriends fellow recruit Benjamin Buford Blue, nicknamed "Bubba" (Mykelti Williamson), an aspiring shrimp boat captain who suggests they go into the shrimp business together after the war. They are sent to Vietnam under Lieutenant Dan Taylor (Gary Sinise). After four months of patrolling in rain, Bubba is killed during their first encounter, an ambush which leaves many of their fellow soldiers wounded. Lieutenant Dan sustains major injuries and loses both his legs. Forrest is wounded in the buttocks while saving members of his platoon—including Lieutenant Dan—and is awarded the Medal of Honor, presented to him by President Lyndon B. Johnson at the White House. At an anti-war rally in Washington featuring Abbie Hoffman, Forrest reunites with Jenny, who has joined the hippie movement after being expelled from college over topless photos of herself and experimenting with drugs. While recovering from his wounds, Forrest discovers an aptitude for ping-pong, eventually playing against the Chinese in ping-pong diplomacy. He becomes a national celebrity after that, and guested in a television with John Lennon, where he unexpectedly inspires the singer to make his future hit Imagine. He runs into Lieutenant Dan, and finds that the former officer is now in a wheelchair and has become an embittered drunk living on disability pension. Forrest is discharged and moves in with Dan and they spend the holidays together, with Forrest explaining his and Bubba's plan to go into the shrimping business and his intentions to fulfill Bubba's dream, which Lt. Dan disdainfully mocks. During this period Forrest ends up meeting President Nixon and accidentally reveals the Watergate scandal.
After being discharged from the Army, Gump returns to Alabama and makes US$25,000 from ping pong endorsements, which he uses to buy a shrimping boat, fulfilling his promise to Bubba. Lt. Dan joins Gump, and although they initially have little success, after Hurricane Carmen they are the only boat in the area left standing, and they begin to pull in huge amounts of shrimp. They use their income to buy an entire fleet of shrimp boats. Lt. Dan invests the money in Apple (or as Forrest put it, a "fruit company") and they are financially secure for the rest of their lives. Forrest returns home when his mother falls terminally ill and stays with her until her death. Forrest donates much of his money to various causes, including a substantial sum to Bubba's family, and continues to live in the house where he grew up, taking a job as a groundskeeper. Despite his success and finally coming home, he is lonely and often thinks of Jenny, who has been living a life of promiscuity and substance abuse. One day, she returns to Alabama and stays with Forrest. He asks her to marry him, but she declines because of her troubled past. However, they have sex that night. After she leaves the next day, a frustrated Forrest decides to go for a run, which turns into a multiple coast-to-coast three-and-a-half year journey, bringing him once more to national attention.
Back in the "present day", Gump reveals to his ever-rotating bus stop audience that he is travelling because he received a letter from Jenny, who is now living in Savannah and had seen him on TV during his running and invited him to visit. Jenny reveals Forrest to be the father of her child, also named Forrest (Haley Joel Osment), and that she is suffering from an unknown virus (considering the timeline, it is assumed to be AIDS). Jenny proposes to Forrest, and he accepts. Forrest and Jenny return to Greenbow with Forrest Jr. and are finally married; Lt. Dan attends the wedding with his Vietnamese fiancée Susan and shows Forrest his new prosthetic legs. Jenny eventually dies of her illness, and Forrest becomes a devoted father to Forrest Jr. Later, Gump is waiting with his son for the school bus to pick him up for his first day of school.
- Tom Hanks as Forrest Gump: Though at an early age he is deemed to have a below average IQ of 75, he has an endearing character and shows devotion to his loved ones and duties, character traits which bring him into many life-changing situations. Along the way, he encounters many historical figures and events throughout his life. Tom's younger brother Jim Hanks is his acting double in the movie for the scenes when Forrest runs across America. Tom's daughter Elizabeth Hanks appears in the movie as the girl on the school bus who refuses to let young Forrest (Michael Conner Humphreys) sit next to her. John Travolta was the original choice to play the title role, and admits passing on the role was a mistake. Bill Murray and Chevy Chase were also considered for the role. Hanks revealed that he signed onto the film after an hour and a half of reading the script. He initially wanted to ease Forrest's pronounced Southern accent, but was eventually persuaded by director Robert Zemeckis to portray the heavy accent stressed in the novel. Hanks agreed to take the role only on the condition that the film was historically accurate. Michael Conner Humphreys portrayed the young Forrest Gump. Hanks revealed in interviews that after hearing Michael's unique accented drawl, he incorporated it into the older character's accent. Winston Groom, who wrote the original novel, describes the film as having taken the "rough edges" off of the character, and envisioned him being played by John Goodman.
