Fort Hood

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Fort Hood
Killeen, Texas
3 Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg 1 Cav Shoulder Insignia.svg 1st Army.svg 13ESCSSI.svg 3dACRSSI.PNG US Army Security Force Assistance Brigade SSI.png
Shoulder sleeve insignia of major Ft. Hood units
TypeArmy post
Area332.05 sq mi (860 sq km)
Site information
OwnerDepartment of the Army
Controlled byUnited States Army
StatusActive
WebsiteOfficial website
Site history
Built1942
In use1942–present
Garrison information
Current
commander
LTG Robert P. White
GarrisonIII Corps
First Army Division West

1st Cavalry Division
36th Engineer Brigade
13th Sustainment Command
3rd Cavalry Regiment
504th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade
89th Military Police Brigade
1st Medical Brigade
Operational Test Command
407th Army Field Support Brigade
48th Chemical Brigade
69th Air Defense Artillery Brigade
11th Signal Brigade
3rd Security Force Assistance Brigade

Coordinates: 31°08′5.60″N 97°46′32.20″W / 31.1348889°N 97.7756111°W / 31.1348889; -97.7756111

Fort Hood is a United States Army post located in Killeen, Texas. Named after Confederate General John Bell Hood, it is located halfway between Austin and Waco, about 60 miles (97 km) from each, within the U.S. state of Texas. The post is the headquarters of III Corps and First Army Division West and is home to the 1st Cavalry Division and 3rd Cavalry Regiment, among others. It is one of ten U.S. Army bases named after former Confederate generals.[1]

Its origin was the need for wide-open space to test and train with World War II tank destroyers. The War Department announced the location in January 1942, and the initial completion was set for that August. As originally constructed, Fort Hood had an area of 158,706 acres (64,226 ha), with billeting for 6,007 officers and 82,610 enlisted personnel. The main cantonment of Fort Hood had a total population of 53,416 as of the 2010 U.S. Census. Fort Hood is the most populous U.S. military installation in the world.[2] The main business area is in Bell County, with the training countryside area of the post in Coryell County. In April 2014, the Fort Hood website lists 45,414 assigned soldiers and 8,900 civilian employees with Fort Hood covering 214,000 acres (87,000 ha).

History[edit]

Foundation[edit]

During World War II, tank destroyers were developed to counter German mobile armored units. These were mobile anti-tank guns on armored halftracks or specially developed tanks. Wide-open space was needed for the tank destroyer testing and training, which Texas had in abundance. Andrew Davis (A.D.) Bruce was assigned to organize a new Tank Destroyer Tactical and Firing Center, and he chose Killeen, Texas for the new camp.[3] The War Department announced the selection on 15 January 1942. An initial acquisition of 180,000 acres (730 km2) was made, and it was estimated that the camp would cost $22.8 million for the land, facilities, and development of utilities. The date of completion was set for 15 August 1942.

About 300 families had to move from their homes to make room for the camp area and the communities of Clear Creek, Elijah, and Antelope were demolished to facilitate construction of the base. The old Sugar Loaf community, historically called the "Cradle of Killeen," provided the city with many of its first citizens in 1882. All that remains of the community is the mountain from which it took its name, located in the Fort Hood area. To lessen the burden of moving, the Army agreed to allow land to be used for grazing for a nominal grazing fee. This grazing arrangement still continues today.[citation needed]

In mid-August, the camp was occupied and the official opening took place on 18 September 1942. Camp Hood was named in February for the Confederate General John Bell Hood, who commanded Hood's Texas Brigade during the American Civil War,[4] part of a series of new training camps named for distinguished military leaders together with Camps Carson, Campbell and Atterbury.[5]

The original facilities provided housing and training sites for nearly 38,000 troops. In January 1943, an additional 16,000 acres (65 km2) in Bell County and 34,943 acres (141.41 km2) in Coryell County near Gatesville, Texas were purchased. The site near Gatesville was known as the sub-camp and later as North Camp Hood. During the war years, North Camp Hood housed nearly 40,000 troops and 4,000 prisoners of war, and was the site for the southern branch of the United States Disciplinary Barracks.[citation needed]

At the end of 1942, there were about 45,000 troops living and training at Camp Hood and in late June 1943 it peaked at almost 95,000 troops,[4] which was maintained until early 1944.[citation needed]

