|Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza|
The Courtyard of Fort Pilar
Location of Fort Pilar in the Philippines
|Former names||Real Fuerza de San José (Royal Fort of Saint Joseph)|
|Alternative names||Fortaleza del Pilar|
|Architectural style||Bastioned fort|
|Address||N.S. Valderosa Street|
|Town or city||Zamboanga City|
|Current tenants||National Museum of the Philippines|
|Groundbreaking||June 23, 1635|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Father Melchor de Vera (1635)
Juan Sicarra (1718)
The Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza (Royal Fort of Our Lady of the Pillar of Zaragoza), also Fort Pilar, is a 17th-century military defense fortress built by the Spanish colonial government in Zamboanga City, Philippines. The fort, which is now a regional museum of the National Museum of the Philippines, is a major landmark of the city and symbol of its cultural heritage. Outside the eastern wall is a Marian shrine dedicated to Our Lady of the Pillar, the patroness of the city.
Spanish Colonial Period
In 1635, upon the requests of the Jesuit missionaries and Bishop Fray Pedro of Cebu, the Spanish governor of the Philippines Juan Cerezo de Salamanca (1633–1635) approved the building of a stone fort in defense against pirates and raiders of the sultans of Mindanao and Jolo. The cornerstone of the fort, originally called Real Fuerza de San José (Royal Fort of Saint Joseph), was laid by Melchor de Vera, a Jesuit priest-engineer, on June 23, 1635, which also marks the founding of Zamboanga as a city, then known as Jambangan.
The construction of the early fort continued within the governorship of Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera (1635–1644), ex-governor of Panama. Because of insufficient manpower, laborers from Cavite, Cebu, Bohol, and Panay had to be imported to help the Spaniards and Mexicans in the construction of the fort. This period also marks the beginning of the Zamboangueño Chavacano as a pidgin that eventually developed into a full-fledged creole language for Zamboangueños.
Fort San José was attacked by the Dutch in 1646 and was later abandoned by the Spanish troops who went back to Manila in 1662 to help fight the Chinese pirate Koxinga who had earlier defeated the Dutch. In 1669, the fort was reconstructed by the Jesuit missionaries after pirates and raiders continued to destroy it.
In 1718–1719, it was rebuilt by the Spaniard engineer Juan Sicarra upon the orders of Spanish Governor General Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda and was renamed as Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza (Royal Fort of Our Lady of the Pillar of Zaragoza) in honor of the patron virgin of Spain, Our Lady of the Pillar. A year after, it was stormed by Dalasi, king of Bulig and 3,000 Moro pirates but they were repulsed.
It was in 1734 when a relief of Our Lady of the Pillar was placed above the eastern wall of the fort making it an outdoor shrine with an altar for praying. According to tradition, the Virgin Mary appeared to a soldier on December 6, 1734, at the gate of the city. The soldier asked her to stop. Upon recognizing her, he fell down to his knees.
On September 21, 1897 at 1:14 PM in the afternoon, a strong earthquake struck the western region of Mindanao. The Virgin Mary made an apparition, and according to the people who witnessed it, they saw the virgin standing mid-air over the Basilan Strait. She had her right hand raised to signal the onrushing waves to stop, saving the city from a tsunami.
American Colonial Period
Following the Spanish–American War, Fort Pilar and its Spanish troops surrendered to the Revolutionary Government of Zamboanga on May 18, 1899, under General Vicente Álvarez, a Zamboangueño, at the onset of the Philippine Revolution against Spain. The Spaniards, in reality, has already abandoned the fort after Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States in 1898 through the Treaty of Paris. On November 19, 1899, the fort was captured by U.S. expeditionary forces.
World War II
During World War II in 1942, Japanese forces captured and took control of the fort. It was recaptured by the United States and Filipino troops on March 1945 and was finally and officially turned over to the government of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946.
Restoration of the Fort
Fort Pilar was recognized as a National Cultural Treasure on August 1, 1973 by Presidential Decree No. 260, though by then the fort had been in disrepair since World War II. Restoration was started in the early part of 1980 by the National Museum of the Philippines, which reconstructed three of the four structures inside the fort. After six years of rehabilitation work, the museum branch opened its doors to the public with a special exhibit on Philippine Contemporary Art.
In October 1987, a permanent exhibit on the marine life of Zamboanga, Basilan and Sulu was opened at the second floor of Structure II showing 400 species of marine life specimens in giant dioramas. Also opened was a special exhibit on the 18th century relics from the Griffin Shipwreck at the ground floor, which coincided with the formal inauguration of the structure.
Former congresswoman and Zamboanga City Mayor Maria Clara Lobregat, one of the staunch supporters of Fort Pilar Museum, and the civic-minded residents of the city greatly contributed to the realization of development projects in the museum.
Fort Pilar today
Fort Pilar is now an outdoor Roman Catholic Marian shrine and a regional branch of the National Museum of the Philippines. Inside the fort, only the southern structure is still in ruins; inside and outside the fort are well maintained gardens. The Paseo del Mar, a reclaimed esplanade, protects the fort from the ravages of the sea.
Sections of the fort
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fort Pilar.|
- "Fort Pilar Branch". National Museum of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2011-07-18.
- "Zamboanga City History". Zamboanga.com. Retrieved on 2011-07-02.
- Jetlink, Zamboanga. "Fort Pilar". Archived from the original on 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- "Muslims and Christians venerate Our Lady of the Pillar". Inquirer.net. Retrieved on 2011-08-24.
- "Presidential Decree No. 260 August 1, 1973". The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation. Retrieved September 5, 2014.