Fort Albany First Nation

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Fort Albany
Band No. 142
ᐲᐦᑖᐯᒄ ᐃᓕᓕᐗᒃ (pîhtâpek ililiwak)
PeopleCree
Treaty9
ProvinceOntario
Land
Main reserveFort Albany 67
Land area363.457 km2
Population (June 2022)
On reserve3229
On other land95
Off reserve1985
Total population5309
Government
ChiefRobert Nakogee
Council
  • Charlotte Nakoochee (Deputy Chief)
  • Edmond Edwards
  • Xavier Inishinapay
  • Joseph Scott
  • Joseph Pascal Spence
  • Joseph Sutherland
  • Angela Diane Lagasse
  • Arthur Nakogee
Tribal Council
Mushkegowuk Council
Fort Albany, 1886

Fort Albany First Nation (Cree: ᐲᐦᑖᐯᒄ ᐃᓕᓕᐗᒃ pîhtâpek ililiwak, "lagoon Cree")[1] is a Cree First Nation in Cochrane District in Northeastern Ontario, Canada, within the territory covered by Treaty 9. Situated on the southern shore of the Albany River, Fort Albany First Nation is accessible only by air, water, or by winter road.

The community is policed by the Nishnawbe-Aski Police Service, an Aboriginal-based service. It shares the Fort Albany 67 Indian Reserve with the Kashechewan First Nation, which officially separated from Fort Albany First Nation in 1977. Fort Albany First Nation controls the Fort Albany Indian Settlement on the south shore of the Albany River, and the Kashechewan First Nation controls the Kashechewan Indian Settlement directly across the river.

Fort Albany was established in 1679 as one of the oldest and most important of Hudson's Bay Company posts. It was also involved in Anglo-French tensions leading to the Battle of Fort Albany in 1688. The current community is not the site of the old post, which was re-located several times including on Anderson Island, Albany Island (c.1721) and a location just northeast of the current community. The last trading post was closed up around the 1950s. All the post sites have disappeared and naturalized, leaving no trace of their former use.

Accessibility[edit]

The community of Fort Albany is accessible by air, water, and the winter road. The winter road is used only between January and March. Air Creebec provides Fort Albany with daily passenger flights, with connecting flights to Toronto, Montreal and/or other points of travel. These arrangements are done in Timmins on Air Creebec, Air Canada, Thunder Airlines, or Bearskin Airlines.

Fort Albany is also accessible via the waters of James Bay and the Albany River. Moosonee Transportation Limited provides barge service, carrying supplies at least once or twice each summer by traveling up and down the coast to each community. Freighter canoes can travel from Fort Albany to Calstock and return whenever the water levels are sufficient to make river travel possible.

During the summer months, people use outboard motors and canoes for other activities, such as hunting, trapping, and fishing. During the winter months, skidoos are the main transportation around the community. There are pick-up trucks, vans, and all-terrain vehicles owed by both businesses and individuals.

The winter road was completed in the early spring of 1974. It is also used extensively during the winter months. This road is maintained by contractors. The road links all the surrounding communities, such as Attawapiskat, Moosonee, Moose Factory, and Kashechewan. Feasibility studies have recently been undertaken on construction of a permanent all-season road to the communities.[2] The project, if undertaken, will entail a "coastal road" connecting the four communities with each other, as well as a road to link the coastal road to the provincial highway system at Fraserdale, Kapuskasing or Hearst.[3]

In January 2021, the 311-kilometre James Bay Winter Ice Road was under construction, to connect Attawapiskat, Kashechewan, Fort Albany and Moosonee.[4] It opened some time in winter 2021 and was said to accept loads up to 50,000 kilograms in weight. The road is operated by Kimesskanemenow LP, "a limited partnership between the four communities it connects".[5]

Aviation[edit]

Air Creebec transports passengers and provides freight services through Fort Albany Airport. The present passenger rate is $921.90 for an adult return trip to Timmins.[citation needed] These rates increase on an annual basis. Seat sales are available, which are less expensive than the regular fare price. Air Creebec also provides charter flights when required.