In 1944, the number of tank destroyer battalions in training at Camp Hood declined rapidly. Field artillery battalions and the Infantry Replacement Training Center replaced them in March 1944. By September, the Infantry Center was the largest activity on post with 31,545 troops. The total camp population on the last day of 1944 was 50,228.[citation needed]

During the last year of World War II Camp Hood's mission shifted and its population drastically decreased. As the war came to an end, troop training slowed and equipment reclamation and demobilization were prioritized.[4] A separation center was established in September 1945, and as the year ended, post strength had fallen to 1,807 prisoners and about 11,000 troops.[citation needed] The Infantry Replacement Training Center was officially shut down on 7 January 1946.

Cold War[edit]

The 2nd and 20th Armored Divisions were sent to Camp Hood after returning from Europe in January 1946, but the 20th was soon inactivated, leaving less than 5,000 at the post. The 2nd Armored would remain at the post until its inactivation at the end of the Cold War.[4] Camp Hood was retained postwar as an armored training center and on 15 April 1950 was officially renamed Fort Hood as a result of its permanent status.[6]

In mid-1954, III Corps moved from California to Fort Hood. The Corps supervised the training of combat units at Fort Hood and other Fourth Army stations from 1954 to 1959 when III Corps was inactivated. Probably the most famous trainee to come through Fort Hood was Elvis Presley, arriving on 28 March 1958. Other than receiving record amounts of mail (3–4 bags per day), he was treated like all other trainees. On 19 September, Presley shipped out for Germany. During this period, the 4th Armored Division was reactivated and deployed to Germany as part of the "Gyroscope" concept of unit movement.

In September 1961, Fort Hood again became the home for the III Corps, and in February 1962, III Corps was assigned as part of the U.S. Army Strategic Army Corps (STRAC). At the same time, the basing of the 1st Armored Division there made it a two-division post.[4] On 15 June 1963 Killeen Base was turned over to the Army.[citation needed]

Vietnam War[edit]

During the late 1960s, Fort Hood trained and deployed a number of units and individuals for duty in Vietnam. As the United States ended its role in the conflict, thousands of returning soldiers completed their active duty with one of the divisions. During this time, the post was modernized. On 13 September 1965, Darnall Hospital opened. In 1970, construction began on Palmer Theater and Venable Village was dedicated. Modern barracks were springing up around post. The wood buildings of Fort Hood were replaced with brick structures.[citation needed]

In April 1968, more than forty African American GIs, who objected to being sent to occupy riot-damaged Black neighborhoods in Chicago following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., were court martialed and jailed by the US Army. Many of the soldiers were decorated and wounded veterans who had completed tours of duty in Vietnam.[7]

In October 1969, Killeen Base was designated as West Fort Hood and the airfield's name was designated as Robert Gray Army Airfield. The base was named after a Killeen native who was a pilot of a B-25 bomber on the famous Doolittle Raid in Tokyo in 1942. He was killed later in World War II flying combat missions. With the redesignation came a change in mission at West Fort Hood. Nuclear weapons were removed; they had been secretly kept there since 1947.[8]

In 1971, the colors of the 1st Cavalry Division came to Fort Hood from Vietnam, resulting in the reflagging of the 1st Armored Division, the colors of which were sent to Germany to reflag the 4th Armored Division.[citation needed]

From 23 December 1972, to 19 January 1973, elements of the 13th Support Brigade deployed to the 1972 Nicaragua earthquake to assist in disaster relief serving at Camp Christine, Managua, Nicaragua.[citation needed]

Proving grounds[edit]

Since the early 1970s, Fort Hood has played a major role in the training, testing, and introduction of new equipment, tactics, and organizations. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command's Test and Experimentation Command (now the U.S. Army Operational Test Command), located at West Fort Hood has been a primary player. Fort Hood fielded the M1 Abrams tank, M2/3 Bradley Infantry/Cavalry Fighting Vehicle, the Multiple Launch rocket System (MLRS), and the AH-64 Apache helicopter.[citation needed]

In January 1975, the 1st Cavalry Division was reorganized, as the Army's newest armored division. Since fielding the M-1 Abrams in 1980, force modernization has continued as a major focus. The 1st Cavalry became the first division to field the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, the Humvee, the Multiple Launch Rocket System and Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) tactical communications.[citation needed]

1990–2000 Army deployments[edit]

In August 1990, Fort Hood was alerted for deployments to Southwest Asia as part of the joint forces participating in Operation Desert Shield. The deployment to Saudi Arabia began in September, extending into mid-October.

