Fort Bragg, California
Fort Bragg, California
|City of Fort Bragg|
|Coordinates (City Hall): Coordinates:|
|Founded as a military garrison||1857|
|Incorporated||August 5, 1889|
|Named for||Braxton Bragg|
|• Body||City council|
|• Mayor||Bernie Norvell|
|• Vice Mayor||Jessica Morsell-Haye|
|• Councilmember||Tess Albin-Smith|
|• Councilmember||Lindy Peters|
|• Total||2.93 sq mi (7.59 km2)|
|• Land||2.90 sq mi (7.51 km2)|
|• Water||0.03 sq mi (0.09 km2) 1.1%|
|• Length||3.6 mi (5.8 km)|
|• Width||1.95 mi (3.14 km)|
|Elevation||85 ft (26 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,515.01/sq mi (971.09/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−7 (PDT)|
|GNIS feature IDs||1656027, 2410525|
|City Manager||Tabatha Miller|
|City Clerk||June Lemos|
|Police Chief||John Naulty|
|Fire Chief||Steve Orsi|
|Official name||Fort Bragg|
|Designated||July 24, 1957|
Fort Bragg, officially the City of Fort Bragg, is a city along the Pacific Coast of California along Shoreline Highway in Mendocino County. It is 24 mi (39 km) west of Willits, at an elevation of 85 feet (26 m). Its population was 7,273 at the 2010 census.
Fort Bragg is a tourist destination because of its picturesque views of the Pacific Ocean. Among its notable points of interest are Glass Beach and the California Western Railroad (popularly known as the "Skunk Train").
A California Historical Landmark, Fort Bragg was founded in 1857 prior to the American Civil War as a military garrison rather than a fortification. It was named after army officer Braxton Bragg, who at the time had served the U.S. in the Mexican–American War (and would later serve in the Confederate Army during the Civil War). The city was later incorporated in 1889.
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The area now known as Fort Bragg was home to Native Americans since before Western expansion, most of whom belong to the Pomo tribe. They historically were hunter gatherers who lived along the northern coast of California.
In 1855, an exploration party from the Bureau of Indian Affairs visited the area looking for a site on which to establish a reservation; in the spring of 1856, the Mendocino Indian Reservation was established at Noyo. It was 25,000 acres (100 km2), and its boundary extended north from what is now Simpson Lane to Abalobadiah Creek and east from the Pacific Ocean to Bald Hill.
In the summer of 1857, 1st Lt. Horatio G. Gibson, then serving at the Presidio of San Francisco, established a military post on the reservation, approximately a mile and a half north of the Noyo River, and named it for his former commanding officer Capt. Braxton Bragg, who later became a General in the Army of the Confederacy.
In June 1862 Company D, 2nd California Infantry, were ordered to garrison the post and remained until 1864. In October of that year, the Fort Bragg garrison was loaded aboard the steamer Panama and completed the evacuation and abandonment of Mendocino County's first military post.
The Mendocino Indian Reservation was discontinued in March 1866, and the land was opened for settlement three years later.
The last remaining building of the Fort Bragg military post is located at 430 North Franklin Street. It may have been the Quartermaster's storehouse and commissary or surgeon's quarters or hospital.
The approximate boundaries of the fort extend from the south side of Laurel, east from the railroad depot to the alley behind Franklin, down the alley to a point 100 feet (30 m) south of Redwood Avenue, west on Redwood to just beyond the Georgia-Pacific Corporation company offices, then north to connect with the Laurel Street border at the railroad station.
By 1867, the reservation and military outpost at Fort Bragg were abandoned. By 1869, small lumber mills were being built at the mouth of every creek. Ranches were settled. By 1873, Fort Bragg had an established lumber port at Noyo.
In 1869, after the fort was abandoned, and the land surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the land of the reservation was returned to the public and offered for sale at $1.25 per acre to settlers. In 1885, C.R. Johnson who, with partners Calvin Stewart and James Hunter, had been operating a sawmill in Mill Creek on the Ten Mile River, moved their mill machinery to Fort Bragg to take advantage of the harbor for shipping.
The company incorporated in 1885 as the Fort Bragg Redwood Company. In 1891, after merging with the Noyo River Lumber Company, it was renamed the Union Lumber Company.