Air Creebec also handles patient transportation up the coastal communities on a daily basis, Mondays to Fridays. These flights are intended only for hospital patients requiring out of the community hospital care. Other private small airlines, like Thunder Air and Wabusk Air, also provide charter services, which sometimes are cheaper than a regular flight on Air Creebec.

Climate[edit]

Fort Albany has a subarctic climate (Köppen Climate Classification Dfc) with mild summers and severely cold winters.[6] This is characterised by a yearly mean temperature below the freezing point at −2 °C (28 °F). There are very short transitional periods. Fort Albany's climate becomes colder after the bay freezes over. During summer, temperatures reach an average high of 22 °C (71.6 °F). However, October temperatures are relatively mild, on average six degrees milder than April. The annual precipitation rate averages 569 millimetres (22.4 in), which is noticeably higher in summer than at other times of the year.[6]

Climate data for Fort Albany
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −15
(5)
−11
(12)
−4
(25)
2
(36)
11
(52)
18
(64)
22
(72)
20
(68)
14
(57)
7
(45)
−1
(30)
−10
(14)
4
(40)
Daily mean °C (°F) −22
(−8)
−19
(−2)
−12
(10)
−3
(27)
5
(41)
11
(52)
15
(59)
14
(57)
9
(48)
3
(37)
−5
(23)
−16
(3)
−2
(29)
Average low °C (°F) −28
(−18)
−27
(−17)
−19
(−2)
−9
(16)
−1
(30)
5
(41)
9
(48)
8
(46)
4
(39)
−1
(30)
−9
(16)
−21
(−6)
−7
(19)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.0)
21
(0.8)
18
(0.7)
24
(0.9)
34
(1.3)
82
(3.2)
97
(3.8)
76
(3.0)
74
(2.9)
59
(2.3)
32
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
571
(22.3)
Source: [7]

Economy[edit]

The basic economy of the area is a subsistence allowance. There are seasonal jobs that involve construction work for the major capital projects like the dyke, the new school, and the Mid Canada Line. There are the traditional economic activities like trapping, fishing and hunting. There are a small number of employment opportunities including the Fort Albany First Nation Administration office, Mundo Peetabeck Education authority, Peetabeck Health Services. Fort Albany Power Authority, James Bay General Hospital, Northern Store, Air Creebec, and other small private owned businesses.

The new De Beers Diamond mine in James Bay may also provide many new opportunities.

Services[edit]

Health care in Fort Albany is provided by a 17-bed Fort Albany Hospital staff 24/7 by nursing staff with consultation by doctors from Weeneebayko Area Health Authority as well as transfers to Timmins and Kingston.[8]

The band runs Peetabeck Education, which administers Peetabeck Academy, a K–12 school[9] that had its grand opening in 2015, at the same time the rectory of the old St. Anne's Indian Residential School burned.[10]

Language[edit]

The majority of the population speaks Mushkegowuk Cree. Many men and women, younger and to the age of fifty, are bilingual in Cree and English. Children are taught in Cree and English at an early age. The community consists of quite a mixture of linguistics, with English, French, Cree, Ojibway, and Oji-Cree spoken.

Religion[edit]

The two main forms of spirituality practised in Fort Albany are Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and Cree spirituality.

History[edit]

Hudson's Bay Company Post[edit]

The area was explored by Charles Bayly, the first overseas governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, around 1675, and the original Fort Albany was established in 1679.[citation needed] It was one of the original Hudson's Bay Company trading posts, the others being Moose Factory on the south shore of James Bay, Charles Fort (later Rupert House) on the east, York Factory in the Port Nelson region, and New Severn (aka Fort Severn).[11]:21 In these early days of the company, each fort was run by a governor, who served for a number of years and oversaw the company employees, managing the trade of their fort.[11]:22