On 21 May 1991, with the reactivation of its 3rd Brigade ("Greywolf") the 1st Cavalry Division became the largest division in the Army upon its return to the United States. In October 1992, the Engineer Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division was reactivated. Through the Engineer Restructuring Initiative, the nucleus of the brigade was formed around the 8th Engineer Battalion. The 20th Engineer Battalion was brought from Fort Campbell, KY, to join the brigade, and the 91st Engineer Battalion was activated to complete the brigade.

In November 1992, the unit designations for the battalions remaining from the former "Tiger" Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division were returned prior to the activation of the division at Fort Hood on 2 December 1992. This action was done to realign the historical designations of units to their parent divisions. On 29 November 1992, the 3rd Battalion, 41st Infantry was designated as the 1st Battalion, 9th Cavalry; 1st Battalion, 67th Armor to 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, and 1st Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery to 2nd Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery. On 16 December 1992, 1st Cavalry Division units designated to accomplish realignments for historical purposes and included the 1st Battalion, 32nd Armor reflagged as 2nd Battalion, 12th Cavalry; 3rd Battalion, 32nd Armor to 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry; and Battery A, 333rd Field Artillery to Battery B, 26th Field Artillery.

During the post war periods called Operation Desert Calm and Operation Provide Comfort, Fort Hood units continued to serve in the Persian Gulf area. From December 1992 to May 1993, Fort Hood soldiers deployed to Somalia for Operation Restore Hope to command and control the Joint Task Force Support Command. In the fall of 1994, Fort Hood units participated in the largest deployment since Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm executed split base operations in the Caribbean Basin, Central America and Southwest Asia, in support of Operations Vigilant Warrior and Sea Signal V, as well as other contingency operations.

13th Corps Support Command Commander Brig. Gen. Billy K. Solomon deployed along with a portion of the headquarters in December 1992 to Mogadishu to serve as the nucleus of Joint Task Force Support Command. Their major units included the 593rd Support Group (Fort Lewis), 36th Engineer Group (Fort Benning), 7th Transportation Group (Fort Eustis), and 62d Medical Group (Fort Lewis). The command headquarters returned to Fort Hood in May 1993.

As a result of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission (BRAC) reductions, the 5th Infantry Division (Mechanized), then located at Fort Polk Louisiana, was reflagged as the 2nd Armored Division in late 1992. By mid-1993, the division at Fort Hood had completed changes of unit names to those associated with the 5th Division, and began participation in the early stages of the Army's Experimental Force, Force XXI.

In 1995, the 2nd Armored Division was reflagged as the U.S. 4th Infantry Division. Twenty-five years after making its home in Colorado, the 4th Infantry Division was again restationed to meet the Army's requirements but this move would be quite different from others. It became a split-based organization with six brigades and three separate battalions stationed at Fort Hood and the 3rd Brigade Combat Team remaining at Fort Carson. By December 1995, the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) assumed responsibility as the Army's Experimental Force (Force XXI), and on 15 December 1995, its colors were unfurled for the first time over central Texas and Fort Hood.

Since the 1990s, Fort Hood units have supported Operation Joint Endeavor in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In October 1998, The 1st Cavalry Division was the first United States division to assume authority of the Multinational Division (North) area of operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The mission was to conduct operations to enforce the military provisions set forth by the Dayton Peace Accords.

In 1998, the Ironhorse Division was designated to be the Army's first Multi-Component unit. The main objective being to enhance Total Force integration, optimize the unique capabilities of each component, and improve the overall readiness of the Army. The program was developed to leverage the strengths of the Army's three components (active, reserve and National Guard). As such, 515 positions within the division have been designated as reserve component. These positions include individuals, a unit from the Wyoming National Guard and dual-mission units from the Texas Army National Guard.

In addition to peacekeeping efforts, Fort Hood units routinely participate in national and international disaster relief efforts. Hours after the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, III Corps units were ready to move out to provide assistance. Fort Hood units also aided Managua, Nicaragua, after an earthquake ravaged the city.