The Fort Bragg Railroad was founded to haul logs to the mill. The first rails were run up Pudding Creek and, in 1887, reached Glen Blair. A San Francisco streetcar was purchased to carry loggers and their families on Sunday excursions to the woods.
Fort Bragg was incorporated in 1889 with C. R. Johnson as its first mayor, and Calvin Stewart drafting its plat maps.
Built in Fort Bragg for Horace Weller in 1886, the Weller House is the oldest existing house in the city. Since 1999, this house, converted into a hotel, has welcomed tourists from around the world.
The Union Lumber Company was incorporated in 1891 by absorbing some of the smaller lumber companies in the area. Some of the new company lands were in the Noyo River watershed east of Fort Bragg making removal of logs difficult by rail, unless a tunnel was built. Johnson hired experienced Chinese tunnel builders from San Francisco. After completion of the tunnel, most of the Chinese settled in Fort Bragg and Mendocino. A six-walled Chinese town was built at Redwood and McPherson. Older residents say that eventually most of the Chinese children moved elsewhere.
In 1901, the Union Lumber Company incorporated the National Steamship Company to carry lumber, passengers and supplies. The only link to manufactured creature comforts and staples like sugar and coffee were delivered by steamship. In 1905, the California Western Railroad and Navigation Company was established and plans were pushed to get the rail line all the way to Willits, where train connections to the Northwestern Pacific would link to San Francisco.
The 1906 earthquake resulted in a fire that threatened the saw mill and the city. Within Fort Bragg itself, all brick buildings were damaged. Only two were not destroyed completely. Many frame houses were knocked off their piers. The fire downtown burned the entire block bordered by Franklin, Redwood and McPherson Streets, plus the west side of Franklin. The west Franklin block burned down to approximately one half a block beyond the intersection of Redwood and Franklin.
Within 12 months following the earthquake, most downtown reconstruction was completed. Coincidentally, the earthquake brought real prosperity to Fort Bragg as the mills furnished lumber to rebuild San Francisco, and the lumber ships returning from San Francisco were ballasted with bricks used for rebuilding Fort Bragg. With the new prosperity, the rail line to Willits was completed and in 1912 the first tourists came to Fort Bragg. By 1916 Fort Bragg had become a popular place to visit—and to settle.
Commercial fishing has also played an important role in the economic base of the community. Once a major commercial fishing port, Fort Bragg was well known for producing quality fish products that were distributed to major metropolitan markets.
In 1916, the Union Lumber Company built a railroad from the South Fork of Ten Mile River to Fort Bragg, where its operations were. By 1929, what lumber could not be sent by rail to the company mill at Fort Bragg was handled by the mill at Pudding Creek owned by the Glen Blair Redwood Company. The Union Lumber Company established its own post office on Churchman Creek to service its logging camps there in 1931, but it operated only until 1932. The railroad was removed in 1945 as rail transport was replaced by haulage by truck; it nowadays is a recreational corridor in MacKerricher State Park.
In 1969, the Union Lumber Company was purchased by Boise Cascade and John Quincy and it became Georgia Pacific Lumber Company in 1973. The mill was shut down in 2002 after being identified as a nonperforming asset. The 400-acre (1.6 km2) piece of property within the city limits takes up almost the entire coastline of Fort Bragg including Fort Bragg Landing.
As of July 2017[update], the mill site was sold and is undergoing redevelopment, including removal of toxic waste.
Calls to rename Fort Bragg
In 2015, members of the California Legislative Black Caucus petitioned Fort Bragg to change its name due to Braxton Bragg's links to the Confederacy. The mayor of Fort Bragg at that time, Lindy Peters, stated that there was not really much interest among the residents, and cited the costs that every company and institution in the area would have to pay to change all the addresses.
There were further calls to change the name in June 2020, following the murder of George Floyd. On June 22, the Fort Bragg City Council considered whether to put a proposition on the November ballot asking its residents if they would like a name change, but decided instead to form an ad hoc committee to explore options for the city's name. Among these alternative options is to simply rededicate the city to a different notable person named Bragg.
Fort Bragg is located at with an average elevation of 85 ft (26 m) above sea level.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2), of which 2.7 square miles (7.0 km2) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) of it (1.44%) is water.