The original fort was built inland from the mouth of the Albany River, partly for defense, and moved several times. Ships from England had to lay at the river mouth at Albany Roads. In 1683, Governor Henry Sergeant was directed to make it the primary trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company; it was the largest fort on the Bay at that point, with four bastions and forty-three guns.[11]:51 In 1684 a Monsieur Péré reached the fort from French Canada. He was arrested and his two companions sent to Charlton Island. In 1685, the French built Fort des Français at the juncture of the Albany and Kenogami Rivers to block the indigenous people from coming north to trade with the HBC.[citation needed]

In 1686, all three posts on James Bay (Moose Factory, Rupert House, and Fort Albany) were captured by an overland expedition from Quebec. Fort Albany was named Fort Saint-Anne by the French. In 1688 the English sent ships to reestablish their posts but were defeated by French ships that had come to re-supply the forts. In 1693 the English retook the fort and held it thereafter.[11]:52 By the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick, Albany was to be returned to the French, but nothing was done until war resumed in 1702. In 1709 the French tried and failed to capture the fort. In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht gave Hudson and James Bays (along with the rest of Rupert's Land) to the English.

Following the end of decades of conflict with the French, sloops from Albany traded along the east coast until a new post was built on the Eastmain River in 1723-24 and Moose Factory was reestablished in 1730.[citation needed] However, even by 1771, one ship serviced Albany, Moose Factory, and the East Main sub-house on the east shore.[11]:112

1744 Map of James Bay, including "Fort Saint-Anne", the French name for Fort Albany

Around the mid-1700s, the company's policy was to primarily engage in trade with indigenous people at their forts on the coast. By 1743, Chief Factor Joseph Isbister had found that trade at Albany was being undercut by coureurs des bois that had established trading posts upriver from the fort. So, going against company policy, he took a team 160 miles up river to establish the subsidiary Henley House and re-establish HBC authority.[12] This policy officially changed in the 1770s, and the company began establishing series of inland posts that fed into the coastal forts and factories, which would function as depots for storage and ports for trade back to Europe. According to a report by long-time company factor Andrew Graham, by 1771, around the time of the change in policy, Fort Albany was staffed by 30 men in addition to the chief factor and his officers, and oversaw the sub-houses Henley House and East Main, each with eleven men governed by a sloop master.[11]:111

Another official policy of the company was to not allow any of the indigenous people they traded with into any forts. This policy, relaxed by Chief Factor George Spence (1747-1752), was strictly enforced by Chief Factor Joseph Isbister when he returned to the fort in 1752. This sudden removal of access to Fort Albany and Henley House angered Wappisis, a Cree man influential over the indigenous people of the area, and in December 1754 he and a few others destroyed Henley House, killing the five HBC men there and raiding the stores, threatening death to anyone that told the Company people that they had done it. Wappisis went to Albany in May 1755 to trade and attempted to blame "French Indians" on the destruction of Henley House. Isbister heard in June from another indigenous person that Wappisis had done it, and Isbister hanged Wappisis and his two sons on June 21, 1755. The employees at Moose and Albany were concerned following the destruction of Henley House, since this was the first such incident of indigenous violence in the company's history.[13][12] Henley House was re-established under Chief Factor Humphrey Marten by 1768.[14]

In 1777, Gloucester House was built 243 miles upriver from Henley House and in 1786, Osnaburgh House was built at the outflow of Lake St. Joseph. This westward expansion significantly increased the trade of Fort Albany. In 1793, the Governor of Albany Fort established posts on the Rainy River and Winnipeg River. Posts supplied from the HBC-run Fort Albany competed with North West Company men from Lake Superior and even HBC posts supplied from York Factory, until the union of the two companies in 1821.[15][verification needed]

Fort Albany was the headquarters of the Albany District of the Hudson's Bay Company, which, as of 1830, bordered Severn District to its northwest, Moose District to its southeast, the far western reaches of Upper Canada to its south, Lac La Pluie District to its southwest, and Winnipeg District to its west.[16] The east-flowing Albany River drew furs from as far west as Lake St. Joseph. From there a portage ran west to Lac Seul, the English River, the Winnipeg River and beyond. A north-flowing branch, the Kenogami River led upstream toward Lake Superior at Wawa, Ontario and another branch, the Ogoki River led toward Lake Nipigon.[citation needed]

Following the 1821 merger of HBC with the North West Company, Albany District thrived, recovering from the decline in trade caused by competition while the supply of fur-bearing animals dwindled. In order to curb the extinction of fur-bearing animals, the Governor of Rupert's Land George Simpson established beaver preserves throughout the district.