During the 1990s, Fort Hood continued an extensive building program to modernize the post. This modernization continues today[when?], with emphasis on quality of life, force projection and training. The Robertson Blood Center, Soldier Development Center, and a new commissary at Warrior Way have been completed. Many other improvements were made to improve the Power Projection Mission of the post such as improvements to the railhead and the runway at Gray Army Airfield. Training ranges have been upgraded.

2000–2009 Army deployments[edit]

At the beginning of the 21st century, the Army's modernization was in full swing. Some of these new advances in technology and war fighting included the fielding of the M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank, the M2A2 Operation Desert Storm (ODS) Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, the M109A6 Paladin howitzer, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, the AH-64D Apache Longbow Helicopter, and the M6 Bradley Linebacker.[citation needed]

Fort Hood was the first installation selected to privatize post housing under the residential communities initiative. Under this initiative, new housing units, remodeled housing and community improvements will be added to the post.[citation needed]

In 2001, the War on Terror became a prime focus. Fort Hood transitioned from an open to a closed post with the help of military police from reserve units. The 1st Cavalry sent additional troops to Kuwait to protect against possible aggressive actions from Iraq. The 4003rd Garrison Support Reserve unit fills vacancies left by deploying units at Fort Hood. Fort Hood has a key role as a training base for mobilizing Reserve and National Guard units to support the Homeland Defense effort.[citation needed]

Many Fort Hood units have deployed to Afghanistan for Operation Enduring Freedom, and to Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom. In December 2003, the 4th Infantry Division captured Saddam Hussein. In the spring of 2004, the 1st Cavalry Division followed the 4th Infantry Division deploying to Iraq. Task Force ODIN was created at Ft. Hood.[citation needed]

In September 2005, 13th COSCOM and key enablers were called to support Joint Task Force Katrina/Rita hurricane relief and went on to serve as the senior joint logistical support command for JTF Katrina. 13th COSCOM eventually provided one hundred million rations, collected human remains with dignity, executed emergency engineering operations, transported, distributed and stored over one billion dollars in humanitarian relief from both non-governmental and federal sources from across the nation.[citation needed]

In 2009, Fort Carson, Colorado's First Army Division West re-stationed to Fort Hood in order to consolidate its mission to conduct reserve component mobilization training and validation for deployment, switching places with 4th Infantry Division, which relocated to Fort Carson.[9]

2007 navigation exercise incident[edit]

On 12 June 2007, the body of Lawrence George Sprader, Jr was found at about 8:30 p.m. in a brushy area located within the Central Texas Army post's training ground. He had gone missing for days while conducting an exercise for testing basic map-reading and navigation skills. A massive search had been conducted, with over 3,000 parties scouring the countryside. According to autopsy records, he had died from hyperthermia and dehydration.[10] According to an Army investigatory report, there were "a multitude of procedural violations, judgment errors and alleged acts of misconduct by Army trainers that not only contributed to Sprader's death but put some 300 other soldiers in danger that day, including about two dozen who required medical attention."[11]

2009 shooting[edit]

On 5 November 2009 a gunman, whom regarded himself as a Mujahideen waging "jihad" against the United States, opened fire in the Soldier Readiness Center of Fort Hood and killed 13 people while wounding 32 others. Nidal Malik Hasan, a U.S. Army Major and psychiatrist, was the gunman. He was shot and then arrested by Department of the Army police officers Sergeant Mark Todd and Sergeant Kimberly Munley.[12][13][14]

Eyewitnesses to the actual events said: "...Major Hasan wheeled on Sergeant Munley as she rounded the corner of a building and shot her, putting her on the ground. Then Major Hasan turned his back on her and started putting another magazine into his semiautomatic pistol. It was at that moment that Senior Sgt. Mark Todd, a veteran police officer, rounded another corner of the building, found Major Hasan fumbling with his weapon and shot him."[15]

In 2013, Hasan was convicted of thirteen counts of premeditated murder[16] and thirty-two counts of attempted premeditated murder for the thirty soldiers and two civilian police officers injured in the shooting.[17] On 23 August 2013, Hasan was found guilty on all charges and was sentenced to death.[18]

2011 attack plot[edit]

Pfc. Naser Jason Abdo, an AWOL private, was arrested near Fort Hood, and in a statement by the police chief of Killeen, Texas, the man told investigators that he wanted to attack fellow soldiers at the military post.[19] At his trial in August 2012, Abdo stated, through a cloth mask, "I will continue until the day the dead are called to account for their deeds." Abdo was sentenced to life in prison for the plot.[20]