Due to Fort Bragg's location on the shore of the Pacific Ocean, the city has very mild weather throughout the year compared to most inland places. Most of the rainfall occurs from November to April with some occasional drizzle or light showers during the summer. Fog and low overcast are common, especially during the night and early morning hours. The climate experienced in Fort Bragg is classified as warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb). Although formally known as dry-summer subtropical; Fort Bragg has very cool summer temperatures for a subtropical climate type. Its Mediterranean classification is due to the dry summers with very little rainfall.
January, the coldest month, has an average maximum temperature of 55.1 °F (12.8 °C) and an average minimum temperature of 39.9 °F (4.4 °C); September, the warmest month, has an average maximum temperature of 65.8 °F (18.8 °C) and an average minimum temperature of 49.2 °F (9.6 °C). Temperatures rarely reach 90 °F or 32.2 °C, doing so only on an average of only 0.1 afternoon annually. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of 11.1 days annually. The record maximum temperature was 94 °F (34.4 °C) on October 5, 1985 (exceeded by 96 °F or 35.6 °C on October 23, 1965, at the airport, where records were kept from 1948 to 1972). The record minimum temperature was 18 °F (−7.8 °C) on December 21, 1990, during one of the rare instances of snowfall.
Average annual precipitation is 40.24 inches (1,022 mm). The wettest "rain year" on record was from July 1997 to June 1998 with at least 79.13 inches or 2,009.9 mm (some days missing) and the driest from July 1976 to June 1977 with 14.90 inches (378.5 mm). The maximum precipitation in one month was 21.60 inches (548.6 mm) in December 2002. The maximum 24-hour rainfall was 4.36 inches (110.7 mm) on December 28, 2002.
Snow is virtually unknown; the only recorded snowfall was in January 1907.
The extreme maritime effect of the Pacific Ocean is demonstrated by the fact that Fort Bragg has uniquely cool summers for cities on the 39th parallel north, both domestically and internationally. To illustrate the extremes of Fort Bragg, coastal climates with warmer summers than the city are found as far north as on the 66th latitude on the Bothnia Bay in between Sweden and Finland, a net latitudal anomaly of 27 degrees. That is nearly 1/3 of the distance between the poles and the equator. In places some miles inland, consistently hotter summer temperatures are found, a phenomenon typical of the Californian coastline.
|Climate data for Fort Bragg, California (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1895–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||77
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||64.4
|Average high °F (°C)||52.3
|Daily mean °F (°C)||46.4
|Average low °F (°C)||40.4
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||31.1
|Record low °F (°C)||24
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||7.51
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 inch)||15.4||14.3||13.8||10.1||6.9||3.6||2.2||3.4||4.0||7.1||13.6||16.4||110.8|
|Source 1: NOAA|
|Source 2: Western Regional Climate Center|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 7,273 people, 2,812 households, and 1,644 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,644.7 people per square mile (1,641.8/km2). There were 3,051 housing units at an average density of 1,119.1 per square mile (431.5/km2). The ethnic makeup of the city was 74.8% Caucasian, 16.0% Mestizo,[a] 4.6% multiethnic 2.2% Native American, 1.5% Asian American, 0.7% African American and 0.2% Pacific Islands American. 31.8% of the population identified as Hispanic or Latino of any ethnicity.
There were 2,840 households, out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.1% were non-families. 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.6% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,539, and the median income for a family was $36,000. Males had a median income of $25,833 versus $23,287 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,832. About 11.9% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over.
- These respondents identified as members of "Some other race," but the Census Bureau has published numerous analyses since the 2000 census demonstrating that over 95% of that cohort are Hispanic Meztisos
Parks and recreation
A trail that extends over a mile along the coast from the Noyo River Headlands north along the bluff over the Pacific Ocean reaches the former Georgia-Pacific mill site. It is accessible from Highway 1 (Main Street) at Cypress Street. The trail includes information signage about the area's pre-European residents, the Pomo Native Americans. The trail leads to a visitor center maintained by the Noyo Center for Marine Science. Offshore along the trail are rocks where harbor seals haul out and other sealife may be viewed.
Points of interest
Built in 1892, the Guest House Museum served as lodging for the owners of Union Lumber Company, VIP visitors, and potential buyers of ULCO products. It has become the headquarters of the Fort Bragg-Mendocino Coast Historical Society, where visitors learn about the history of the area.