- Robin Wright as Jenny Curran: Forrest's childhood friend with whom he immediately falls in love, and never stops loving throughout his life. A victim of child sexual abuse at the hands of her bitterly widowed father, Jenny embarks on a different path from Forrest, leading a self-destructive life and becoming part of the hippie movement in the 1960s and the 1970s/1980s drug culture. She re-enters Forrest's life at various times in adulthood. Jenny eventually becomes a waitress in Savannah, Georgia, where she lives in an apartment with her (and Forrest's) son, Forrest Jr. They eventually get married, but soon afterwards she dies of an unnamed illness, but given the time period, the movie's propensity for showing the major aspects of American culture, and the character's depicted actions during the 60s and 70s, it can be assumed that she died of AIDS. Hanna R. Hall portrayed the young Jenny.
- Gary Sinise as Lieutenant Dan Taylor: Forrest and Bubba Blue's platoon leader during the Vietnam War, whose ancestors have died in every American war and who regards it as his destiny to do the same. After losing his legs in an ambush and being rescued against his will by Forrest, he is initially bitter and antagonistic towards Forrest for leaving him a "cripple" and denying him his family's destiny, falling into a deep depression. He later serves as Forrest's first mate at the Bubba Gump Shrimp Company, gives most of the orders, becoming wealthy with Forrest, and regains his will to live. He ultimately forgives and thanks Forrest for saving his life. By the end of the film, he is engaged to be married to a Vietnamese woman and is sporting "magic legs" – titanium alloy prosthetics which allow him to walk again.
- Mykelti Williamson as Benjamin Buford "Bubba" Blue: Bubba is Forrest's friend whom he meets upon joining the Army. Bubba was originally supposed to be the senior partner in the Bubba Gump Shrimp Company, but due to his death in Vietnam, their platoon leader, Dan Taylor, took his place. The company posthumously carried his name. Forrest and Dan later gave Bubba's mother Bubba's share of the business. Throughout filming, Williamson wore a lip attachment to create Bubba's protruding lip. David Alan Grier, Ice Cube and Dave Chappelle were all offered the role but turned it down. Chappelle said he believed the film would be unsuccessful, and also acknowledged that he regrets not taking the role.
- Sally Field as Mrs. Gump: Forrest's devoted mother, who raises him after his father abandons them. Field reflected on the character, "She's a woman who loves her son unconditionally. … A lot of her dialogue sounds like slogans, and that's just what she intends."
- Haley Joel Osment as Forrest Gump, Jr.: Forrest and Jenny's son. Osment was cast in the film after the casting director had noticed him in a Pizza Hut commercial.
- Peter Dobson as Elvis: A house guest Forrest encounters. Although Kurt Russell was uncredited, he provided the voice over for Elvis in the scene where Elvis meets Forrest.
- Dick Cavett as himself: Cavett played the 1970s version of himself, with makeup applied to make him appear younger. Consequently, Cavett is the only well-known figure in the film to play a cameo role rather than be represented through the use of archival footage like John Lennon or President John F. Kennedy
- Sam Anderson as Principal Hancock: Forrest's elementary school principal.
- Geoffrey Blake as Wesley: A member of the SDS group and Jenny's abusive boyfriend.
- Siobhan Fallon Hogan as Dorothy Harris: The school bus driver who drives both Forrest, and later his son, to school.
- Sonny Shroyer as Coach Paul "Bear" Bryant: Forrest's football coach at the University of Alabama.
- Grand L. Bush, Michael Jace, Conor Kennelly, and Teddy Lane Jr. as the Black Panthers: Members of an organization that protests the Vietnam War, President Lyndon B. Johnson, and anti-black racism.
- Jed Gillin as the voice of President Kennedy, whom Forrest meets in the White House Oval Office.
