The Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) is a member of the tern family, Sternidae. The genus name Sterna is derived from Old English "stearn", "tern", and forsteri commemorates the naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster.
This species breeds in colonies in marshes. It nests in a ground scrape and lays three or more eggs. Like all white terns, it is fiercely defensive of its nest and young.
The Forster's tern feeds by plunge-diving for fish, but will also hawk for insects in its breeding marshes. It usually feeds from saline environments in winter, like most Sterna terns. It usually dives directly, and not from the "stepped-hover" favoured by the Arctic tern. The offering of fish by the male to the female is part of the courtship display.
This is a small tern, 33–36 cm (13–14 in) long with a 64–70 cm (25–28 in) wingspan. It is most similar to the common tern. It has pale grey upperparts and white underparts. Its legs are red and its bill is red, tipped with black. In winter, the forehead becomes white and a characteristic black eye mask remains. Juvenile Forster's terns are similar to the winter adult. The call is a harsh noise like a black-headed gull.
This species is unlikely to be confused with the common tern in winter because of the black eye mask, but is much more similar in breeding plumage. Forster's has a grey centre to its white tail, and the upperwings are pure white, without the darker primary wedge of the common tern.
Forster's tern fishing on Lake Mattamuskeet
- BirdLife International (2012). "Sterna forsteri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Sterna". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Forster's tern.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Sterna forsteri|
- Forster's Tern Species Account - Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- Forster's Tern - Sterna forsteri - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter
- Field Guide Page on Flickr
- Forster's Tern videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
- Forster's Tern photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
- Interactive range map of Sterna forsteri at IUCN Red List maps