As of 1856, the Hudson's Bay Company estimated that there were 1,100 Indians living in the Albany District, which at the time included the trading posts of Fort Albany, Marten Falls, Osnaburg, and Lac Seul.[11]:489

Surrender of Rupert's Land[edit]

In 1868, the Hudson's Bay Company surrendered their North American territory known as Rupert's Land to Great Britain, which then gave it to the newly-formed Dominion of Canada with an 1869 "deed of surrender". Following this transfer to the Dominion, the province of Ontario engaged in litigation, arbitration, and negotiation to define its northern and western borders. In 1878, arbitrators granted Ontario territory north to the English and Albany rivers, causing Fort Albany to become part of the province. The Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889 officially expanded the province of Ontario north to Albany River and west to Lake of the Woods. At the suggestion of magistrate E. B. Borron, Ontario initially allowed the old HBC regime to manage the territory, until the province was able to more substantially take on its management, which began by appointing HBC officers as justices of the peace.[17]

Moose Cree leaders, the Government of Ontario, and the Government of Canada signed The James Bay Treaty - Treaty No. 9 at Moose Factory on August 9, 1905.[17]

Fort Albany, 1898

Split with Kashechewan[edit]

Old Fort Albany, which was on an island between the modern day communities of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, became separated into Anglican and Roman Catholic sections. Subsequently, the Roman Catholic mission and the Roman Catholic portion of the community moved to the current site of modern-day Fort Albany, on the southern shore of the river. The Anglican portion of the community some years later moved to the current site of Kashechewan, on the north shore. Up until the 1970s Fort Albany and Kashechewan shared the same chief and council. In the 1977 they came to have separate Band Councils. Fort Albany and Kashechewan are treated as separate bands, and function as separate bands today. New Fort Albany is mostly a Roman Catholic community, while Kashechewan is mainly Anglican.

Government history[edit]

Chief Factors of Fort Albany[edit]

Following the Hudson's Bay Company's rigid corporate structure, the original trading post of Fort Albany was run by a Chief Factor, who oversaw the business of the fort (and consequently, the district). Some of the chief factors are listed below, along with the year of their appointment. The term "governor" is sometimes used to refer to the employee overseeing the operations of the fort.

Term Chief Factor Notes Ref
1682-1685 James Knight [18][19]
1686-1692 -- The French controlled the fort at this time. [19]
1692-1700 James Knight [19]
1700-1705 John Fullartine [20]
1705-1708 Anthony Beale Returned to England in 1708 at his own request. [20]
1708-1711 John Fullartine [20]
August 1711 Henry Kelsey Formerly Deputy Governor (i.e. Second); replaced Fullartine after his departure before Beale arrived the following month. [20]
1711-1714 Anthony Beale Recalled in the aftermath of the Treaty of Utrecht as the Company re-oriented itself.

Beginning in 1715, above the governor/chief factor of the fort, there seems to have been the position of "governor-in-chief" overseeing the whole region from York Factory.[21]