Glass Beach is on the edge of Fort Bragg, along the ocean. In the early 20th century, Fort Bragg residents threw their household garbage over cliffs owned by the Union Lumber Company onto what is now Glass Beach, discarding glass, appliances, and even vehicles. Locals referred to it as "The Dumps". Fires were lit to reduce the size of the trash pile. In 1967, city leaders closed the area and various cleanup programs were brought on through the years to fix the damage. Over several decades the pounding waves wore down the discarded glass into the small, smooth pieces called sea glass that coat the beach. The area along the beach at the end of Elm Street is now visited by tourists.
Other points of interest
Fort Bragg is the western terminus of the California Western Railroad (otherwise known locally as the "Skunk Train"). Steam passenger service was started in 1904, and then extended in 1911 through the Coast Redwood forests to the city of Willits, 40 miles (64 km) inland. Started in 1885 as a rail route for moving large logs to the mills, the Skunk Train now offers scenic tours through the redwoods. In 1925 self-powered, yellow "Skunk" rail cars were inaugurated. The little trains were quickly nicknamed for their original gas engines, which prompted folks to say, "You can smell 'em before you can see 'em." In 1965 the line reintroduced summer steam passenger service between Fort Bragg and Willits with Baldwin-built steam locomotives Nos. 45 and 46, calling the colorful train "The Super Skunk". That train was discontinued in 2001 owing to the embargo of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, then revived in September 2006 as a special event train. No.45 continues to power excursion trains from Fort Bragg as far as Northspur, the CWR's midpoint, on selected weekends summer to early autumn.
State Route 1 (the Pacific Coast Highway) passes through Fort Bragg, concurrent with and signed as Main Street within the city limits. It travels on two bridges while doing so, the Noyo River Bridge and the Pudding Creek Bridge. State Route 20's western terminus is in Fort Bragg at its junction with Route 1, travelling east it runs parallel and several miles south of the Skunk Train's route to Willits and beyond to Nevada City before terminating at a junction with Interstate 80.
- Mayor: Bernie Norvell (Elected December 2020; term expires December 2024)
- Vice Mayor: Jessica Morsell-Haye (Elected December 2020; term expires December 2022)
- City Manager: Tabatha Miller (hired March 2018)
State and federal representation
Children in Fort Bragg are served by the Fort Bragg Unified School District, typically attending Fort Bragg High School, Fort Bragg Middle School, Dana Gray Elementary and Redwood Elementary during their time in the public school system, though several alternative schools are available as well. In 2006, Three Rivers Learning Center, a charter school under the jurisdiction of Mattole Valley Charter School opened.
In popular culture
Several major movies have been filmed in and around Fort Bragg, including:
- Johnny Belinda (1948) (a drama, based on the Broadway hit of the same name, starring Jane Wyman)
- The Russians Are Coming! The Russians Are Coming! (1966) (a comedy about a Soviet submarine that accidentally runs aground off the coast of New England starring Carl Reiner and Eva Marie Saint)
- Racing with the Moon (1984) (a drama starring Sean Penn, Elizabeth McGovern, and Nicolas Cage)
- Overboard (1987) (a romantic comedy starring Goldie Hawn and Kurt Russell)
- The Majestic (2001) (a romantic period drama starring Jim Carrey)
- Tom Hawkins, the probable writer of the Wanda Tinasky Letters
- Cammie King, child actress best known for Gone with the Wind, died in Fort Bragg in 2010
- Edward Norris, film actor who made over 70 films. Moved to Fort Bragg in 1997 and died there in 2002.
- Ray Peterson, NFL player
- Gregory E. Pyle, current chief of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. Now lives in Durant, Oklahoma.
- Jim Ross, professional wrestling commentator and former company executive of WWE. Current AEW commentator and executive.
- Cornelius Vander Starr, founder of insurance giant AIG and the Starr Foundation
- Emily Jane White, Neofolk singer
As a youth Ken Sasaki noted that his home, Ōtsuchi, Japan, is located on the same latitude as Fort Bragg and in 2001 he contacted then-Mayor Lindy Peters and visited with a delegation to open discussions on a sister city agreement. Fort Bragg students visited Otsuchi in 2002 and the Sister City Proclamation was solidified in 2005 by Mayor Dave Turner. Other student exchanges were held in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 and the next exchange was planned for July 2011. Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami devastation of Otsuchi, the mayor ordered that city flags be flown half staff until the end of March to honor the thousands of lives lost.