- Michael Conner Humphreys - Young Forrest
The film is based on the 1986 novel by Winston Groom. Both center on the character of Forrest Gump. However, the film primarily focuses on the first eleven chapters of the novel, before skipping ahead to the end of the novel with the founding of Bubba Gump Shrimp Co. and the meeting with Forrest, Jr. In addition to skipping some parts of the novel, the film adds several aspects to Gump's life that do not occur in the novel, such as his needing leg braces as a child and his run across the United States.
Gump's core character and personality are also changed from the novel; among other things his film character is less of an autistic savant—in the novel, while playing football at the university, he fails craft and gym, but receives a perfect score in an advanced physics class he is enrolled in by his coach to satisfy his college requirements. The novel also features Gump as an astronaut, a professional wrestler, and a chess player.
Two directors were offered the opportunity to direct the film before Robert Zemeckis was selected. Terry Gilliam turned down the offer. Barry Sonnenfeld was attached to the film, but left to direct Addams Family Values.
Filming began in August 1993 and ended in December of that year. Although most of the film is set in Alabama, filming took place mainly in and around Beaufort, South Carolina, as well as parts of coastal Virginia and North Carolina, including a running shot on the Blue Ridge Parkway. Downtown portions of the fictional town of Greenbow were filmed in Varnville, South Carolina. The scene of Forrest running through Vietnam while under fire was filmed on Fripp Island, South Carolina. Additional filming took place on the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, and along the Blue Ridge Parkway near Boone, North Carolina. The most notable place was Grandfather Mountain where a part of the road is named "Forrest Gump Curve". The Gump family home set was built along the Combahee River near Yemassee, South Carolina, and the nearby land was used to film Curran's home as well as some of the Vietnam scenes. Over 20 palmetto trees were planted to improve the Vietnam scenes. Forrest Gump narrated his life's story at the southern edge of Chippewa Square in Savannah, Georgia, as he sat at a bus stop bench. There were other scenes filmed in and around the Savannah area as well, including a running shot on the Richard V. Woods Memorial Bridge in Beaufort while he was being interviewed by the press, and on West Bay Street in Savannah. Most of the college campus scenes were filmed in Los Angeles at the University of Southern California. The lighthouse that Forrest runs across to reach the Atlantic Ocean the first time is the Marshall Point Lighthouse in Port Clyde, Maine. Additional scenes were filmed in Arizona, Utah's Monument Valley, and Montana's Glacier National Park.
Ken Ralston and his team at Industrial Light & Magic were responsible for the film's visual effects. Using CGI techniques, it was possible to depict Gump meeting deceased personages and shaking their hands. Hanks was first shot against a blue screen along with reference markers so that he could line up with the archive footage. To record the voices of the historical figures, voice actors were filmed and special effects were used to alter lip-syncing for the new dialogue. Archival footage was used and with the help of such techniques as chroma key, image warping, morphing, and rotoscoping, Hanks was integrated into it.
In one Vietnam War scene, Gump carries Bubba away from an incoming napalm attack. To create the effect, stunt actors were initially used for compositing purposes. Then, Hanks and Williamson were filmed, with Williamson supported by a cable wire as Hanks ran with him. The explosion was then filmed, and the actors were digitally added to appear just in front of the explosions. The jet fighters and napalm canisters were also added by CGI.
The CGI removal of actor Gary Sinise's legs, after his character had them amputated, was achieved by wrapping his legs with a blue fabric, which later facilitated the work of the "roto-paint" team to paint out his legs from every single frame. At one point, while hoisting himself into his wheelchair, his legs are used for support.
The scene where Forrest spots Jenny at a peace rally at the Lincoln Memorial and Reflecting Pool in Washington, D.C., required visual effects to create the large crowd of people. Over two days of filming, approximately 1,500 extras were used. At each successive take, the extras were rearranged and moved into a different quadrant away from the camera. With the help of computers, the extras were multiplied to create a crowd of several hundred thousand people.
The film received generally positive reviews. The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 72% of critics gave the film a positive review, with an average rating of 7.2/10, based on a sample of 85 reviews. At the website Metacritic, the film earned a rating of 82/100 based on 19 reviews by mainstream critics. CinemaScore reported that audiences gave the film a rare "A+" grade.