2014 shooting[edit]

On 2 April 2014, a shooting spree occurred at several locations on the base, leaving three people dead and sixteen others wounded. The gunman then died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound.[21][22] He was later identified as 34-year-old Ivan Lopez, an Iraq War veteran.[23][24]

2014–present[edit]

A sexual assault prevention officer on the base, Sergeant 1st Class Gregory McQueen, was dishonorably discharged in March 2015, having been convicted of organizing a prostitution ring.[25][26]

Currently, Fort Hood has nearly 65,000 soldiers and family members and serves as a home for the following units: Headquarters III Corps; First Army Division West; the 1st Cavalry Division; 13th Sustainment Command (formerly 13th Corps Support Command); 89th Military Police Brigade; 504th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade; 85th Civil Affairs Brigade; 1st Medical Brigade; and the 69th Air Defense Artillery Brigade. Fort Hood also includes Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center and the Medical And Dental Activities as tenant units.[27]

As of October 2015, Killeen, Texas started a land use study, to "identify and mitigate compatibility and encroachment issues that may impact training, operations".[28]

In 2020, a debate around renaming US military bases named after Confederate generals emerged during protests sparked from the killing of George Floyd. Fort Hood is one such base at the center of the controversy.[29]

The killing of Vanessa Guillén at Fort Hood in April 2020 brought national attention to the base and the broader culture of sexual harassment in the military.[30][31][32][33][34][35] Hundreds of people protested at the gates of Fort Hood in June demanding justice for Guillén.[36] In August, a San Antonio man was arrested and charged with making terroristic threats after threatening to commit a mass shooting at Fort Hood in retaliation for Guillén's killing.[37]

Anti-war activity[edit]

Fort Hood has served as a hub for anti-war activity during both the Vietnam War (e.g. the "Fort Hood Three" incident) and the War on Terror.

From 1968 to 1973, the Oleo Strut was a G.I. coffeehouse located near post in Killeen, Texas.[38] The coffee house was featured in the documentary Sir! No Sir!.[39]

In 2009, the tradition of the Oleo Strut continued when the Under the Hood Café opened. The location serves as an outreach center for antiwar activists to reach out to area soldiers, and provide them with support.[38] Under the Hood Café announced on 10 November 2014 that it would close by the end of the year.[40]

Recently several soldiers supported by Under the Hood have taken public acts of resistance, including Amnesty International prisoner of conscience[41] Travis Bishop.[42][43][44]

Demographics[edit]

Location of the main cantonment of Fort Hood, Texas

As of the census of 2000,[45] there were 33,711 people, 5,819 households, and 5,679 families residing in the Fort Hood CDP. The population density was 2,255.7 people per square mile (870.6/km2). There were 5,941 housing units at an average density of 397.5 per square mile (153.4/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 50.7% White, 31.6% African American, 1.2% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 8.7% from other races, and 4.8% from two or more races. 16.7% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.

There were 5,818 households, out of which 87.6% had children under the age of eighteen living with them, 87.1% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 2.4% were non-families. Two percent of all households were made up of individuals, and 0.0% had someone living alone who is sixty-five years of age or older. The average household size was 3.92 and the average family size was 3.95.

The age distribution was 33.3% under the age of eighteen, 32.3% from eighteen to twenty-four, 33.1% from twenty-five to forty-four, 1.2% from forty-five to sixty-four, and 0.1% who were sixty-five years of age or older. The median age was twenty-one years. For every one hundred females there were 163.4 males. For every one hundred females over the age of eighteen there were 209.4 males. All of these statistics are typical for military bases.

The median income for a household on the base was $32,552, and the median income for a family was $32,296. Males had a median income of $18,884 versus $17,101 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $11,078. 9.5% of the population and 8.3% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 11.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 25.8% of those sixty-five and older were living below the poverty line.

Military base[edit]

President George W. Bush meets U.S. Army Soldiers during a visit to Fort Hood. January 2003
1st Cavalry Division Museum
First Cavalry Division, U.S. Army, Fort Hood, Texas at the 2007 Rose Parade

Fort Hood is one of the largest United States military installations in the world, and is the home of III Corps, 1st Cavalry Division, 13th Sustainment Command, First Army Division West, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Medical Brigade and many other Forces Command and other units.