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- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
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- "Fort Bragg (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "ZIP Code(tm) Lookup". United States Postal Service. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
- "City Manager's Office". Fort Bragg, CA. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- "City Clerk". Fort Bragg, CA. Archived from the original on August 18, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- "Police Department". Fort Bragg, CA. Archived from the original on July 18, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
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- Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 61. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.
- Hogle, Gene (1931). NAC Green Book of Pacific Coast Touring. National Automobile Club. p. 43
- "Jug Handle State Natural Reserve - History". CA State Parks. Archived from the original on September 1, 2019. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
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- MacKerricher State Park General Plan. California Department of Parks and Recreation. 1995. p. 186.
- Melendy, Howard Brent (1952). One Hundred Years of the Redwood Lumber Industry, 1850–1950. Stanford University. p. 266.
- Melendy, Howard Brent (1952). One Hundred Years of the Redwood Lumber Industry, 1850–1950. Stanford University. p. 254.
- "New Post Office Established At Ulco Wednesday". Mendocino Coast Beacon. Mendocino, California. September 12, 1931. p. 2.
- Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 61. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.
- Walker, Wilson (August 16, 2017). "Named After Confederate General, Fort Bragg Contemplates Its Namesake". CBS SF BayArea. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Branson-Potts, Gailey (June 14, 2020). "A California city named for a Confederate general considers changing its name". Sacramento Bee.
- Sweeny, Ron (June 23, 2020). "California city named for a Confederate general will not put name change on November ballot". Los Angeles Times.
- "Fort Bragg, California Köppen Classification". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on March 30, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- "Fort Bragg, California Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- "FT BRAGG 5 N, CALIFORNIA – Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on May 10, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
- Temperatures have been recorded in Fort Bragg since May 1895, with periods of no recording during May 1896-September 1925, November 1925-February 1934, and January 1988-August 1988.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
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- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. March 2001. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "Restoring Coastal Access at Noyo Headlands Park". KCET. July 23, 2018. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
- "Glass Beach". Explore. Mendocino County. 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- Kim, Susan C. (February 16, 2006). "From trash to treasure". CNN Travel. CNN. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- "Glass Beach in Fort Bragg, California: A Sea Glass Lover's Dream". May 16, 2013.
- "82CL – Fort Bragg Airport". AirNav. May 31, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "FORT BRAGG AIRPORT(82CL) | FORT BRAGG Airports". PilotOutlook. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "California's 2nd Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- Johnny Belinda at IMDb
- The Russians Are Coming! The Russians Are Coming! at IMDb
- Racing with the Moon at IMDb
- Overboard at IMDb
- The Majestic at IMDb
- Hendrix, Jenny (January 24, 2014). "Mistaken Identity". The Paris Review. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Bruce Anderson (ed.). "The Letters of Wanda Tinasky". Archived from the original on November 13, 2002. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- McConahey, Meg (November 6, 2009). "Fort Bragg's Cammie King Conlon among last survivors of 'Gone With the Wind' cast". Santa Rosa Press Democrat. Archived from the original on September 30, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- Van Neste, Dan. "Edward Norris - Biography". IMDb. Archived from the original on April 30, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- "Ray Peterson Stats". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- "Oklahoma Indian Tribe Education Guide - The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma" (PDF). Oklahoma State Department of Education. July 2014. p. 11. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- Ross, Jim (January 5, 2008). "Happy New Year Everyone! Lots of Feedback Answered Today... Life Goes On... and So Does Work..." J.R.'s Family Bar-B-Q. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
I was born on January 3, 1952 in Fort Bragg, California.
- Ronald Kent Shelp, Al Ehrbar (2006). Fallen giant: the amazing story of Hank Greenberg and the history of AIG. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-91696-3.
- Meline, Gabe. "The Music of Emily Jane White". Archived from the original on January 13, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Turner, Dave. "Help Otsuchi, a letter from our Mayor". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Deep Ties Between Sister Cities of Otsuchi, Japan and Fort Bragg, California Spur Community Action and Creation of a Relief Fund". All Voices. March 16, 2011. Archived from the original on October 4, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Reed, Tony (March 17, 2011). "Sister city devastated". Fort Bragg Advocate News. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
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