The story was commended by several critics. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote, "I've never met anyone like Forrest Gump in a movie before, and for that matter I've never seen a movie quite like 'Forrest Gump.' Any attempt to describe him will risk making the movie seem more conventional than it is, but let me try. It's a comedy, I guess. Or maybe a drama. Or a dream. The screenplay by Eric Roth has the complexity of modern fiction...The performance is a breathtaking balancing act between comedy and sadness, in a story rich in big laughs and quiet truths...What a magical movie." Todd McCarthy of Variety wrote that the film "has been very well worked out on all levels, and manages the difficult feat of being an intimate, even delicate tale played with an appealingly light touch against an epic backdrop." The film did receive notable pans from several major reviewers. Anthony Lane of The New Yorker called the film "Warm, wise, and wearisome as hell." Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly said that the film "reduces the tumult of the last few decades to a virtual-reality theme park: a baby-boomer version of Disney's America."
Critics have compared Gump with various characters and people including Huckleberry Finn, Bill Clinton, and Ronald Reagan. Peter Chomo writes that Gump acts as a "social mediator and as an agent of redemption in divided times". Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called Gump "everything we admire in the American character – honest, brave, and loyal with a heart of gold." The New York Times reviewer Janet Maslin called Gump a "hollow man" who is "self-congratulatory in his blissful ignorance, warmly embraced as the embodiment of absolutely nothing." Marc Vincenti of Palo Alto Weekly called the character "a pitiful stooge taking the pie of life in the face, thoughtfully licking his fingers." Bruce Kawin and Gerald Mast's textbook on film history notes that Forrest Gump's dimness was a metaphor for glamorized nostalgia in that he represented a blank slate by which the Baby Boomer generation projected their memories of those events.
The film is commonly seen as a polarizing one for audiences, with Entertainment Weekly writing in 2004, "Nearly a decade after it earned gazillions and swept the Oscars, Robert Zemeckis's ode to 20th-century America still represents one of cinema's most clearly drawn lines in the sand. One half of folks see it as an artificial piece of pop melodrama, while everyone else raves that it's sweet as a box of chocolates."
Box office performance
Produced on a budget of $55 million, Forrest Gump opened in 1,595 theaters in its first weekend of domestic release, earning $24,450,602. Motion picture business consultant and screenwriter Jeffrey Hilton suggested to producer Wendy Finerman to double the P&A (film marketing budget) based on his viewing of an early print of the film. The budget was immediately increased, per his advice. The film placed first in the weekend's box office, narrowly beating The Lion King, which was in its fourth week of release. For the first ten weeks of its release, the film held the number one position at the box office. The film remained in theaters for 42 weeks, earning $329.7 million in the United States and Canada, making it the fourth-highest-grossing film at that time (behind only E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Star Wars IV: A New Hope, and Jurassic Park). Box Office Mojo estimates that the film sold over 78.5 million tickets in the US in its initial theatrical run.
The film took 66 days to surpass $250 million and was the fastest grossing Paramount film to pass $100 million, $200 million, and $300 million in box office receipts (at the time of its release). The film had gross receipts of $329,694,499 in the U.S. and Canada and $347,693,217 in international markets for a total of $677,387,716 worldwide. Even with such revenue, the film was known as a "successful failure"—due to distributors' and exhibitors' high fees, Paramount's "losses" clocked in at $62 million, leaving executives realizing the necessity of better deals. This has, however, also been associated with Hollywood accounting, where expenses are inflated in order to minimize profit sharing. It is Robert Zemeckis' highest-grossing film to date.
Forrest Gump was first released on VHS tape on April 27, 1995, as a two-disc Laserdisc set on April 28, 1995, (including the "Through the Eyes of Forrest" special feature), before being released in a two-disc DVD set on August 28, 2001. Special features included director and producer commentaries, production featurettes, and screen tests. The film was released on Blu-ray disc in November 2009.
Forrest Gump won Best Picture, Best Actor in a Leading Role, Best Director, Best Visual Effects, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Film Editing at the 67th Academy Awards. The film was nominated for seven Golden Globe Awards, winning three of them: Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, Best Director – Motion Picture, and Best Motion Picture – Drama. The film was also nominated for six Saturn Awards and won two for Best Fantasy Film and Best Supporting Actor (Film).