The 4th Infantry Division completed its move from Fort Hood to Fort Carson, Colorado, exchanging positions with several units. The 4th Infantry Division Museum closed at Fort Hood for the last time on 29 May 2009 to complete its move to Colorado although most of the outdoor pieces remained at Fort Hood as part of the new 3CR Museum.[46]

Before the breakup of the Soviet Union, Fort Hood was billed as the largest military base in the free world (Fort Benning is larger in personnel, Fort Bliss in land area). During peacetime, Fort Hood is a gated post, with the 1st Cavalry Division Museum, the Belton Lake Outdoor Recreation Area (BLORA), and a number of other facilities that are open to the public. Access to the cantonments became restricted starting in July 2001. However, passes are available to visit the two museums on post, and the lake area remains open to the public without restriction since it is outside the cantonments. Various events, including the annual Independence Day celebration, which has one of the largest fireworks displays in the country, are open to the public.

Shortly after the 2000 census, responsibility for post housing was turned over to privatized partnership with Actus Lend Lease. Under the terms of the contract, most of the housing has been remodeled or rebuilt, and hundreds of new units have been built or are in the process of being built, operating as Fort Hood Family Housing. The nine schools on Fort Hood are part of the Killeen Independent School District.

Fort Hood consists of three sections: the main cantonment, West Fort Hood, and North Fort Hood. The main cantonment is bounded by Killeen on the east and Copperas Cove on the west. The Fort Hood main cantonment area, otherwise referred to as Main post, holds its own airfield, Hood Army Airfield. North Fort Hood is bounded by Gatesville to the northwest. West Fort Hood, bounded by Killeen and Copperas Cove, includes Fort Hood's second airfield, Robert Gray Army Airfield, which has been expanded for civilian use (Killeen–Fort Hood Regional Airport (GRK)) and additional training areas. To the east and southeast, the reservation is bounded by Harker Heights, Nolanville, Belton, and Morgan's Point Resort.

