Fort Pitt Tunnel
Northeast Portal of Fort Pitt Tunnel
|Coordinates||763-4-1, 870+00 west portal 763-4-1, 912+25 east portal|
I-376 / US 19 Truck / US 22 / US 30 (Parkway West)
|Start||I-376 Fort Pitt Bridge|
|Work begun||August 28, 1957|
|Constructed||Twin bore, circular roof with an exposed curved ceiling, concrete with ceramic tile lining|
|Opened||September 1, 1960|
|Vehicles per day||107,000|
|Design engineer||Michael Baker, Jr.|
|Length||3,614 feet (1,102 m)|
|No. of lanes||4|
|Operating speed||55 mph (89 km/h)|
|Tunnel clearance||13.5 feet (4.1 m)|
|Width||28 feet (8.5 m)|
|Grade||2.5% (east to west)|
|Design and construction|
The Fort Pitt Tunnel is a vehicular tunnel under Mount Washington in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It connects the West End region on the southwest side to the South Shore neighborhood on the northeast side. The adjoining Fort Pitt Bridge on the northeast end connects to Downtown Pittsburgh. The tunnel carries traffic on Interstate 376 (I-376),[a] U.S. Route 22 (US 22), US 30, and US 19 Truck. The structure comprises two bores, each with two lanes of traffic. The inbound tunnel flows onto the top deck of the double-deck Fort Pitt Bridge, opposite traffic from the lower deck using the outbound tunnel. To accommodate the bridge, the northeast portals of the parallel tunnels are vertically staggered by 30 feet. The tunnel opened in September 1960, a year after the Fort Pitt Bridge.
Before entering the southwest end of the inbound tunnel, travelers see a commonplace view of Southwestern Pennsylvania's hills, but at the northeast end, travelers emerge to a panorama of Downtown Pittsburgh and the surrounding skyline. The view was cited by The New York Times as "the best way to enter an American city". The vantage was the inspiration for the news opening on Pittsburgh's KDKA-TV for several years in the 1980s and 1990s, and is referenced in Stephen Chbosky's novel The Perks of Being a Wallflower.
The Fort Pitt Tunnel is the third-longest automobile tunnel in Pittsburgh, following the Liberty Tunnels and the Squirrel Hill Tunnel. It is one of four major tunnels[b] passing beneath Mount Washington, including the Liberty Tunnels and the Wabash Tunnel for automobiles, and the Mount Washington Transit Tunnel for public transportation.
Before the existence of the Fort Pitt Tunnels (as well as the Penn Lincoln Parkway and West End Bypass), South Hills commuters travelled around the Banksville Circle, which was the northern terminus of Banksville Road and western terminus of Saw Mill Run Blvd at the time. On July 11, 1954, contracts were awarded for the basic design of the Fort Pitt Tunnels. The groundbreaking ceremony for the Fort Pitt tunnel was held April 17, 1957 and drilling began August 28 of the same year. In April 1960 construction on the tunnels was complete and they opened for the first time at 11 a.m. on September 1, 1960, with a dedication ceremony on the southwestern portal by Governor Lawrence, Pennsylvania Transportation Secretary Park H. Martin and Pittsburgh Mayor Joseph M. Barr followed by a "christening" of the tunnels in which the Governor led a caravan of antique cars through. The tunnel cost $17 million (equivalent to $144 million in 2018).
The tunnel provided AM reception in 1960, but due to design repairs it was discontinued until 1986. It was improved to cover the entire tunnel with strong reception in March 1997. Since August 1987, the tunnels have provided cellular phone reception. With the help of Carnegie Mellon University graduate students, the tunnel has provided FM reception since July 2005 as well as having its AM signals upgraded at that time. In 2015, the original flat ceiling was removed due to its poor condition.
Dimensions and specifications
- 3,614 ft (1.102 km) in length
- 28 ft (8.5 m) wide
- 13.5 ft (4.1 m) vertical clearance
- Serves nearly 107,000 vehicles per day.
- There are 1,788 light fixtures with 3,576 bulbs.
- There are 187,200 sq ft (17,390 m2) of tiled surface to wash.
- Interstate 279 prior to June 10, 2009
- Tunnels at least 3500 feet long
- Lisa, Wardle (April 17, 2017). "Vintage photos of Fort Pitt Tunnel construction, which broke ground in 1957". Penn Live. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- KDKA 5PM Anchor Rejoin (MAY 99) 10 Years Ago (Television production). Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: KDKA-TV. May 1990. Retrieved February 23, 2018 – via YouTube.
- Grata, Joe (February 2016). "Underground Pittsburgh: Explore our City of Tunnels". Pittsburgh Magazine.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- "The new bridge opens". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. June 19, 1959. p. 12. Retrieved February 24, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- Eskey, Kenneth (September 1, 1960). "New Tunnel Jams Bridge". The Pittsburgh Press. pp. 1, 3. Retrieved February 10, 2017 – via Google News.
- Cridlebaugh, Bruce S. (September 10, 2001). "Fort Pitt Tunnel". Bridges and Tunnels of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Retrieved August 8, 2007.[self-published source]
- Ayad, Moustafa; Majors, Dan (June 1, 2007). "Bomb Threats Close Major Tunnels During downpour, Snarling Traffic Throughout City". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- Grata, Joe (April 9, 1997). "Radio Reception in Parkway Tunnels Is Music to the Ears". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. pp. A1, A2. Retrieved February 10, 2016 – via Google News.
- Bennett, Marcia (September 28, 1987). "Now It's Phones that Do Walking". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 23. Retrieved February 10, 2017 – via Google News.
- Ritchie, Jim (July 30, 2005). "Drivers No Longer Lo ..#!$.. adio Reception in Tunnels" (PDF). Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved February 10, 2017.