In addition to the film's multiple awards and nominations, it has also been recognized by the American Film Institute on several of its lists. The film ranks 37th on 100 Years...100 Cheers, 71st on 100 Years...100 Movies, and 76th on 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition). In addition, the quote "Mama always said life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you're gonna get," was ranked 40th on 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes. The film also ranked at number 240 on Empire's list of the 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.
In December 2011, Forrest Gump was selected for preservation in the Library of Congress' National Film Registry. The Registry said that the film was "honored for its technological innovations (the digital insertion of Gump seamlessly into vintage archival footage), its resonance within the culture that has elevated Gump (and what he represents in terms of American innocence) to the status of folk hero, and its attempt to engage both playfully and seriously with contentious aspects of the era's traumatic history."
American Film Institute Lists
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – #71
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains:
- Forrest Gump – Nominated Hero
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- "Mama always said life was like a box of chocolates. You never know what you're gonna get." – #40
- "Mama says, 'Stupid is as stupid does.'" – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers – #37
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – #76
- AFI's 10 Top 10 – Nominated Epic Film
Winston Groom was paid $350,000 for the screenplay rights to his novel Forrest Gump and was contracted for a 3 percent share of the film's net profits. However, Paramount and the film's producers did not pay him, using Hollywood accounting to posit that the blockbuster film lost money. Tom Hanks, by contrast, contracted for a percent share of the film's gross receipts instead of a salary, and he and director Zemeckis each received $40 million. Additionally, Groom was not mentioned once in any of the film's six Oscar-winner speeches.
Groom's dispute with Paramount was later effectively resolved after Groom declared he was satisfied with Paramount's explanation of their accounting, this coinciding with Groom receiving a seven-figure contract with Paramount for film rights to another of his books, Gump & Co.
Various interpretations have been suggested for the feather present at the opening and conclusion of the film. Sarah Lyall of The New York Times noted several suggestions made about the feather: "Does the white feather symbolize the unbearable lightness of being? Forrest Gump's impaired intellect? The randomness of experience?" Hanks interpreted the feather as: "Our destiny is only defined by how we deal with the chance elements to our life and that's kind of the embodiment of the feather as it comes in. Here is this thing that can land anywhere and that it lands at your feet. It has theological implications that are really huge." Sally Field compared the feather to fate, saying: "It blows in the wind and just touches down here or there. Was it planned or was it just perchance?" Visual effects supervisor Ken Ralston compared the feather to an abstract painting: "It can mean so many things to so many different people."
In Tom Hanks' words, "The film is non-political and thus non-judgmental." Nevertheless, in 1994, CNN's Crossfire debated whether the film promoted conservative values or was an indictment of the counterculture movement of the 1960s. Thomas Byers, in a Modern Fiction Studies article, called the film "an aggressively conservative film".
It has been noted that while Gump follows a very conservative lifestyle, Jenny's life is full of countercultural embrace, complete with drug usage, promiscuity, and antiwar rallies, and that their eventual marriage might be a kind of reconciliation. Jennifer Hyland Wang argued in a Cinema Journal article that Jenny's death to an unnamed virus "...symbolizes the death of liberal America and the death of the protests that defined a decade [1960s]." She also notes the film's screenwriter, Eric Roth, when developing the screenplay from the novel, had "...transferred all of Gump's flaws and most of the excesses committed by Americans in the 1960s and 1970s to her [Jenny]."
Other commentators believe the film forecast the 1994 Republican Revolution and used the image of Forrest Gump to promote movement leader Newt Gingrich's traditional, conservative values. Jennifer Hyland Wang observes the film idealizes the 1950s, as made evident by the lack of "whites only" signs in Gump's southern childhood, and "revisions" the 1960s as a period of social conflict and confusion. She argues this sharp contrast between the decades criticizes the counterculture values and reaffirms conservatism. As viewed by political scientist Joe Paskett, this film is "one of the best films of all time". Wang argued the film was used by Republican politicians to illustrate a "traditional version of recent history" to gear voters towards their ideology for the congressional elections. In addition, presidential candidate Bob Dole cited the film's message in influencing his campaign due to its "...message that has made [the film] one of Hollywood's all-time greatest box office hits: no matter how great the adversity, the American Dream is within everybody's reach."