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Levenson, Michael (11 June 2020). "These Are the 10 U.S. Army Installations Named for Confederates". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  2. ^ James Ragland (6 December 2009). "Tested by tragedy, Fort Hood family of civilians and soldiers deserve Texan of the Year honor". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
    "Bangor native to head leadership group". Bangor Daily News. 10 April 1985. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  3. ^ "Lt. Gen Andrew Davis Bruce". Texas Historical Marker Atlas. Texas Archival Resources Online. 2000. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d e Willbanks 2001, p. 186.
  5. ^ "Army Names New Camps; Outstanding Soldiers Honored". Chicago Tribune. AP. 22 February 1942. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
  6. ^ "'Fort Hood' Now Name of Army Camp". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. 7 May 1950. p. 13 – via Newspapers.com.
  7. ^ John, Catalinotto (20 August 2018). "50 years ago Black GIs at Fort Hood jailed for protesting riot-control duty". International Action Center.
  8. ^ Fort Hood: The Great Place to Call Home, Fort Hood's Official Post Guide, Fort Hood History, page 72. Marcoa Publishing Inc., 2004, under contract with Fort Hood. Editorial content edited and prepared by the Public Affairs Office of Fort Hood.
  9. ^ "Force Structure Actions at Fort Hood". U.S. Army Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.. 8 June 2009.
  10. ^ "Hyperthermia, dehydration killed Fort Hood GI". NBC News. 13 June 2007.
  11. ^ Angela K. Brown (28 August 2007). "AP: Report faults trainers in soldier's death". USA Today.
  12. ^ "Fort Hood Gunman Who Killed 12, Wounded 30 Survived Gun Battle". ABC.
  13. ^ "Deadly shootings at US army base". BBC News. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  14. ^ Root, Jay (Associated Press), "Officer Gives Account of the Firefight at Fort Hood", Arizona Republic, 8 November 2009.
  15. ^ McKinley Jr, James C. (13 November 2009). "Second Officer Gives an Account of the Shooting at Ft. Hood". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  16. ^ "Fort Hood suspect charged with murder". Cnn.com. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  17. ^ "Further charges for alleged Fort Hood gunman". Ft.com.
  18. ^ "Nidal Hasan convicted of Fort Hood killings". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  19. ^ CNN:Justice Official: Soldier said he wanted to attack Fort Hood troops CNN, 29 July 2011.
  20. ^ Naser Jason Abdo Sentenced To Life For Fort Hood Plot by Sarah Kuta. The Huffington Post, 10 August 2012.
  21. ^ Herskovitz, Jon (April 2014). "Shooter at Fort Hood Army base in Texas, injuries reported - police". Reuters. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  22. ^ "Fort Hood shooter snapped over denial of request for leave, Army confirms". Fox News Channel. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  23. ^ Stableford, Dylan; Eric Pfeiffer (3 April 2014). "Fort Hood shooting leaves 4 dead, including gunman; 16 injured". Yahoo!. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  24. ^ "Fort Hood Shooting: What We Know About Ivan Lopez". HuffPost. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  25. ^ Christenson, Sig (11 March 2015). "Fort Hood sergeant admits he pimped soldiers". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  26. ^ Panzino, Charlsy (12 December 2017). "Soldier convicted of running prostitution ring was allowed to be a foster parent". Army Times. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  27. ^ "Fort Hood home page". Fort Hood home page. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  28. ^ Jacob Brooks and JC Jones (10 October 2015). "Study takes aim at commercial encroachment that could impact training at Fort Hood". Temple Daily Telegram. FMEService. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  29. ^ These Are the 10 U.S. Army Installations Named for Confederates Retrieved 13 June 2020
  30. ^ Lee, Alicia (17 June 2020). "Reward for missing soldier Vanessa Guillen grows to over $50,000 after Latino group and rapper add to it". CNN.
  31. ^ Rempfer, Kyle (3 July 2020). "Civilian charged in plot to dismember and hide remains of murdered Fort Hood soldier Vanessa Guillen". Army Times. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  32. ^ "Army secretary pledges "full, independent review" in Vanessa Guillen case". NBC News. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  33. ^ Rose Thayer (August 21, 2020) Why is Fort Hood the Army’s most crime-ridden post? Statistics comparing 3 similar posts 2015-2019
  34. ^ US Army Public Affairs (1 September 2020) Army announcement on Fort Hood leadership "There are currently several investigations underway at Fort Hood which are tasked with reviewing a wide range of topics and concerns. Gen. Murray will roll those efforts into a more complete and comprehensive investigation that will delve into all activities and levels of leadership."
  35. ^ Lolita Baldor (22 Nov 2020) Commander seeks to get embattled Fort Hood ‘back on track’ Report 8 Dec 2020
  36. ^ Allen, Jack (13 June 2020). "Hundreds rally to seek answers for missing soldier Pfc. Vanessa Guillen". 25 ABC.
  37. ^ Pettaway, Taylor (3 August 2020). "Affidavit: San Antonio man threatens Fort Hood shooting in retaliation for Vanessa Guillen's death". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  38. ^ a b "Under the Hood - Oleo Strut History". Underthehoodcafe.org. 4 July 1968. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  39. ^ Washington Post: Veterans Fighting for Peace. 19 May 2006.
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ USA: Soldier imprisoned as conscientious objector: Travis Bishop Amnesty International Prisoner of Conscience website, 24 August 2009.
  42. ^ The Olympian: Soldier who refused Afghan tour released. Archived 21 August 2013 at Archive.today 2 April 2010.
  43. ^ Soldier Gets Year In Jail Killeen Daily Herald, 15 August 2009, Rebecca LaFlure. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  44. ^ U.S. Soldier Who Didn't Obey Is Jailed The New York Times, 5 August 2009, James McKinley Jr. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  45. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  46. ^ "Ivy Division museum preparing for move to Fort Carson". dvidshub.
  47. ^ Group, Vibe Media (February 2007). Vibe. Vibe Media Group.
  48. ^ "Ciara Harris- Texas Birth Index". FamilySearch. 25 October 1985. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  49. ^ Isoul Hussein Harris, For the AJC. "ONLY ON AJC: Ciara talks Harvard, her new album, and what's next". ajc. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  50. ^ Krammer, Arnold (1979). Nazi Prisoners of War in America. New York: Stein and Day. p. 268. ISBN 0812825713.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cragg, Dan, Sgt. Maj. (USA Ret.), The guide to military installations, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, 1983
  • Willbanks, James H. (2001). "Fort Hood". In Brown, Jerold E. (ed.). Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Army. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-313-29322-8.

External links[edit]