[20]
1714-1715 Richard Staunton Recalled upon his own request in 1715, following the rejection of a pay raise, though he may have been abused by the "unruly men" at the fort. [22]
1716-1721 Thomas McCliesh Returned to England in 1721. [21]
1721-1723 Joseph Myatt Demoted in 1723 to Deputy Governor (i.e. Second) following a price drop caused by intervention of coureurs des bois and for teaching an indigenous boy to read and write. [23]
1723-1726 Richard Staunton [22]
1726-1730 Joseph Myatt Served until his death from "gout of the stomach". [23]
1730-1737 Joseph Adams [24]
1735, 1736 Thomas McCliesh Appointed in 1735, and then again in 1736, but was unable to take up his post at Albany both times due to illness, and returned to England. [21]
1737-1739 Thomas Bird Served until his death, believed to be "hastened by an immoderate use of liquors". [25]
1739-1740 Rowland Waggoner Died before the orders for a three-year appointment as Chief Factor could reach Albany. [26]
1740-1747 Joseph Isbister Established the first inland HBC post, Henley House. Had to relinquish his post due to illness. [12]
1747-1752 George Spence [13]
1752-1756 Joseph Isbister [12]
1764-1775 Humphrey Marten [14]
1775-1781 Thomas Hutchins [27]
1781-1790 Edward Jarvis [28]
1790-1791 John McNab [29]
1792 Edward Jarvis Retired due to ill health. [28]
1793-1799 John McNab [29]
1800-1810 John Hodgson Was in England for the 1807-08 year. Dismissed following much mismanagement of the fort and its subsidiaries. [30]
1810-1815 Thomas Vincent [31]
1821 Merger of the Hudson's Bay Company with the North-West Company
1824-1826 Thomas Vincent [31]
1826-1829 Alexander Kennedy [32]:456
1829-1830 Alexander McTavish Chief Trader, no Chief Factor present [32]:456
1830-1837 Jacob Corrigal Chief Trader, no Chief Factor present [32]:457
1830 Alexander Stewart Governor George Simpson appointed Stewart to be Chief Factor, but on his journey to the fort he suffered a "slight paralytic affection" and was given leave of absence. [32]:461
1837-1855 Thomas Corcoran Chief Trader, no Chief Factor present. Departed in 1851-52 to receive medical attention. [32]:458, 461
1855- William H. Watt Chief Trader, no Chief Factor present [32]:461
-1858 John MacKenzie [32]:450
1858-1860 William H. Watt Chief Trader, no Chief Factor present. Given leave of absence in 1860. [32]:462

Ontario Justices of the Peace[edit]

Once the settlement was made part of the Dominion of Canada (1869), and later the province of Ontario (awarded by arbitrators in 1878), the province appointed Justices of the Peace to assert its authority in its new northern reaches.[17]

Date of appointment Justice of the Peace Notes Ref
May 20, 1882 William Broughton Former HBC officer, later became Chief Factor at Moose Factory in 1892. [17]:88

Albany Band Council composition (1909-1977)[edit]

A band council was established for the Fort Albany First Nation, following the Indian Act.