In 1995, National Review included Forrest Gump in its list of the "Best 100 Conservative Movies" of all time. Then, in 2009, the magazine ranked the film number four on its 25 Best Conservative Movies of the Last 25 Years list. "Tom Hanks plays the title character, an amiable dunce who is far too smart to embrace the lethal values of the 1960s. The love of his life, wonderfully played by Robin Wright Penn, chooses a different path; she becomes a drug-addled hippie, with disastrous results."
James Burton, a communication arts professor at Salisbury University, argued that conservatives claimed Forrest Gump as their own due less to the content of the film and more to the historical and cultural context of 1994. Burton claimed the film's content and advertising campaign were affected by the cultural climate of the 1990s, which emphasized family values and "American values"—values epitomized in the successful book Hollywood vs. America. He claimed this climate influenced the apolitical nature of the film, which allowed for many different political interpretations.
Burton points out that many conservative critics and magazines (John Simon, James Bowman, the World Report) initially either criticized the film or praised it only for its non-political elements. Only after the popularity of the film was well-established did conservatives embrace the film as an affirmation of traditional values. Burton implies the liberal-left could have prevented the conservatives from claiming rights to the film, had it chosen to vocalize elements of the film such as its criticism of military values. Instead, the liberal-left focused on what the film omitted, such as the feminist and civil rights movements.
Some commentators see the conservative readings of Forrest Gump as indicants of the death of irony in American culture. Vivian Sobchack notes that the film's humor and irony relies on the assumption of the audience's historical (self-) consciousness.
The 32-song soundtrack from the film was released on July 6, 1994. With the exception of a lengthy suite from Alan Silvestri's score, all the songs are previously released; the soundtrack includes songs from Elvis Presley, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Aretha Franklin, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Three Dog Night, The Byrds, The Beach Boys, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, The Doors, The Mamas & the Papas, The Doobie Brothers, Simon & Garfunkel, Bob Seger, and Buffalo Springfield among others. Music producer Joel Sill reflected on compiling the soundtrack: "We wanted to have very recognizable material that would pinpoint time periods, yet we didn't want to interfere with what was happening cinematically." The two-disc album has a variety of music from the 1950s–1980s performed by American artists. According to Sills, this was due to Zemeckis' request, "All the material in there is American. Bob (Zemeckis) felt strongly about it. He felt that Forrest wouldn't buy anything but American."
The soundtrack reached a peak of number 2 on the Billboard album chart. The soundtrack went on to sell twelve million copies, and is one of the top selling albums in the United States. The score for the film was composed and conducted by Alan Silvestri and released on August 2, 1994.
The screenplay for the sequel was written by Eric Roth in 2001. It is based on the original novel's sequel, Gump and Co. written by Winston Groom in 1995. Roth's script begins with Forrest sitting on a bench waiting for his son to return from school. After the September 11 attacks, Roth, Zemeckis, and Hanks decided the story was no longer "relevant." In March 2007, however, it was reported Paramount producers took another look at the screenplay.
On the very first page of the sequel novel, Forrest Gump tells readers "Don't never let nobody make a movie of your life's story," though "Whether they get it right or wrong, it doesn't matter." The first chapter of the book suggests the real-life events surrounding the film have been incorporated into Forrest's storyline, and that Forrest got a lot of media attention as a result of the film. During the course of the sequel novel, Gump runs into Tom Hanks and at the end of the novel in the film's release, including Gump going on The David Letterman Show and attending the Academy Awards.
- "Forrest Gump (1994)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- Man (Not Named Forrest Gump) Runs Across the U.S. | the wolf lair. Thewolflair.wordpress.com (May 11, 2011). Retrieved on March 7, 2013.