Date of selection Chief Councillors Notes Ref
1909 Andrew Wesley [33]
July 1920 Moses Wesley
  • S. Ruben
  • J. N. Scott
  • J. Spence
  • D. Wesley
[33]
July 1923
  • Patrick Steven[sic]
  • Xavier Spence
  • David Solomon
[33]
July 26, 1926
  • Patrick Stephen[sic]
  • Xavier Spence
  • Xavier Chookomoolin
  • David Solomon
[33]
July 16, 1929 Isiah Nashootaway (Sutherland)
  • Xavier Scott
  • James Sutherland
  • Alex Lazarus
[33]
1933 Moses Wesley [33]
1938 Walter Stephen [33]
July 1947 Simeon Scott
  • James Sutherland
  • James Wesley
  • Willie Stephens
[33]
July 30, 1951
  • Joel Linklater
  • James Sutherland
  • Fred Lazarus
[33]
July 29, 1957 James Wesley
  • Gaius Wesley
  • Simon Koosees
  • Alex Lazarus
[33]
June 17, 1960
  • Simon Koosees
  • Gaius Wesley
  • Alex Lazarus
  • James Sutherland
  • Simeon Metatawbin
  • Louis Nakochee
  • Xavier Sutherland
[33]
August 12, 1964 Abraham Metat[sic]
  • Willie Stephen
  • Gaius Wesley
  • Willie Wesley Sr.
  • Raphael Wheesk
  • Moses Nakogee
  • John Wheesk
  • Xavier Sutherland
[33]
July 28, 1967 James Wesley
  • Simon[sic] Friday
  • Evadney Friday
  • Fred Lazarus
  • Labius Reuben
  • Mary Solomon
  • Willie Stephen
  • David Wynne Jr.
  • Hosea Wynne
  • Joshua Wynne
[33]
August 27, 1969 William Stephen
  • Silas Wesley
  • John A. Wesley
  • Xavier Sutherland
  • Sinclair Wynne
  • Clifford Wesley
  • Alex Goodwin
  • Claudius Hughie
  • James Solomon
  • Lawrence Mark
  • Philip Tookata
  • Abraham Metatawabin[sic]
  • John Nakochee
[33]
June 15, 1971 William Wesley Sr.
  • Silas Wesley
  • John A. Wesley
  • Alex Wesley
  • Philip Hughie
  • Mathias Wynne
  • Fred Lazarus Sr.
  • George Wesley
  • Simon Friday
  • Lawrence Mark
  • Philip Tookata
  • Moses Nakogee
  • Gilbert Solomon
Lawrence Mark resigned January 17, 1972. Moses Nakogee resigned May 16, 1972. [33]
June 15, 1973 John Nakogee
  • Simeon Friday
  • James Wesley
  • Evadney Friday
  • Josephine Wesley
  • Sinclair Wynne
  • Bertie Wynne
  • Fred Lazarus Sr.
  • Sinclair Williams
  • Abraham Wynne
  • Abraham Metat[sic]
  • Peter Sutherland
  • Edmund Metat
[33]
June 24, 1975 Silas Wesley
  • Simeon Friday
  • Alex Goodwin
  • John Wesley
  • George Wesley
  • Bartholomew Sutherland
  • Sinclair Wynne
  • Peter Sackanay
  • Daisy Sackanay
  • Abraham Metatawabin[sic]
  • John Kataquabit
  • Joseph Kataquabit
  • Lawrence Mark
This was the last band council before the official split between the Fort Albany and Kaschechewan First Nations, from 1977 onwards, each community had its own band council. [33]

Albany band council composition (1977-present)[edit]

Kashechewan First Nation began having its own band council in 1977.

Date of Selection Chief Councillors Notes Ref
June 21, 1977 John Nakogee
  • Edmond Edwards
  • Michel Nakochee
  • Harry Loone
  • Louis Nakogee
  • Antoine Koostachin
  • Gilbert Solomon
[34]
June 21, 1979 Alex Metatawabin
  • Lawrence Mark
  • John Scott
  • Harry Loone
  • John Edwards
  • Joseph Kataquapit
  • Peter Sackanay
Chief Alex Metatawabin was removed February 24, 1980, and replaced in a by-election. [34]
March 3, 1980 Louie[sic] Nakogee
June 2, 1981 Alex Metatawabin
  • Daniel Edwards
  • Xavier Sutherland
  • Louis Nakogee Jr.
  • Edmund Edwards
  • Joseph Sutherland
  • Micheline Edwards
[34]
July 16, 1983 Louie[sic] Nakogee Sr.
  • Daniel Edwards
  • Louis Nakogee Jr.
  • Abraham Matatawabin[sic]
  • Harry Loone
  • Joseph Wheesk
  • Marius Spence
[34]
February 27, 1985 Simeon Solomon
  • William Sutherland
  • Peter Sutherland
  • John Paul Nakochee
  • Gabriel Loone
  • Ignace Kataquapit
  • Marius Spence
Gabriel Loone and Marius Spence resigned in September 1985, and were replaced by Peter Nakogee and David Sutherland in a by-election on September 11, 1985. Peter Nakogee then resigned on May 13, 1986. [34]
August 13, 1986 Louie Nakogee Jr.
  • Antoine Koostachin
  • Joseph Wheesk
  • Annabella Solomon
  • Marius Spence
  • Ignace Kataquapit
  • Joseph Sutherland
  • Peter Nakogee
[34]
July 6, 1988 Edmund Metatawabin
  • William Sutherland
  • Peter Sutherland
  • Gilbert Solomon
  • Gisele Kataquapit
  • Lucie Solomon
  • Rita Scott
  • Patricia Edwards
William Sutherland and Rita Scott resigned during their time on Council, and were replaced by David Sutherland and George Sackanay in a by-election on May 21, 1989. [34]
July 6, 1990
  • Peter Sutherland
  • Leo Loon
  • Gabriel Sutherland
  • Joseph Sutherland
  • George Scott
  • Ernest Edwards
  • Michel Solomon
[34]
July 13, 1992
  • Joseph Wheesk
  • Gabriel Sutherland
  • Leo Loon
  • Bernard Sutherland
  • Emile Sutherland
  • Marius Spence
  • Annabella Solomon
[34]
1994
Date of Selection Chief Deputy Chief Councillors Notes Ref
2010
  • Robert Nakogee
[35]
2012
  • Robert Nakogee
[35]
2014 Robert Nakogee [35]
2016 Robert Nakogee [35]
August 13, 2018 Leo Metatawabin Robert Nakogee
  • Edmond Sackaney (Head Councillor)
  • Joseph Scott
  • Joseph Sutherland
  • Margaret Edwards
  • Yvonne Metatawabin
  • Jackie Kataquapit
  • Ruby Edwards-Wheesk
[36]
August 23, 2020 Robert Nakogee Charlotte Nakoochee
  • Joseph Scott
  • Joseph Sutherland
  • Edmond Edwards
  • Xavier Inishinapay
  • Joseph Pascal Spence
  • Angela Diane Lagasse
  • Arthur Nakogee
[37]

Custom Election Code[edit]

A referendum of the First Nation's members on June 13, 2022 approved a Custom Election Code, with 22 of 39 votes cast in favour of the code.[38] This Custom Election Code replaces the electoral process laid out in the Indian Act. The October 1, 2022 election will be the first election in Fort Albany held under the custom code.[39]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ogg, Arden (August 19, 2015). "Cree Place Names Project". Cree Literacy Network. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  2. ^ "Ontario's far north one step closer to building all-season road". CBC Sudbury, September 17, 2017.
  3. ^ "All Season Road". Mushkegowuk Council.
  4. ^ "Construction of the James Bay Winter Road underway". Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  5. ^ "THE JAMES BAY WINTER ROAD IS OPEN TO HEAVY LOADS UP TO 50 000 KGS". Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Albany, Ontario Kppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
  7. ^ "Albany, Ontario". Weatherbase. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  8. ^ "Site histories". Weeneebayko Area Health Authority. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
  9. ^ "Fort Albany First Nation". 211 North. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
  10. ^ Baiguzhiyeva, Dariya (November 13, 2021). "Each day is a blessing, a gift: former Fort Albany chief". Timmins Today. Retrieved July 10, 2022. On the day of Peetabeck Academy’s grand opening, the old residential school was burning, Metatawabin says adding that the building had already been burning for about three days.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Bryce, George (1910). The remarkable history of the Hudson's Bay Company : including that of the French traders of North-western Canada and of the North-west, XY, and Astor Fur Companies. London: Sampson Low, Marston.
  12. ^ a b c d Van Kirk, Sylvia (1969). "ISBISTER, JOSEPH". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
  13. ^ a b Thorman, George E. (1974). "WAPPISIS". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
  14. ^ a b Pannekoek, F. (1979). "MARTEN, HUMPHREY". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
  15. ^ Arthur S Morton,"A History of the Canadian West"
  16. ^ Mackie, Richard (1997). Trading beyond the mountains: the British fur trade on the Pacific, 1793-1843. Vancouver: UBC Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 0774805595.
  17. ^ a b c d Reimer, Gwen; Chartrand, Jean-Philippe (March 14, 2005). "A HISTORICAL PROFILE OF THE JAMES BAY AREA'S MIXED EUROPEAN-INDIAN OR MIXED EUROPEAN-INUIT COMMUNITY" (PDF). Prepared for Department of Justice Canada.
  18. ^ "James Knight". HBC Heritage. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
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