- « News from the Library of Congress – 2011 National Film Registry More Than a Box of Chocolates »
- "Iconic Roles and the Stars Who Regret Turning Them Down". Celebs.Answers.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Forbes staff (February 25, 2009). "Star Misses – 4) Forrest Gump Starring … John Travolta". Forbes. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Wiser, Paige (December 17, 2006). "Might-have-beens who (thankfully) weren't: The wacky world of Hollywood's strangest casting calls" (Fee required). Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- Mal, Vincent (July 6, 1994). "Show Some Gumption Hanks Excels in Tale of a Simple Man's Brushes with Fame" (Fee required). The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- Grimes, William (September 1, 1994). "Following the Star Of a Winsome Idiot". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Daly, Sean (September 15, 1997). "Mykelti Williamson later said the 'Forrest Gump' role nearly ruined his acting career". Jet. FindArticles. Archived from the original on October 6, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Boucher, Geoff (March 26, 2000). "On the Trail of a Hollywood Hyphenate; Rapper/Actor/Writer/Producer/Director. Is There Room For Anything Else on Ice Cube's Resume?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Wuntch, Philip (July 18, 1994). "In character – Sally Field finding the good roles" (Fee required). San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Daly, Sean (July 1, 2001). "Haley Joel Osment on Robots and Reality" (Fee required). The Buffalo News. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Eler, Robert K. (January 22, 2009). "598-page encyclopedia covers a whole lot of Elvis". Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Archived from the original (Fee required) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Forrest Gump-(Seeing is Believing: The Visual Effects of Forrest Gump-John Lennon with Dick Cavett) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001.
- Mills, Bart (July 8, 1994). "In 'Forrest Gump,' Historical Figures Speak for Themselves" (Fee required). Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Delarte, Alonso (February 2004). "Movies By The Book: Forrest Gump" (PDF). Bob's Poetry Magazine. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Plume, Kenneth (August 24, 2005). "Gilliam on Grimm". IGN. p. 3. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Fretts, Bruce (November 3, 1995). "Get Barry". Entertainment Weekly. p. 2. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- McKenna, Kristine (December 19, 1993). "He's Serious About This One For Tom Hanks, it's been a long ride from 'Splash' to 'Philadelphia,' in which the likable comedy actor plays an AIDS patient who's fired from his job" (Fee required). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Must-see sites abound along Blue Ridge Parkway – The Indiana Gazette Online: Indiana County Area News[permanent dead link]. Indianagazette.com (June 12, 2011). Retrieved on March 7, 2013.
- Film locations for Forrest Gump (1994). Movie-locations.com. Retrieved on March 7, 2013.
- Smith, Katherine. "Island getaway is motion-picture perfect". St. Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2011.
- Grandfather Mountain audio tour
- Forrest Gump-(Building the World of Gump: Production Design) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001.
- Forrest Gump-(Through the eyes of Forrest Gump) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001. Event occurs at 12:29.
- Forrest Gump-(Seeing is Believing: The Visual Effects of Forrest Gump-Vietnam) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001.
- Forrest Gump-(Seeing is Believing: The Visual Effects of Forrest Gump-Lt. Dan's Legs) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001.
- Forrest Gump-(Seeing is Believing: The Visual Effects of Forrest Gump-Enhancing Reality) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001.
- "Forrest Gump". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- "Forrest Gump". Metacritic. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- Pamela McClintock (August 19, 2011). "Why CinemaScore Matters for Box Office". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Ebert, Roger (July 6, 1994). "Forrest Gump". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- McCarthy, Todd (July 10, 1994). "Forrest Gump". Variety. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Lane, Anthony. "Forrest Gump". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Gleiberman, Owen (July 15, 1994). "Forrest Gump (1994)". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Hinson, Hal (August 14, 1994). "Forrest Gump, Our National Folk Zero". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Rich, Frank (July 21, 1994). "The Gump From Hope". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Corliss, Richard; Julie Grace; Martha Smilgis (August 1, 1994). "The World According to Gump". Time. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Wang, Jennifer Hyland (Spring 2000). ""A Struggle of Contending Stories": Race, Gender, and Political Memory in Forrest Gump" (PDF). Cinema Journal. 39 (3): 92–102. doi:10.1353/cj.2000.0009. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Travers, Peter (December 8, 2000). "Forrest Gump". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Burr, Ty (June 20, 1994). "Loss of innocence: 'Forrest Gump' at 10". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
Film critic Pauline Kael came out of retirement to bash the film on a book tour; by year's end, New York Times reviewer Janet Maslin had gone from mildly praising the film in her initial review to putting it on her worst of 1994 list, describing Forrest as a "hollow man" who's 'self-congratulatory in his blissful ignorance, warmly embraced as the embodiment of absolutely nothing.'
- Vincenti, Marc (August 1994). "Forrest Gump". Palo Alto Weekly. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Mast, Gerald (2007). A Short History of the Movies: 10th Edition. London: Longman.
- Bal, Sumeet; Marc Bernardin; Monica Mehta; Joshua Rich; Erin Richter; Michael Sauter; Missy Schwartz; Nancy Sidewater (January 9, 2004). "Cry Hard 2 The Readers Strike Back". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Forrest Gump Weekend Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- "All Time Box Office Domestic Grosses". Box Office Mojo.
- "Forrest Gump (1994)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- "Fastest to $100 million". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- "Fastest to $200 million". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- "Fastest to $300 million". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- McDonald, Paul, and Janet Wasko. The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry. Malden: Blackwell, 2008. Pg:79 #
- Lowman, Rob (August 28, 2001). "Video Enchanted Forrest the Much-beloved "Forrest Gump" Arrives on DVD with Sweetness Intact" (Fee required). Beacon Journal. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Schweiger, Arlen (June 23, 2009). "Paramount Saves Top Titles for Blu-ray 'Sapphire' Treatment". Electronic House. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "AFI's 100 Years... The Complete Lists". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Braund, Simon; et al. "Empire's 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Empire. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Nuckols, Ben (December 28, 2011). "Forrest Gump, Hannibal Lecter join film registry". Associated Press. Cox Newspapers. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "2011 National Film Registry More Than a Box of Chocolates". Library of Congress. December 28, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Horn, John (May 25, 1995). "'Forrest Gump' Has Yet to Make a Net Profit". The Journal Record. FindArticles. Retrieved July 1, 2009.[dead link]
- Davis, Charles E. (Summer 1997). "Accounting is like a box of chocolates: A lesson in cost behavior". Journal of Accounting Education. 15 (3): 307–318. doi:10.1016/S0748-5751(97)00008-0.
- Turan, Kenneth (March 28, 1995). "Calender Goes to the Oscars Analysis Life Is Like a Box of Oscars But Statues Are Divvied Up, Quite Fittingly" (Fee required). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- "'Gump' Author Settles Fight With Studio". San Francisco Chronicle (June 15, 1995). Retrieved on June 9, 2015.
- Lyall, Sarah (July 31, 1994). "It's 'Forrest Gump' vs. Harrumph". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Forrest Gump-(Through the eyes of Forrest Gump) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001. Event occurs at 23:27.
- Forrest Gump-(Through the eyes of Forrest Gump) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001. Event occurs at 23:57.
- Forrest Gump-(Through the eyes of Forrest Gump) (DVD). Paramount Pictures. August 28, 2001. Event occurs at 26:29.
- Byers, Thomas B. (1996). "History Re-Membered: Forrest Gump, Postfeminist Masculinity, and the Burial of the Counterculture". Modern Fiction Studies. 42 (2): 419–444. doi:10.1353/mfs.1995.0102. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Wang, Jennifer (Spring 2000). ""A Struggle of Contending Stories": Race, Gender, and Political Memory in "Forrest Gump"". Cinema Journal. 39 (3): 92–115. doi:10.1353/cj.2000.0009.
- Gordinier, Jeff (February 10, 1995). "Mr. Gump Goes to Washington". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Quillen, Ed (May 7, 1995). "Why are modern conservatives so enchanted with Forrest Gump?". Denver Post.
- Miller, John J. (February 23, 2009). "The Best Conservative Movies". National Review. Archived from the original on October 26, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Burton, James Amos (September 2007). "Film, History and Cultural Memory: Cinematic Representations of Vietnam-Era America During the Culture Wars, 1987–1995". PhD Thesis.
- Rice, Lynette (August 14, 1994). "Songs Set the Mood for 'Gump'". Gainesville Sun. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Top Albums at the Recording Industry Association of America". Recording Industry Association of America. Archived from the original on June 19, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- Sciretta, Peter (December 7, 2008). "9/11 Killed the Forrest Gump Sequel". /Film. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Tyler, Josh (March 7, 2007). "Forrest Gump Gets A Sequel". Cinema Blend. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Groom, Winston (1996). Gump & Co. Pocket Books. p. 1. ISBN 0-671-52264-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Forrest Gump.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Forrest Gump|